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TV immense vast volumes of our common law. . Donne.

• STURDINESS. n.s. [from sturdy.] i. Stoutness; hardiiid>-.—The chist use ot thatsturdinest, »■ d standing uoon hit own legs, is only for the preservation of his virtue. Locke. a. Brutal ftfngth.

(i.) * STURDY, adj. [esteurdi, Pr.] i. Hardy; flout j b/u'.ai; obstinate li is always uf<.d of r.'cn with tome disagreeable idea of coarseness cr 11: dene fe—

This must be done, and I would fain see Mortal lo Iturjy as to gainsay. Hudibrai. The sturdy kerns in due subjection stand. Dryd. —A sturdy hardened suiner shall advance to the utmost pitch of impiety with less reluctance than be took the first step"!. Atttibttry. j. Strung; forcible.—The ill-apparelled knight now had gotten tlit reputation of some sturdy lout. Sidney.

Ne ought his sturdy strokes might stand betorei Spenser. 3. S'iff; stout.—Ilis limbs rather sturdy than daiuty. ll'oiton.

Sturdi.fl oaks B.iw'd their stiff necks. Milton. U-)sturdt, n. I. a distemper to which cattle a c subject, called also the turning evil. See


(i.) • STURGEON, n.s. [sturio, tursto, Lat.] A—It in part of the (cuteilated bone of >sturgeon. It'o'jJieard.

(i.) Stuhclon. J See Accipenser, I;

(x.) STURIO. 5 and Plate CCCXLVsl. The ftui-peon is supposed to be the On.-xar of Dorion, a- quoted by All.vuæus, who say.-, its mouth is alway" open, aud that it conceals itself in the hot n ontfcs. Hence it must be of a cold nature; wtiich >•> confirmed by the description give" of the European speecs, by Mr Foster, in his Essay on the r'ilgu. He lays, they are scarcely ever found ii< that river in spring or summer, but abound in vast numbers in -autumn and winter, when they crowd up the liver, from the sea, and are taken in great numbers. The ancients wtre also acquainted with the Huso, another specie", which fiords Ichth Yocolla, or Isinglass. See AcciPinsir, N" t. and PI. 347.

*STURK. n.s. {ftyre, Saxon ] A young ox 01 heifer. Jlailry.—Thus they are still called in Scotland.

STURLESONIUS, Snorro. See Sn-orro. We copied this article from Dr Watkins, under; but we suspect Snorrt to be hn Christian nan-, and Sturleson his surname.

STURMINSTER, an ancient town of England, in Dorsetshire, with a market on Thursday on the Stour, over which it has a handsome stone bridge. It w famou* for the ruilis ot" an ancient castle, which wn the seat of the Weft Saxon kings. It is jo miles WE. of Dorchester, and til W. by S. of London. Loh. 1. 37. W. Lat. .<o. 36. N.

(1.) STURMIUS, jarnrs, a learned German, born, at Strasburg in 1489. He rendered the most important services to his country, by contributing greatly to the reformation of religion at Strasburg; to the erection of a College there, and to his irieiid Sleidan's li\jlory cf the Rtformctioh in

Germany, (See Sleidan, N° 1.) He also served his country essentially as an ambassador to different foreign courts, and as a deputy to the diet* of the empire. This learned reformer died at Strasburg, Oct. 30th 1553.

(*.) Sturmios, John, a learned philologer and rhetorician, born at Sleidan near Cologne in IJ07; in the same town, and within a year, of the cele-. brated J. Sleidan, alo^g with whom he was educated. He afterwards studied with the sons of count de Manderlcheid, whose receiver his father was; and next at Liege in the college of St Jerom, and then went to Louvain in 1514 ; where he spent f years, 3 in learning and two in teaching, lie set up a printing press with Rudger Reseius professor of the Greek tongue, and printed fever*l Greek authltra. He went to Paris in 1519, where he was highly esteemed, and read public lectures on the Greek and Litin writers, and on logic. He married, and kept a great number of boarders; but as he inclined to the miu opinions, he was more than once in danger; and therefore he removed to Strasourg in 1537, to a piace offered him by the magistrates. In 1538, he opened a school., which became famous, add was by Maximilian II. made an university in 1566. He was well skilled in literature, wrote Latin with great purity, and was a good teacher. He was often intrusted with deputations in Germany and foreign countries, and discharged these employments with gr.-at honour. He Ihowed extreme charity to the refugees on account of religion: H; not only assisted them by his advice and recommendations; but he even impoverilhed himself for them. Hedied in 1389, his 8id year, after lie had been tor some time blind. He published many books; the principal of which are, 1. Partitiones Diah3ie<r. %. De Educatione Principum. 3. De Habilitate Anglicana. 4. Lingua: Latinae rrsolvrnd.e Ratio. 5.1 Excellent Notes on Aristotle's and Hermogenes's Rhetoric, Sec.

(3,) Sturmius, John, a native of Mechlin, and physician aud professor of mathematics at Louvain, also wrote several learned woi ks.

(4.) SturmIUs, John Christopher,another learned German, born at Hippolstein, in 1635. He became prufessor of philosophy and mathematics at Aitdoif. He published a tranllation of Archimedes, into German; A Complete Coure of Mathematics ± and several Philosophical Treatises. He died at Altdorf, in 1703.

STURNUS, the Starling; a genus of birds belonging to the orderof pnjprrs. The brak is subulated, depressed, and somewhat blunt; the 1U-perior mandible is entire, and somewhat open at the edges; the nostrils are marginated above ; and the tongue is sharp and emarginated. There are 13 species according to Dr Latham; viz. 1—14. Sturhus Cap En Sis J ». Carunculatus; 3. Cell Aris; 4-daur1cus; (. Callinaceus ; 6. Junciti ; 7. LOYCA ; 8. Ludovicianus J9. MEXtCANUS; IO. MILITAR1S; 11. M OS. IT A N 1CU S ; 12.

OLtvACEus; 13. Sericeus; J4-VIRID1S; and

15. Sturnus Vulcaris, the common Star* Ling, or Stare, the only spectes that is indigenous. The weight of the male is about 30/.. that cf the semaic rather Id J; the ltugth of the 1Ha!r'I< about 8j inches: the bill is brown.or ye!luw, but in old birds g.-rerally ycliow. The whole plumage i« black, very resplendent) with changeable blue, ptfipie, and copper: each feather marked with a pa.e yellow ("pot. The If (Ter roverts are edged with yellow, and slightly glossed with green. The qmil feather* and tad dusky; the former edged >vith yellow on the exterior tide; the last with ilirty white. The legs of a rtddilh brown. They breed in hollow trees, eaves of Rousts, towers, ruins, cliffs, and often in high 1 vcks over the sea, such as that of the isle of "Wight. The female lays 4 or 5 egg«, of a palegicerifh asii-colour; and make* i's nest of straw, small litres of rrots, and the lrke. in winter, fibres assemble in -fast •flocks: they collect in myriads in the fen? of Lincolnshire, and do great damage to the fen-men, by roosting on the reertf, ar.d breaking them down by tbcf weight-; for teed' are the thatch of the country, and are laid up in harvest with great care. These bird; fee<l on worms and insect«4 and they will get into pigeon-houses tor the fake of the eggs. Their flesh is so bitter .as to be scarce eatahje. They follow oxen and other large rattle in the meadows, att (acted by the infeits which flutter round them. They live 7 or I! years, or even longer, m the domestic state. The wild onc3 cannot be decoyed by the call, because they regard not the scream of the owl. A method has been discovered of taking entire families, by Urine to trie walls and the trees where they lodge pots of earthen ware ot a convenient form, which the :birds often prefer to place abeir nests in. Many are also caught by the guv and draw-net. In some parts of Italy it is common to employ rarne.ueasels to drag them out of their nests. The sl-are can be taught to speak Trench,, Latin., Greek, &c. and to pronounce phrases of some Unfltli. Its pliant throat accommodates itleu to ciery inflection and every accent. It can r-adily articulate the letter H, andacquires a fort of warbling which is much superior to it3 native long. These birds are spread through -in extensive range in the ancient continent. They foimd in Sweden, Germahv, France, Italy, the Isle of Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, and are everywhere nearly the same; whereas those American birds which have been calledstares, present a great divcility of appearance.

* To STtn\ ) 1; it. [stutten. to hinder,

* To STUTER. \ Dutch.] To fpeaki with hesitation; to stammer.— Divers ,#«/.- the cause is the refrigeration <rf the tongue, wheteby it is le.., apt to move; and therefore naturals -flat. Baron.

STUTtJARD, ( or St-uttcart, a handsome STUTGART, Vand populously of Germajty in Suabia, capital of the duchy of YVirtemburg, and the residence of the dirke and his duchess, Charlotte, Princess Royal of Great Untain. The ducal palace is a magnificent building; and was built in 1746. It has an ancient castle, with a rich cabintt of curiosities. The streets are narrow and the houses mostly of, wood, hut it has two suburbs, with wide streets and elegant houses.- It was besieged by the imperer Rodolph I. in 118,-, but without success. It was erected into a bifhopi's fee'in 1311. It was surrounded with walls and dttchts in icio, and 1,5(47; having suffered much

from the Spaniards in K47. In 1634, it sufFcred equally trom the imperialist;'; and in 168S, it"fi, and 1707 from the Frc-ich. In 1801 it was taken pollellion of by ti e French, aud the Duke and duchess were obliged to fly; evacuated and restored. It has an academy for painting, sculpture, and architecture, established in 1746; and manufactures of hlkr, stult's ribbon*, stockings, &c are carried on in it. It is seated in a delightful country, on the Nafcnach, » miles from the Neckar, 36 miles E. of 15a jen, 40 SS£. of Hcide.bcrr, 40 NW.of U!m, and 56 NE. of Strasburg. Lon. 9. 10. E. Lat. 48. 50. N.

* STUTTER. ) n.s. tfrom flat.) One that

• STUTTERER. \ speaks with hesitation.; a stammerer.—Maiv stutters are very chofenck. Bac.

STUTTGART.' See STt'TCaao. . STUTZENBEJIG, a town of Imperial Austria; 5 miles NF.. of St Pul'.en. 1

STUVF.R, Ernest, an eminent painter of fl.-wei6 and fruits, born at Hamburgh, in 1657. He copied nature with beauty and accuracy. He died in 1711, aged 5?. ...

(1.) * STY. n.s. [stige, Saxon.] 1. A cabbin to keep hogs in.—

In the sty of this most bloody boar, My son George Stanley is fr.wk'd up. SlaA.

When her hogs had'd their way, Th' untoward creatures to the sty I drove. Gut. May thy black pigs lie warm in littlesty. King. a. Any ptacr of beltial debauchery.—

To roll wjth pleasure in a sensual sty. Milton. Migril'st thou expel this monster freim his throne, , Now made a sty? Milton.

3. (I know not how derived). A humour i;: the. eyelid. ■..»

(2.) Sty, § 1. des. 3. See Crithe, and SurGery, Index.

(r.) * To.sty. V. a. [from the noun.] To shut up in a sty.—•. • •Here,you Jly me In this bard -sock. Sljak. (*.) * To Sty, V. n. To soar;to ascend. Sptns. (1.) * STYGIAN, adj. [styxius, Lat.] Heilish; infernal; ptrtaining to Styx, one of the poetical rivers of hell.—

At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throne •Bent their aspect. Milton. (a.) Stygian Lake, or River. See Sttjc, N"<.

(*.) * STYLE, n.s. [stylus, Lat,] 1. Manner of writing with regard to language.—

That can translate the stubbornness of fortune Into so quiet, and so sweet a style. Slat. —Their beauty I will rather leave to poets, than venture upon so tender and nice a subject with ray severer style. More.—Proper words in proper places, make the true definition of a stilt. Swift. Let some lord bot own the happy lines, How the wit brightens, and ihcstyle refines! Pope. 2. Manner of speaking appropriate to particular characters.—

No style is held for base, where love well named i». Sidney. There was never yet philosopher, That coulil endure the toothach patiently, However they have writ XW style os gods. Slai.

3. Mode ■3. Mode of paiistir.jr.—The pmtstile stands alone, and d.ies not require, perhapsdivs not as .veil admit, anyadchiion from inferior beauties. The ornamc:it*!_/r/7f aifo possesses its own peculiar merit: however, thoujrh the union of the two may make a fort of composite /It.; yet that stile is likely lo be more imperfect than eithtr of those which go to its composition. Reynolds. 4. it Is likewise applied to mulick. 5. Title ; appellation.—Ford's a knave, and 1 wili aggravate his stile; th'iu shaft know him for knave and cuckold. Shot.—The king gave them in nis commiliion lY.tstyle and appellation which belonged to them. Clarendon.— O virgin! or what other nair.e you bear Above that style; O more than mortal fa-t!

Drjdcn'j Æn.

Whether the style of Titan please thee more, Whose pi'rple rays th'Achæments adore. Pope.

6. Course of writing. Unusual.—

To gentle Arcite let 113 turn our style. Dryd.

7. Style of Court, is prjperiy the practice obier- ved by anycouit in its w;iy ot proceeding. Ayliffe.

8. A pointed iron used anciently in writing on tables of wax. cj. Any thing with a sharp point, as a graver; the pin of a dial.—Placing twostiles or needles of the lame steel, touched with the seme loadstone, when the one is removed but half a span, the other would stan d like Hercules'spHlars. Braaun. 10. The stalk which riles from amid the leaves of a flower.—Style is the middle prominent part of the slower of a plant, which adheres to fruit or feed. Ouincy.—The figure of the flowerleaves, stamina apices, stile, and seed-vessel. Ray.

(a.) Stylk is a word of various signification's, originally deduced from Jtyloj, a kind of bodkin wherewith the ancienrs wrote on plates of lead, or on wax, &c. and which is still used to write on ivory-se.ivcs.and paper prepared for that purpose, &c.

(3.) Style, in language, is the peculiar manner in which a man expresses his conceptions. It is a picture of the ideas which rife m his mind, and of the order in which they are there produced. The qualities of a good style may be ranked under two heads; perspicuity and ornament. Perspicuity ought to be essentially connected with every kind of writing; and to attain it, attention raust be paid, first to single words and phrases, and then to the construction of sentence?. With respect to words and phrases, it requires these 3 qualities; purity, propriety and precision. With regard to sentences, it requires a csear arrangement of the words and unity in the fense; to which, if strength and harmony be added, t!;e style will become ornamented. One of the most important directions to be observed by him who wilhes to form a good sty e, is to acquire cleir and precise ideas on the subject concerning which he is to write or (peak. To this must be added frequency of composition, and an acquaintance with the style of the best authors. A scivile imitation, however, of any author is carefelly to be avoided; for he who copies, can hardly avo;d copying fault* as well beauties, A style cannot be proper unless it be adapted to the subject, and likewise to the capacity of our hearers, if we are to speak in public. A simple, clear, a'ul una lowed style, such as that of Swift, is si'tult for intricate disquisition;, a style elegant as Addilou'si or

impetuous "ike Johnson's, is most proper for fixing the attention on truths, which, though known^ are rr.uch neglected. We must not be inattentive to the ornaments of ltyie,.if we wist) that cur labours should be read and admired: tut he is a contemptible writer, who looks not beyond-the dress of language, who lays not the clues sties* upon his matter, and who does not regard ornament as a secondary and inferior recommendation. For further observations on the different kinds of style, See Language, .SYS. VI—VIII; Oratory, Part III. ScS. IV—VIII; and.SimPlicity, V a. The Earl of Buchan in his Life of FK-tclxr, while he celebrates the style of that great patriot, pays no compliment to the orators of the present age: " Fletcher (fays ah Lordship) was by far the most nervous and correct speaker in the parliament of. Scotland,, for he drew his style from the pure modelsof antiquity, and not from the grosser practical oratory of his contemporaries; lo that his speeches and his language will bear a comparison with the best speeches of the reign of Queen Anne, the Autustan ageof Great Britain, far superior to the. meretricious inflated, metaphoiica< style of our modern orators, from which remark I must set down Mr Charles Fox, member for Westminster in the present parliament, as a wonderful exception." In perfect agreement with these remarks of the Earl's, see Lasguage, Sect. VIII.

(4 ) Style, in botany. See Botany, Index.

(5.) Style, in dialling, denotes the gnomon tir cock of a dial raised on the plane- thereof to project a shadow.

(6.) Style, in jurisprudence,, the particular form or manner of procseding in each court of jurisdiction, agreeable to the rules and orderscstabiillied therein: thut we fay, the style of the court of Rome, of chancery, of parliament, of the privycouncil, Sec.

(7.) Style, in-music, denotes a peculiar manner of singini;, playing, or composing; being properly the manner that each person ha3 of playing, singing, or teaching; which i* very different botli in respect of different geniuses, of countries, nations, and of the different matters, places, times, subjects, passions, expressions, Sec. Thus we fay, the style of Palestrina, of Lully, of Corelli, of Hartdel, Sec.; the style of the Italians, French, Spaniards, &c.

(8.) Style, New, in Chronology, the Gregorian method of computation. Sec Icalendar, j> ii, 4. 6.

(9.) Style, Old, the Julian method of com. pu'.ing time. See Kalf.sdar, $-4,5.

* To STYLE, V- a. (from the noun.] To call; to term; to name.—The chance lor of the Exchequer they had no mind iluiild be styled x knight. Clarendon.,— •

The strife which thou call'st evil, but we style The strife of glory. Miiion.

Fortune's gifts, my actions May stile their own rewards. Denha'm. —Whoever backs his-tenets with authorities ii ready la stile it impudence in any one who ihajl stand out. Locke.—

His conduct migdit have made himstil'd A fathcjyand the ::y;nph4iis child. Sv:i$~


STYLEPHORUS Chordatus, a genu3 of fishes belonging to the order of apodcs. This very curiout genus was discovered by Dr Shaw, who read a description of it before the Linnxan Society in 1788. See Plate CCCXXIII. The eyes are fixed on cylindrical pillars which lie close toge• ther. The rostrum, or narrow part which is terminated by the mouth, is connected to the back part of the head by a flexible leatheiy duplicature, which permits it either to be extended in such a manner that the mouth points directiy upwards, or to fall back so as to be received into a fort of cafe, formed by the upper part of the head. There are three pair* of branchiae situate under the throat. The pectoral sins are small; the dorsal fin runs from the head to within about an inch and a half of the tail; the caudal fin is Qiort, and is furnished with five remarkable spines. The body is extremely long, and compressed very much, and gradually diminishes as it approaches the tail, which terminates in a process or string of an enormous length, and finishes in a very fine point. This string, or caudal process, seems to be strengthened throughout its whole length, t/t at least as far as the eye can trace it, by a fort of double fibre or internal part. The stylephorus chordatus is a native of the West Indian Sea. It was taken between the iflands of Cuba and Martinico, near a small cluster of littie islands about nine leagues from shore, and was seen swimming near the surface. The whole length of this uncommon animal from the head to the extremity of the caudal process is about 32 inches, of which the process itself measures la.

STYLET, a small dangerous kind of poniard which may be concealed in the hand, chiefly used in treacherous assassinations. The blade is usually triangular, and so small that the wound it makes is almost imperceptible. Set Stiletto.

(1.) STYLITES, Otstilites, Pillar, Saints, a kind of solitaries, who stood motionless upon the tops of pillars. See History, Part II. AW?. VI. They were totally suppressed in the nth century. The tops of these columns were only 3 ■ feet in diameter, and were defended by a rail, that reached almost to the girdle, somewhat resembling a pulpit. There was no lying down in it. The faquirs, or devout people ot the East, imitate this extraordinary and most absurd kind of life to this day.

(2.) Stylites, Simeon. See History, Part

II. Sf8. VI; and Simeon, Nq J.


„ '■ the names ot oifie

Stylo-glossus, rept s , j

Stylohyoimus, . h bot, j.

STYtotPE*. | Anatomy, $ 201,

Stylo Pharyngæus, J' STYI-OSANTILES, in botany, a gums of the iecaxdria order, belonging to the diadelpbia class of plants; and in the natural method ranking under the 3id orc*er, Papilionacex. The calyx is tubulated, very long, iiaving the corolla att.iched to it. The legumtn or pod biarticulatcd ancT honked. Of this there arc two species, both natives of Jamaica, viz.

i. Stylos An rrus Procumbens, the hrdy'arum procumbens of Linnæus; a rigur^ of which may be seen iu Sloane's Natural History of Jama Ca.

j. Stylosanthes Viscosa, the trifofiiM j»f Browne; a figure of which is also given by Sioane.

STVPTERIA, a name given by the Greeks to a species of Alum, llnder the article Alum which the ingenious Dr Thomson ranks as the 13th of the S'tlphats, (See Sulphat.) in his Sjjl. of Cbcm. vol. ii. p. 172, he has the following remarks on this substance: " Tiie rTv*TTtam of the Greeks, aud the alumtn of the Ro nans, was a native substance, which appears to have been nearly related to green -vitriol, or fulpbat of iron; and which consequently was very different from what we at present denominate alum." (See Alum, and Chemistry, Index.) "From the researches cf Prof. B^-ckman, it appears, that we own the discovery of alum to the Asiatics; but at what period, or by what means the discovery Wt< made is unknown."—" The composition of alum has been but lately understood with accuracy. It has been long known, that one of its ingredients is Sulphuric Acid; and the experiments of Geoffrey, Hellot) Pott, Margraff, and Macquer» prc< ved incontestibly, that alumina is another. But sulphuric acid and alumina are incapable of forming alum. Manufacturers knew, that the addition of a quantity of potass, or of ammonia, or of fame substance containing these alkalies, is almost always necessary; and it was proved, thar, in every case iu which such additions are unnecessary, the earth, from which the alum is obtained, contained already a quantity of potass. Various conjectures were made ab >ut the part which potifo acts in this cafe; but Chaptal and Vauquelin appear to have been the first chemists, who ascertained by decisive experiments, that Alum isa triple salt, composed of sulphuric acid, alumina, and potass, or ammonia, united to;?etfter. As aium contains an excess of acid, it belongs to the class of super-suiphats." See Supersulphat.

•STYtTICITY. »./. [Properly A>fi«f*.] The power of stanching blood.—Cithariicks of mercurials precipitate the viscidities by their jlyptidt). I'hter.

. U-) * STYPTICK. adj. [r«r1«« ;Jlyptitpu, Fr. This is usually, though erroneously, writtenJitptick. See Stiptick.i The same as astn'ngent; but generally expresses the most efficacious sort ot astringents, or those which are applied to stop hemorrhages, ^jiincy.—Fruits of trees and ihrubs contain phlegm, oil, and an essential ult, hy wbicn they are sharp, sweet, sour, or jlyptick. -Arbutb.

(2.) Styptics, in pharmacy, medicines which by their attringency stop haemorrhages, &c. See Matekia Medica, Sc3. VI.

STYRAClj?LUA. See I,io.uii>amiiar, N3 ».

STYRAX, the Storax Tree, jn botany, 2 genui of plants the class of di-ctvnir'-a, and to the or ler of manogyma; and ia the natural system ranging under the 18th order, bicarnes. There are 4 species; viz.

1. Bsnzoinum is described by Dr Dryander ia the Phil. Tr. for j 787, p. 30E, &c It has been characterized hy oblong acuminated leaves, which are downy uuderneath, and nearly of the length of the racemi. Sec Plate CCCXXIII. The botanical charaitcr ot' this tree was mistaken by mod-rn botanists till Dr DryanJer ascertained it to be a styrax. Bcu/oiii wai long supposed to f ••«•.' f 5'

b; she pfodoce of a species oi-l/ruttit. Linnæus rletected this error: but lie committed another; for he ttlis us, that it is furnished by a flirub which, in the country wher» it grows, is called trof on brave', and afterwards,, in his Sufp!em:ntu,n Pln'Marum, describes the sa ve plant a second ti:re tinder the name of terminaltd benzoin. This tree, which H a native of Sumatra, is deemed in fix years of sufficient age for affording the benzoin, or when its trunk acquires about 7 or i inches in diameter; the bark is then cut through longitudinally, or somewhat obliquely, at the origin of the principal lower branches from which the dr us exudes in a liquid state, and by exposure to the sun and air soon concretes, when it is ferap.-d off from the b irk with a knife or chisel. The quantity of benzoin which one tree affords never excee-ls 3 Ib. nor arc the trees found to sustain the effects of these annual incisions lunger than to or 11 year". The be»zoin which issues first from the woui.dtd bark is the purest, beirg soft, extremely fragrant, and very white; that Mhich is less esteemed is of a brownish colour, very hard, and mixed with various impurities, which it acquires during its long continuance upon the trees. Escbellkron distinguishes benzoin into three kinds %'vi.tamayan poeti, or white benjamir, which, upon being melted in a bladder by the heat of the fun, appears marked with red streaks or veins. Camayan bamatta is less white than the former, and often spotted with white circles, called eyts, from the number of which its goodness is estimated : it likewise melts by the heat of the fun. Camnyan itam, or black benjamin, which reejuires to be melted in hot water for its pttservation in bladders. In Arabia, Persia, and other parts of the East, the coarser kinds of benjamin are consumed for fumigating and perfuming the temples, and for destroying infects. The benzoin which we tir-d here in the shops is in hrge brittle masses, composed partly of white, partly of yellowish or light brown, and often aiso of darker coloured nieces: that which is clearest, and contains the molt white matter, calied by authors benzoe amyttdalo'nlej, is accounted the best. This resin has very little taste, impressing on the palate only a sl.ght sweetness: its smell, especially when rubbed or heated, K extremely fragrant and aereeable. It totally dissolves in rectified spirit, (the impurities excepted, which are generally in a very snail quantity), into a deep yellowish red liquor, and in this state discovers a degree of <rarmth and pungency, as well as sweetness. It imparts, by digestion, to water also a considerable share of its f agrance, and a slight pungency : the filtered liquor, gently exhaled, leaves not a resin, ousor mucilaginous extract, but a crystalline matter, seemingly of a saline nature, amounting to one-tenth or one-eighth of the weight of the benzoin. Exposed to the fire in proper vessels, it yields a quantity of a white falitle concrete, called /loses tenxeei, of an acidulous taste and grateful odouf, soluble in rectified spirit, aud in water by the assistance of heat. The principal use of this fragrant resin is in perfumes, and as a cosmetic; for which last purpose, a solution of it in spirit of wine it mixed with so much water as it Vol. XXI. Pa«t II,

j J ....... S T *

sufficient to rende'r it milky, as twenty tirfirs its quantity or more. It promises, howev.-r, to be applicable to other uses, and to approach in virtue, as in fragrance to storax and balsam of Tolu. It is said to be of great service in disorders of the bieast, for resolving obstructions of the pulmonary vessels and promoting expectoration : in which intentions the Rowers are sometimes given, from three or four grains to fifteen. The white powder, prec ipiuted by water from solutions of the benzoin in spirit, has been employed by some ai similar aud supMior to the flowers, but appears to be little other tjwn the pure benzoin in substance: it is not the saline, but the resinous matter of the benzoin, that is most disposed to lw precipitated from spirit by water. The flowers snuffed up the note, are said to be a powerful errhine.

». Styrax Crahdcfolium, ; these are men

3. SI Yrax Laviciatum; S tionedby in his Ho-tut Kcavenjis, cr Oarden.of k'e<tv.

4. Styrax Officinale the officinal Storax, is the only species mentioned by Linnæus. - It usually rises above 10 feet high j it lends off many strong branches, which are covered with a fotighish bark of A grey colour: the leaves are broad, elliptical, entire, somewhat pointed^ on the upper surface smooth, and of a light green colour, 011 the under surface covered with a whitish down; they are placed alternately, and stand upon short footstalks: the flowers arc large, white, and disposed in clusters upon short peduncles, which terminate the branches: the corolla is rrionopetalous, funnelshaped, divided at the limb into five lanee-fhapcd segments: the filaments are ten, placed in a regular circle, and seem to adhere towards the base: the antheræ are erect and oblong: the germen is oval, and supports a slender style, with a simple stigma: the fruit is a pulpy pericarprum, which Contains one or two nuts of an oval compressed figure. The resinous drug called Storax issues in a fluid state from incisions made in the trunk or branches of the tre«. Two forts of this resin have been commonly distinguished in the shops. 1. Storax in the tear s is scarcely, if ever, found in separate tears but in masses, sometimes composed of whitish and pale reddish brown tears, and fometimts of an uniform reddish yellow or brownisti appearance; unctuous and soft iike wax, and free from visible impurities. This is supposed to1 be the fort which tne ancients received from Pamphylia in reeds or canes, and which was thence named calamita. a. Common Storax: in large masses, considerably lighter and less compact than the former, and having a large admixture of Woody matter iike saw-dust; This appears to be the kind intended by the London college, as they direct their styrax calamita to be ouiified, for medicinal life, by softening it with bo'Iing water, and pressing it out from the feces betwixt warm iron plates; a process which the first fort does not stand in need of. And indeed there is rarely any other than this impure storax to be met with in the shops. Stonx, with some of the ancients, was a familiar remedy as a resolvent, and particulariy used in catanhal compliitit?, coughs asthma*, merifrrual obstructions, &c. and from its

Ttt assinity

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