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•dJing one more to the number of unfortunate a common Highland plaid girt round him by a royal Stuartt. belt, from which hung a pistol and dagger. He

(17.) Stuart, James-Francis-Edward, the son had not been shifted for many weeks; his eye* of K. James II. by his ad queen, Mary of Este, were hollow, his visage wan, and his constitution daughter of Alphonso, D. of Modena, and the greatly impaired by famine and fatigue. He was kit Prince of Wales of the name of Stuart, was accompanied by Sullivan and Sheridan, two Irilh born 21st June 1688, or 10th June, O. S. a short adherents, who had shared all his calamities; totune before his father's abdication, and the ex- gtther with Cameron of Lochiel, his brother, and ile of the royal family. Of his history little is re- a few other exiles. They set sail for France; and corded. On his father's death, in 1701, he as- after having been chased by two English men of sumta the name and title of fames III. King of war, arrived in sofety at a place called Roseau Great Britain, &c. and was acknowledged in that neat Morlaix in Bretagne. Prince Charles, whom •character for a considerable time by the court of his adherents in this country dignified with the Fiance, as well as by his followers. The history royal title of King Charles III. and who, even at of the fruitless and unfortunate attempt of his Rome, assumed the title and dignity of King of party, under the Earl of Mar, to realize that title, Great Britain after his father's death, marr ied the in 1715, is related under England, § 77. He princess of Stolberg in 1771, by whom he had married the princess Mary-Clementina Sobielki, only one daughter, entitled the Duchess of Albany; daughter of Jonn Sobielki, K. of Poland; by and who, we have heard, visited the British Court whom he had two sons; viz. Pr. Charles, and after her father's death, where she was graciously Henry Benedict, born 6th March, 1725, the latter received. Prince Charles died at Rome, in 1788, of whom is still in life; and by some rigid ad- agtd 68. The court of Rome seem rather unherents of the house of Stuart, is considered as grateful, that they have not raised to the triple their king, and though a priest, styled Hairy IX. crown, Cardinal Henry, the only survivor of a though he himself never has assumed any such family that sacrificed three crowns for the soke of title. Pr. James, called by the Whigs, the Pie- their religion.

tender, died at Rome, in 1766. (19.) Stuart, "George, professor of humanity

(18.) Stuart, Charles-Edward, eldest son of in the university of Edinburgh, a man of considerthe preceding, was born at Rome the 31ft of able eminence for classical taste and literature. Dec. 17*0; assumed the title of Prince of H'ales, For these accomplishments he was probably inand in 1745, that of Prime Regent in bis father's d bred in no small degree to his relation the cenamc; when he and the party in Scotland made lebrated Ruddiman, with whom both he and his a ad fruitless attempt to recover the crown of son conversed familiarly, though they afterwards Great Britain. Of the histoiy of that unfortunate united to injure his fame. Of this learned protransaction and its fatal consequences, an account fessor, we have met with no memoir; nor any is recorded under the .irticles, Culloden, Eng- account of his works j but we are assured by the Land, J 8o, and Stfuart-denham. We have Earl of Buchan, that he was " the author of an only to add a very brief account of Pr. Charles's elaborate dictionary of the Latin language, which astonishing escape from this country to the conti- is still unpublished, and which (as his lordship iient. Immediately after the battle of Culloden, observes) ought to be sought after by the learned, the young Prince fled away with a captain of Fitz- (io.) Stuart, Gilbert, LL. D. son of the james's cavalry; and when their horses were fa- preceding, was bom at Edinburgh in 1746. Hatigued, they both alighted, and separately sought ving finished his classical and philosophical studies for sofety. There is a striking resemblance be- in the university, he applied himself to jurisprutween the adventures of Charles II. after the bat- dence, without probably intending to follow the tie of Worcester, and those of his grand-nephew, profession of the law. For that profession he has after the battle of Culloden. For some days he been represented as unqualified by indolence; by wandered in the country. Sometimes he found a passion which at a very early period of life be refuge in caves and cottages, without any attend- displayed for general literature; or by boundless ants at all. Sometimes he lay in forests with one dissipation:—and all these circumstances may have or two companions of his distress continually contributed to make him relinquish pursuits iu pursued by the troops of the conqueror, there be- which he could hope to succeed only by patient ing a reward of 30,0001. offered for taking him perseverance and strict decorum of manners. That either dead or alive. In the course of his adven- he did not waste his youth in idleness, is, how tures, be bad occasion to trust his life to the fide- ever, evident from An Historical Dissertation conJity of above 50 individuals; not one of whom cernir.g the Antiquity of the British Constitution, could bt prevailed upon by so great a reward, to which he published before he had completed his betray him whom they looked upon to be their jid year, and which had so much merit, as to king's son. For six months the unfortunate induce the university of Edinburgh to confer upCharles continued to wander in the frightful wilds 011 the author, though so young a man, the deof Glcngary, often hemmed round by his pur- greeofLL. D. After a studious interval of some suers, but still rescued by some providential cir- years, he produced a valuable work, under the cumstance from the impending danger. At length title of A Vievi of Society in Europe, in itt Progress a privateer of St Maloen, hired by his adherents, from Rudeness to Refinement; or, Inquiries concetnarrived in Lochranach, in which he embarked in ing the History of Laws, Government, and Manners. *he most wretched attire. He was clad in a short He had read and meditated with patience on the coat of black frize, thread-bare; over which was most important monuments of the middle ages;

R r r a and

fcr.d in this volti-iie (which speedily reached a second editions he aimed chiefly -it the prailr ot" originality and mvtnli'»n, and d icoveitd an industry that is f'ldom connected with ability and discernment. About the time of the pub.uation of the first edition df this performance, having turned his thoughts to an academical li**, he niked for the profclsorfhip of public kw in -the uni. versity of Edinburgh. Arcordmg to his own'account he had been promised that place hy die minister, but had the mortification to see the piefelsorfhip bestowed on another, and all his hopes Wafted by the influence of Dr Robertson, whom he represented as under obligations to him. This part of the story, however, seems very incredible; as it ft not easy to conceive how it ever could be in the power of D? Stuart to render to the learned Principal any essential service.' It was believed indeed by the earl ot Buchan, and by othtfrs, who observed that-the illiberal jealousy not unfreqtient in the world of letters, was probably the source of this opposition; which entirely broke the intimacy of two persons who, before that time, were understood to be on the most friendly footing with each other. Ingratitude, however1, is as likely to have been the vice of Dr Stuart as of Dr Robertson ; for we have been fold by a writer, (Ch.ilmcri-, in hit* Life of Ruddiman,) who, at least in t>ne iiistanct, has completely proved what he affirmt., that " soch was Gilbert Stuart's laxity of principle as a man, that ht considered ingratitude as one of the most venial fins; sncli was his conceit as a writtr, that he regarded no one's merits but hi3 own ; such were his disappointments, both as a writer and a man, that he allowed hm peevishness to sour into malice, and indulged his malevolence till it settled in corruption." Soon after this disappointment Dr Stuart went to London, where he became from 1768 to 1-74 one of the writers of the Monthly Review. In 1771 Dr Acam, rector of the high school at Edinburgh, published a Latin Grammar, wh'ch he intended as an improvement of the famous Ruddiman's. (Stuart attacked him inj pamphlet under the name of Bttjhby, and treated him with much severity. In doing this, he wa6 probably actuated more by some personal dislike of Dr Adam than by regard lor the memory of his learned relation; for on other occasions he showed sufficiently that he had 110 regard to Ruddiman'g honour as a grammanan, editor, or critic. In 1774 he returned to his native city, and began the Edinburgh Magazine and Review, in which he discussed the liberty and constitution of England, and distinguished himself by an inquiry into the character of John Knox the reformer, whose principles he reprobated in the severest terms. About this time he revised and published Sullivan's Lectures on the Constitution of England. Soon after he turned his thoughts to the history of Scotland, and published Observations concerning its Public Law and Constitutional History; in which he examined with critical care the preliminary book to Dr Robeiison's History. His next work was The History of the Reformation; a book which dt serves praise for the easy dignity of the narrative, and for strict impartiality. His last jrea? work, The Hi:toy of Scotland sum the Es:at!:J.hir.c::t of the

Reformation to ihe Death of Queen Mary, which appeared in 1782, has been very generally read and admire''. His purpose was to vindicate the character of the injured queen, and expi se the weakness of the arguments by Which Dr Robertson had endeavoured to prove her guilty: but though the lt>le of this work is his own, it contains very little matter which was not furnished by Goodall and Tytler; and It is With the arm* which these two writers put into his hands,'that Dr Stuart vanquished his great antagonist, hi 1781 he once more visited London, and engaged in the Political Herald and English Review; but the jaurdice and dropsy increasing'on him* he returned by sea to his native coui.try, -where he died in the house of his'father on the 13th Aug. 1786. In his person Dr Stuart was about the middle size and justly proportioned. His countenance was modVst and expressive, sometimes glowing with sentiments of friendship, of which he was truly susceptible, and at others darting that satire and indignation at folly nnd vice which appear in some of his writings. He was a bcon companion; and, with a constitution that might have stood the shock of ages, he fell a premature martyr to intemperance. His talents were certainly great, and his writings are useful ; but he seems to have been influenced rfiorc by passion than principle, and in his character there was not much to. be imitated. Of his style in writing, see Lord Gardenstone's criticism, quoted under the article,Language, Sell, viti. ■;

(11.) Stuart; James, a"celebrated architect and antiquary, born in London, in 1709. Hiss* ther, who was a mariner, died, while James was a boy, leaving a widow and 4 children of whom he was the eldest, without any means of support. James having an excellent turn for drawing, soon provided for the whole family, by painting fans, lie soon after found a place for Ohc of hi« listers with his employer in the fan trade. Mean time he made the most astonishing exertions and acquisitions i:i various branches of learning. To perfect himself in drawing, he studied anatomy, geometry, the mathematical sciences in geneial, and at last, wishing to understand the Latin inscriptions on print*, he made himself master of that language, and loon after of the Greek, all by his own exertions without a teacher. His mother dying, after procuring places for his brother and ad sister, he sol out upon his travels to the continent on foot. He travelled through Holland and France to Paris, stopping occasionally at different towns, oniy so long as to gain as much as cany him forward. At length he arrived at Rome where he attracted the attention and patronage of Sir Jacob Bouvcrie and Mr Dawkins, who were astonished at his courage and perlcverence. Here he aiso formed an intimacy with Mr Revett, the celebrated architect. Under the auspices of these gentlemen Revett and he set out for Athens, where they remained several yeare, and made a number of drawings of the relics of ancient archi■lecture; About this period, too, he engaged as elves engineer in the army of the empress queen of Hnngary. When the campaign was over, he went back to Athens, and completed his drawings, which on his return to England after 14

years

years absence, he engraved and published to the surprise and gratification of the learried world. The first vol. wa3 published in 1761, under the title of Antiquities of Athens. Ttiw work, with the fame of his travels, procured him the title of Athenian Stuart. Upon bis arrivHl, he had been received into Mr Dawkios's family; and Lord Anfon, admiring his genius and exertions, appointed him surveyor of Greenwich Hospital, which he held till his death. In 1781, after ltudying Grecian antiquities for 7* years, he fell in fancy with a modern British beauty, an accomplished young lady of Sittinghourn in Kent, only in her aoth year. Disparity of years were not objected to on the lady's part. They were married and she bore him 4 children. This extraordinary genius died in 1788, aged 79; and other » vols of his Antiquities of Athens have been published since bis death. . (it.) Stuart-denham. Se Stewart.

* STUB. «. /. [Jieb, Saxon; Danish; stob, Dutch ; stipes, Lat.J 1. A thick short stock

left when the rest is cut oft".—The wheel coming over a great Jiub of a tree, overturned the coach. Sidney.

AH about old stocks and stubs of trees, Did hang upon the ragged rocky knees. Spenstr. 'To buy at thestuh is the best for the buyer.

Tufir.

--The stub hath put out sometimes a tree ot another kind. Bacon.

We here

Live on tough roots and stubs. Milton. • Prickly stubs instead of trees are found.

Dryden.

3. A log j a block.—Our dullest and laziest youth, our stocks and stubs. Milton.

* To Stub. V. a. Ifrom the noun.] To force up; to extirpate.—His two tusks serve for fighting and feeding; by the help whereof he stubs up edible roots but.'of the ground. Grew.

The other tree was griev'd, Grew scrubby, dry'd a-top, was stunted; So the next parson stttbb'd and burnt it. Sivift. STUBBE, Henry, an English writer of uncommon talents, born at Partney in Lincolnshire aBth Feb. 1631. His father was a minister of the church of England, but turning baptist was ejected and went with his family to Ireland. But the rebellion breaking out in 1641, the mother returned to England, with'her son, and settling in London, where she maintained herself by sewing, sent Henry to Westminster school; The boy's talents were soon observed by Dr Busby, the master, who recommended him to Sir Henry Vane, and these two patronised him and supplied him with money, books, Sec. to complete his education. In 1649, he was elected student of ChristChurch, Oxford; and in 1657 was made under keeper of the Bodleian library; but was ejected upon the restoration, having made himself obnoxious by his publications on the other iide. He then went to Stratford upon Avon, where he practised physic. In 1661, he went to Jamaica, with the title of King's Physician; but the climate disagreeing with him, he returned; and engaged in a violent controversy with the Royal Society. After various other literary controversies, and publisli. . '■■ t . . .

ing many books, which are now no longer read, he was crowned in crossing a river, July nth

» STUBBED.adj. [from/tub.] Truncated; ssiort and thick.—

Against a stubbed tree he reels. Draytui.
Hang upon our stubbed horns
Garlands ribbons, and fine posies. Ben yon/on.

* STUBBEDNESS. n.s. Ifrom stubbed.] The state of being short, thick, and truncated.

* STUBBLE, n. s. J^from estouble, Fr. stoppr:, Dutch ; stijiitUi, Latin.] The stalks of corn lett in the field by the reaper.—

To kindle their dry stubble, and their blaze
Shall darken him for everi Shak.

You, by thus much scene,
Know by the stubble, what the corne hath bene.

Chapman.

—If a small red flower in the stubb!e-fie\fa, called the winco-pipe, open in the morning, be sure of a fair day. Bacon.—His succeeding years afford him little more than the stubble of his own harvest. Dryden.

Thrice happy Dick, employ'd in threshing stubble.

The toil is lessen'd and the profits double.

Swift.

—After the first crop is off they plow in the stable. Mortimer.

* STUBBORN, adj. [This word, of which no obvious etymology appears, is derived by Min

Jhew from stoutborn, referred by Juvius to Vjsijj;, aud deduced better by Mr Lye, from stub, perhaps from stub-horn. 1. Obstinate; inflexible; contumacious.—

Stireful Atin in their stubborn mind,
Coals of contention and hot vengeance tin'd.

Spenser.

Then stood he neere the doore, and proud to draw

The fiubborne bow, thrice tried, and thrice gave law. Chapman. The queen is obstinate, Stubborn to justice, apt t' accuse it, and Disdainful to be tried by't. Shak. —He believed he had so humbled the garrison, that they would be no longer so stubborn. C'.a Tendon.

I'll not flatter this tempestuous king, But work his stubborn foul a nobler way. DnS. a. Persisting; persevering; steady.—All this is to be had only from the epistles themselves, with stubborn attention. Locks. 3. Stiff"; not pliable: inflexible; not easily admitting impression.— 1 Love softens me, and blows up fires which pass

Through my tough heart, and melt thestubborn

mass. JUrydm.
Take a plant ofstubborn oak,
And iabourhtm with many a sturdystroak. Dryd.

4. Hardy; firm.—
Patience under torturing pain,

Where stubborn stoicks would complain. Swift.

5. Harsh; rough; rugged.—We will not oppose any thing that is hard and stubborn. Bttrnet. (. In all its uses it commonly implies something of a bad quality, though Locke has catachiestically used it in a sense of praise.

» Stub■ » STUBBORNLY, adv. [stemstubborn.} Obstinately; contumaciously; inflexibly.

Stubbornly he did repugn the truth. Shak. —He wilfully neglects his book, and stubbornly refuses any thing he can do. Locke.

So close they cling, so stubbornly retire. Their love's more violent than the chemist's fire.

Garth.

•STUBBORNNESS, n.s. [fromstubborn. Obsfinacy; vicious stoutness; contumacy, inflexibility. Dryden has used it in commendation.— Happy M your grace,

That can translate thestubbornness of fortune

Into so quiet and sweet a style. Shai. —He chose a course least subject to envy, between itilfstubbornness and filthy flattery. Hayward.— Patriots, in peace, assert the people's right,

With nobiestubbornness resisting might. Dryden. Stubbornness, and an obstinate disobedience, must be mastered with blows. Lode.— It failed, partly by the stubbornness of that colony for whose relief it was designed. S<wist.

STUBBS, George, an ingenious English writer, who was rector of Granville, in Dorsetshire. He wrote many of the best papers in the Freethinker, in 1718, in conjunction with Ambrose Philips and others. He also published A New Adventure of Telemaehus; t. A Dialogue on Beauty, between Socrates and Aspasia; in the manner of Socrates; and 3. A translation of Madam SeV'gne's Letters, the first that ever appeared in English, and much in the spirit of the original.

* STUBBY, adj. [fromstub.] Short and thick; short and strong.—The base is surrounded with a garland of hiack and stubby bristles. Crew.

* Stubnail. n.s. {stub and nail.] A nail broken oft"; a short thick nail.

(1.) * STUCCO, n.s [\Ulstue, Fr.] A kind of fi:ie plaster for walls.

Palladian walls, Venetian doors,

Grotefco roofs, and stucco floors. Pope.

(1.) Stucco, in building,-is a composition of white marble pulverised, and mixed with plaster of lime 1 and the whole being sifted and wrought up with water, is used like common plaster: this is called by Pliny marmoratum opus, and atrium opus.

(3.) Stucco, Mr. Higgins's Improved. A patent has been granted to Mr B. Higgins for inventing a new kind of stucco, or water cement, more firm and durable than any heretofore. Ita composition, as extracted from the specificatioji signed by himself, i» as follows: "Drift-sand, quarry, or pit sand, which consists chiefly of hard quartosc flat-faced grains with sharp angles; which is the freest, or may be easily freed by washing, from clay, salts, and calcareous, gypseous, or o'ther grains less hard and durable than quartz; which contains the smallest quantity of pyrites or heavy metallic matter inseparable by wafliing; and which suffers the smallest dimunition of its bulk in washing in the following manner—is to be preferred before any other. And where a coarse and a fine sand of this kind, and corresponding in the size of their grains with the coarse and fine tands hereafter described, cannot be easily procured, let such sand of the foregoing quality lie chosen as may be sorted and cleansed in the following manner: " Let the (and be fisted in stream

ing clear water, through a sieve which shall give palsage to all such grains as do not exceed one 16th of an inch in diameter; and let the stream of water and the sifting be regulated so that all the sand, which is much finer than the Lynn-sand commonly used in the London glafe-houses, together with clay and every other matter specifically lighter than sand, may be washed away with the stream, whilst the purer and coaiser sand, which pastes through the sieve, subsides in a convenient receptacle, and whilst the coarse rubbish and rubble remain on the sieve to be rejected. Let the sand which thus subsides in the receptacle be washed in clean streaming water through a finer sieve, so as to be further cleansed and sorted into two parcels; a coarser, which will remain in the sieve which is to give passage to such grains of /and only as are less than one 30th of an inch in diameter, and which is to be saved apart under the name of coarse sand; and a finer, which will pass through the sieve and subside in the water, and which is to be saved apart under the name of sute sand.—Let the coarse and the fine sand be dried separately, either in the sun or on a clean iroa-plate, set on a convenient surface, ir. tHe manner of a sand-beat, and stirred continua!!*" i'l dried, else it will be discoloured. Let lia; . be chosen, which is stone ii.me, which heats the r oil in slaking, flakes the quickest when duly watered, is the freshest made a^a closest kept; diin Ives in distilled vinegar with the least erlervese-nct, and leaves the smallest residue insoluble, and in this residue the smallest ^quantity of clay, gypsuai, or martial matter. Let 14 Ib. of the lime t'.ui chosen be put in a brass-wired sieve; let the lir e be finer than either of the foregoing; let the i ine be slaked by plunging it in a butt filled with .oft water; railing it out quickly and suffering 1: to heat and fume; by repeating this piungiog aud raising alternately, and agitating the lime, until it be made to pal's through the sieve into the water; let the part of the lime which does not easily pass through the sieve be rejected; let fresh portions of the lime be thus used, until as many ounces of lime have pasted through the sieve at there are quarts of water in the butt. Let the water thus impregnated stand in butt closely covered until it becomes clear; and thro' wooden cocks placed at different heights in the butt, let the clear liquor be drawn offas fast and as low as the lime subsides, for use. This clear liquor I call Khz cementing liquor. The freer the. water ij from saline matter, the better will be the cesienting liquor made with it. Let 56 lb. of the chosen lime be slaked, by gradually sprinkling on it, and especially 011 the unslaked pieces, the cementing liquor, in a close clean place. Let the flaked part be immediately fisted through the lalt mentioned fine brass-wired sieve: Let the lime which passes be used instantly, or kept in air tight vts&ls, and let the part of the lime which does not jpafs through the sieve be rejected. This finer richer part of the lime which passes through the lieve I call purified lime. Let bone alh be prepared in the usual manner, by grinding the whitest 'burnt bones, but let it be sifted, to be much si»cr than the hone alh commonly sold for making cupels. The. molt eligible materials for making niy

• • rrnWUt

cement being thus prepared, take 56 Ib. of th< coarse sand and 4a Ib. of the tine sand; mix them on a large plank of bard wood placed horizontally; then spread the sand so that it may stand to the height of six inches, with a Hat surface on the plank; wet it with the cementing liquor; and let any superfluous quantity of the liquor, which the sand in the condition described cannot retain, flow away off the plank. To the wettest sand add 14 Ib. of the putrefied lime in several successive portions, mixing and beating them up together in the mean time with the instruments generally used in making fine mortar: then add 14 lb. of the bone afli in successive portions, mixing and beating all together. The quicker and the more perfectly these materials are mixed and beaten to• gether, and the sooner the cement thug formed is used, the better it will be. This I call the <water cement coarse grained, which is to be applied in building, pointing, plastering, stuccoing, or other work, as mortar and stucco now are; with this difference chiefly, that as this cement is shorter than mortar or common stucco, and drie6 sooner, it ought to be worked expeditiousiy in all cafes; and in stuccoing, it ought to be laid on by Hiding the trowel upwards on it; that the materials used along with this cement in building, or the ground on which it ts to be laid in stuccoing, ought to be well wetted with the cementing liquor, in the instant of laying on the cement; and that the cementing liquor is to be used when it u necessary to moisten the cement, or when a liquid is required to facilitate the floating of the cement. When such cement is required to be of a finer texture, take 98 pounds of the fine sand, wet it with the cementing liquor, and mix it with the purified lime and the bone ash in the quantities and in the manner above described; with this difference only, that 1 j lb. of lirae, or thereabouts, are to be used instead of 14 Ib. if the greater part of the sand be as fine as Lynn sand. This 1 call water cement Jine grained. It is to be used in giving th_e last coating, or the finish to any work intended to imitate the finer grained stones or stucco. But it may be applied to all the uses of the water cement coarse grained, and in the fame manner. When for any of the foregoing purposes of pointtug, building, &c. such a cement is required much cheaper and coarser grained, then much coarser clean sand thin the foregoing coarse sand, or well walhcd sine rubble, is to be provided. Of this coarse sand or rubble take 56 Ib. of the foregoing coarse sand 18 Ib. aud of the tine find 14 Ib.; and after mixing these, and wetting them with the cementing liquor in tbe foregoing manner, add 14 lb. or somewhat less, of the purified lime, and then 14 lb. or tomewbat less of the bone ash, mixing them together as above. When my cement is required to be white, white sand, white lime, and the whitest bone ash are to be chosen. Orey sand, and grey bone asli formed of haif burnt bones are to be chosen to make the cement grey; and any other colour of the cement is obtained, cither by choosing coloured sand, or by the admixture of the necessary quantity of coloured talc in powder* or of coloured, vitreous or metallic powders, or other durable colouring ingredients

ommonly used in paint. To the end that such a water cement as I have described may be made as useful as it is possible in all circumstances; and that no person may imagine that hiy claim and right under these letters patent may be eluded by divers variations, which may fce made in the foregoing process without producing any notable defect in the cement; and to the end that the principles of this art, as well as the art itself of making my cement, may be gathered from this specification and perpetuated to the public; I shall add the following observations: This my water cement, whether the coarse or fine grained, is applicable in forming artificial stone, by making alternate layers of the cement and of flint, hard, stone, or brick, in moulds of the figure of the intended stoue, and by exposing the masses so formed to the open air to harden: but they must not be exposed to rain till they are as hard as Portland stone. When such cement is required for water fences, two jds of the prescribed quantity of bone ashes are to be omitted; and in the place thereof an equal measure of powdered terras is to be used; and if the sand employed be not of the coarsest sort, more terras must be added, so that the terras shall be by weight one 6th part of the weight of the sand. When such, a cement is required of the finest grain, or in a fluid form, so that it may be applied with a brush, flint powder, or the powder of any quartose or bard earthy substance, may be used in the place of sand; but in a quantity smaller, as the flint or other powder u finer; so that the flint-powder, or other such powder, shall not be more than six times the weight of the lime, nor less than four times its weight. The greater the quantity of lime within these limits, the more will the cement be liable to crack, by quick drying, and vice versa. Where such sand as i prefer cannot be conveniently procured, or where the sand canrot be conveniently washed and sorted, that sand which most resembles the mixture of coarse and fine sand above prescribed, may be used as I have directed, provided due attention is paid to the quantity ot the lime, which is to b<: greater as the quantity is finer, and t ire versa. Sea sand we'l washed will answer. Where sand cannot be easily procured, any durable stony body, or baked earth grosoly powdered, and sorted nearly to the sizes above prescribed for sand, may be used in the place of sand, measure for measure, but not weight for weight, unless such gross powder he a« heavy specifically as sand. Sand may be cleansed from every softer, lighter, and less durable matter, and from that part of the sand which is too fine, by various methods preferable, in certain circumstances, to that which I have described. Water may be found naturally free from fixable (.'as, selcnite, or clay; such water may, without any notable inconvenieace, be used in the pl.'.ce of tne cementing liquor; and water approaching this state will not require so much lime as 1 have ordered to make the cementing liquor; and a cementing liquor liifticiently useful may be made by various methods of mixing lime and water in the delcribed proportions, or nearly so. Wlien stone lime cannot he procured, chalk lime or {hell lime, which best resembles

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