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fide is expended; after which the other fide will scrupulous attention we suffer by our very cleanobtain and increase the superiority. The fine is liness.
made double, that the fire-pWc may occupy the (6.) Stove, The Netherland. For such reamiddle of the front; and it will be difficult to sonsjve think that the stoves of brickwork covergain this point of fymnetry with one flue. The ed with stucco or with glazed tiles are v.isiiy preinconvenienoe m^y, however, be corrected by ferabie. These are much used in the gemecler •lamping valve-- placed in some part of the up- house: in Fla:iders a::d Holland, where they are right funnel* E, E. In the colder winters on made in t:ie most ekgant forms, and decorated the cortinent, it is thought necessary tovin- with beautiful fe uiptuie or enamc'; but it is plain crease the effect, by ma' nig the fire place open to ^hat Lhey cannot br in effectual, nor equally warm the back of the stove. Its mouth or iloor com- z r >jm wuii the lame expence of fuel. Earthen inumcatcs with or isjoir.-d to a'i opening of the Wait, especially when covered with porous stuclame dimensions formed in the wall, and the door co, is far inferior to metal in its power of Codu on the other fide in an antichamber or lobby, dueling heat. If built of bricks, they must be In Westphalia, and other p'aces of Germany, vastly moie bulky when the fire-place a::d flues the apartments are disposed rrund a spacious lob- are of the Jame dimensions. The most perfect by, into which all their fire-places open, and are way of constructing them would certainly be to there supplied with fuel. By this conduction it is make them of pottery, in parts exactly fitted to plain that the air of the room, already warmed by each other, and joined by a proper cement. This the stove, is not carried off, and the room is more mode of constructing would admit of every eleheated. But this method is very unfavourable to gance of form or richness of ornament, and would eliecrfulncfsand health. Thefarrr air confined, and not be so bulky as those which are built of bricks, lepeatedly breathed and compounded with all the The great difficulty is to prevent their cracking volatile emanations of the room, quicily loses that by the heat. Different parts of the stove being of refreshing quality that is .so desirable, and even so very different heats, they expand unequally, and necessary for health. It is never renewed except there is no cement which can withstand this, espeby very partial admixtures when the loom doors cially when we recollect that the lame heat which are thrown open, and becomes difigreeable to expands the baked earth causes the clay or cement, any person coming in from the open air; and in with which the parts of the stove are put together the houses of the less opulent becomes offensive or covered, to contract. Accordingly those earthen and nauseous. Something of this is unavoidable in ware stoves seldom stand a winter or two without all rooms heated by stoves'. Even in our apart- cracking in some place or other, even when ments in this iflwd, persons of delicate nerves are strengthened by iron hoops and cramps judicioufhurt by the close air of a room ; and it is long be- ly disposed within them. Even hooping them exsore the smell eff dinner is quite removed from a ternaily, which would be very unsightly, will not dining-room, notwithstanding the copious current prevent this; for nothing can resist the expansion up the chimney. This must be incomparably and contraction by heat and cold. When a crack more sensible in a room lieated by a stove; an J happens in a stove, it is not only unsightly, but this inconvenience is peculiarly felt w ith re- highly dangerous; because it may be so situated, spect lo this stove, where we employ a small sur- that it will discharge into the room the air vitiated face heated to a great degree. Such stoves are by the fire. For these and other reasons, we can soldom made of any thing else than cast iron. This scarcely hope to mal:e stoves of brick-work or pot(in those parts at least which are in immediate tery which (ball bear the necessary leat witnout contact with the fuel) is in a state of continual cracking ; and tl.eir use must therefore be confined calcination, and even throwing off scales. This to cafes where very moderate heat is sufficient, indeed is not seen, because it is the bottom or sole We need not describe their construction. It is eof the fire-place which is so heated : bat the effect vident that it should be more simple than that of on the air of the room is the fame. The calcina- iron stoves; and we imagine that in the very few tion of the iron is occasioned by the combination cafes in which they are likely to be employed in of oxygen with the iron. This is abstracted from this country, a single lire-place and an arch over the general mass of atmospheric air in'the room, it, divided, if we please, by a partition or two of of which it usually constitutes about two t-tbs. thin tile to lengthen the fine, will be quite enough. By this abstraction the remainder beontes lei's fit If the ttove is made in whole or in part of potters fir supporting animal life or flame, and may even ware, a base for the fne-place, with an urn, cobecome highly deleterious. In every degree the lumu, obelisk, or pyramid .above it, for increasing remainder becomes less refreshing, and grows dull the surface, will also be sufficient. The failuie and oppressive. This is always accompanied by commonly happens? at the joinings, where the dif3 pecit-ar smell, which, though not disgusting, is ferent pieces of a different heat, and perhaps of unpleasant. It resembles the smell of burnt sea- i different baking, are apt to expand unequally, theis, or more exactly the smell we feel if we rub and by working on each other one of them must v:olentJy for fere time the palms of our hands to- give "way. Therefore, instead of making the gether when perfectly dry. For similar reasons joints close and using any cement, the upper piece ti.ese iron stoves occasion a sickly smtll, by burn- should Hand in a groove formed in the undermolt, iug every paiti :le of dust which falls on the hot having a little powdeied chalk or clay sprinkled j arts; and if they be wiped with a woollen cloth, over it, which will effectually prevent the passage or any cloth not perfectly free from every kind of of any air; and room being thus given for the ungreafy or oily matter, a smell is produced for a equal expansion, the joir.t remains entire. This i-y i days afterwards; so that without the most may be considered 3: a geneial direction for all
furnice-work, where it is in vain to attempt to Linlc- vie mutaai waking of the pans.
;Stqfb, The Rcjsian. There are stoves in small apBRlerits at St Petersburg, made internally of potreroware, in a great variety of forms, and then covered wK thick coat us stucco, riniihed externally with the utmost elegance of ornament, and they are very rarely subject to crack. They do not give much heat, on account of the ■very low conducting power of the porous stucco; bin they would be abundantly warm for a moderate room in this country. When fitted up in these situations and with these precautions, the brick or pottery stoves are incomparably more pleasant than the iron or.es. But in the intense colds of Russia and Sweden, or even for very large rooms in this kingdom, stoves of these small dimensions are not sufficiently powerful, and we must follow the practice of those countries where they are made of great size, and very moderately heated. It i* needless to describe their external form, which may be varied at pleasure. Their internal siructuie is the fame in all, and is distinctly described in Pneumatics, Se3. XI. We shall only enlarge a little on .the peculiarities connected with the general principle of their construction. The stove is intended as a fort of magazine, in which a great quantity of heat may be quickly accumulated, to be afterwards slowly communicated to the air of the room. The stove is therefore built extremely massive; and it is found that they aie more powerful when coated with clay as wet J> can be made to hang together. We imagine the reason of this to be, that very wet clay, and more particularly stucco, muft be exceedingly porous when dry, ar.d therefore a very flow conductor of heat. Instead of sticking on the glazed tile? with no more clay or stucco than is sufficient to attach them, each tile has at its back a fort of Box baked in one piece about 2 or 3 ir.ches deep. It is represented in Jig. 2, Plate CCCXX. This is filled with mortar, and then stuck on the brick-work of the stone, which his a great number of iron pins or h.joks driven into the joints, which may sink into this clay and keep it firmly attached when dry. Tilis coating, with the massive brick-work, form ■ a great mass of matler to be heated by the fuel. The lowest chamber, which is the fire-place, is somewhat wider, and conside rably thicker thai the stories above, which are merely fiues. When the sire place is finished and about to be arched over, a flat iron bar of small thickness is laid aloig the top of the side-wall on both sides, a set of finishing bricks being moulded on purpose with a notch to receive the iron bar. Cross bars are Jaicl over these, one at each end, and one or two betwren, having a bit turned down at the ends, which takes hold on the longitudinal bars, and keep? them from being thrust outwards either by the prelfure of the arch or by the swelling in consequence of the heat. Inyfc. 3. PI. 310, A i? the cress faction of one of the long bars, and BC is part of one of the cross bars, and CD is the clench which confines the bar A. This precaution is chiefly necessary, because the contraction of the stove upwards obliges the ■walls of the other stories to bear a little on the arch of the fire-place. The building above is
kept together in like manner by other eouries ot iron bars at every second return os the Rue. The top of the stove is finished by a pretty thick covering of brick work. The last passage for the air at H (fee Pneumatics, J.g. 62. PI. 281.) has a ring lining its upper extremity, and projecting an inch or two above it. The flat round it is covered with sand. When we would stop this passage, a cover shaped like a bason is whelmed over it. The rim of this, resting on the sand, effectually prevents all air from coming through and getting up the vent. Access is had to this darrper by a door which can be (hut tight enough to prevent the heated air of the room from wasting itself up the vent. When the room is too warm, it may be very rapidly cooled by opening this door. The warm air rushes up with great rapidity, and is replaced by cool air from without. The management of the stove is as fellow?. Aboi:t 8 o'clock A. M. the pietchnick, or servant who has the charge of the stoves, takes off the cover, shuts the damper-door, and opens the fireplace door. He then puts in a handful of wood shavings or stiaw, and kindles it. This warms the stove and vent, and begins a current of air through it. ' He then lays a few chips on the sole of the fire-place, immediately within the door; and behind this he arranges the billets of birchwood, with their ends inwards. Then he lays on more wood in the front, till he thinks there is enough. He fe's fire to the chips shuts the door and opens the small wicket at its ho'tom. The air blows the flame of the chips upon the billets behind them, and thus kindles them. They consume slowly, while the billets in front remain untouched by the sire. The servant, having made his first round of the rooms, returns to this stove, and opens the door above to admit air into the vent. This is to suoply its draught aud, thus to check 'the draught in the body of the stove, which is generally too strong at th'S time, and would consume the fuel too fist. By this time, the billets in the front are burning, first at the bottom, and the rest in succession as they sink down on tie embers a--J come opposite to the wicket. The room does not yet fee; any effect from the sire, the heat of which has not yet reached its external surface; but in about half an hour thi? grows warm. The Upper door is shut again that no heat may now be wasted. The pietchnick by and by spreads the embers and ashes over the whole hottom of the fire-place with a rake, by which the bottom is greatly floated, and heats the air contiguous to it externally (tor it stands on little p'llars) very powerfully. He tikes care to bring up to the top of the asliLi; every bit of wood or coal that i? not yet consumed, that all may be completely expended, lie does this as briskly as possible, that the room may not lose much warmed air by keeping open trie fire-place door. At his last visit, when he observes no more glowing embers, he ihuts the tire-place door and wicket, aftr! puts the damper or. the passage above, and stiuts its door.—All this is over in ab'-ut an hour and a half after kindling the fire. A'l current of air is now at an c:.d within the stove, and it is now a great mass of brick-work, heated to a great decree within, but only about
riood-warm external. The' "Jiejjt .^-.id-Lilly dratighrwif* sr, op^cAripor tor fiveitfiktes. With
spreads outward*, and the eirternaf-fthface of the '■'
stove acquires its greatest heat abiiut 3 o'clock 18,1 Stove To Warm A Wh^^afacto' Ot. after which it gradua'ly cools tiil ntXt morn- »v oft Church. IMoreog^HPH^i.- proDtr me. This heat seldom is ft great that one can- td|ii% some iiirhuctiortaflHvrc coRnrHction'i-f rot bear to touch the stove with his check, and to stovj(orwar:ningsoTcra|^Bsrs m a great manufackeep it there. In consequence of thr it can burn t'iry,tiichjgpa cottoti mils^or a rmbi'C library ormiipor.e of the dust which unavo' lably falls on the itvin% JMncri situation', cleanliness, wholesomest.we. and we ar- never troubled wiih the sicken* "els, aflBRvcetncsj-of air, arc no ltU nectssary than ing smells that are unavoidable when we employ in thcdr.rwmg rooftm a great man. We therefore the small Cist iron stoves much heated. The recommend the brisk stove In preference to thtiron great expenct of heat in a room arises from the one; ar:d though it would not be the best or most gl i's windows. T!x pane ir. fa thin that the ex- economical practice to heat it but once aday, and tcrnal air keps it continually cold, and t' us the ^'e should rather prefer the Gtrman practice of windows a-c continually robbing the air of the constant (ceding, we still thirk it highly proper room .of irs heat. This expence of heat is rc- to limit the heat to a veiy moderate degree, aid duced to less than ?r by double c ifements. The in- employ a large ftnface. If the disposition of tt.t ner casement is about as much colder than the rooms allows us the co:ivenicrcy cf a thie-k party room as the outer casement is warmer than the air wall, we would place the Hove in the (riddle of of the fields; and we have the tv. tril'ar advantage this ivall, in an arch which pierces throuph the of having no ice formed on the pUlses. But to en- the wah. Immediately above this arch we woutd sure this last advantage, the seams of the inner carry up a very wide chimney through the whole ca'ement nvist be pasted with paler, and those height. This chimney must have a passage opecof the outer casement must be >est unpasted. If 'n? l,iro each floor on both fides, which m5y re we do the contrary, we shall certainly have ice very accurately shut up by a dcor. The ttov; on the outer easement; the reason of which is being set up under the arch, it must have a pipe easily seen. We have been thus particular in communicating with its flue, and vising up through our description of the management, because the this chimney. Couid an earthen pipe be properly reasons ot some particulars are hot very obvi- supported, and secured from splitting by hoop-, ous, and the practice would not readily occur to wc should prefer it for the reasons already given, us in this country; so that a pVrso'n who, on the ^llt as this is perhaps expecting too much, wc faith of our recommendation, should prefer one must admit the use of a cast iron pipe. Tb's is 1 of these stovfs to the Geiman stove, whose ma- the real chimney or Hue ot the stove, and must be nagement is simn e and obvious might be greatly of as great diameter as possible, that it may act, disappointed. But by following ihis. method, we by an extensive surface, all the way up. The slove nre confident that the Russian stove will be found stands under the arch in the wall; but the sirthat much superior both in warmth and agreeable air. « warmed by its surface would escape on ho'h The spreading out of the embers, and waiting till side", and would be expended in that ti-g!e floor, all is reduced to ashes before the doors are shut, To prevent this, the Itove must be inclosed in a is absolutely necessary, and a neglect of it would cast: this may be of brick-work, at the distance expose as to imminent danger of suffocation by os two or three inches from the stove all round, fixed air, or carbonic mid; and thi.' is the only in- It must be well stiut in above, and at the foilndaconvenience of the Ruflian stove, from which the tron must have a row of small holes to admit the other stove is free. The fixed air has no smell; air ail around it- This air will then be warmed and the first indication of it« presence is a flight over the whole space between the stove and the giddiness and lassitude, which disposes us to lit cafe, pafj up the chimney, and there receive addown and to P.eep. This would he fatal; and we dttional heat from the flue-pipe which is in the must immediately open the upper passage and the middle. Great care must be taken that the seesire place door, ft as to pioduce a stronp current place door have no communication with the space to carry the v-tiated air out of the room, up the between the Itove and its case, but be inclosed in chimney. Throwing up the saflics, or at least o- a mouth-piece which comes through the cafe, and nening all the doors, is proper on such an occi- t'pens into the feeding room. Thus all the air lion. (See FiXed Air, and Chemistry1, Index.) which goes up to the rooms will be pure and If we burn oit-coal, either raw or charred, this wholesome, provided everything be kept clean precaution is still more necessary; b.cause the and sweet about the air-holes below. Observe cinder is not f>> easily or so soon completely con- that those air-holes which are near the furnace fumed. This fuel will require a littie difference d'Hir must be inclosed in a wooden trunk which in the management from wood fuel, but which is takes in its air at some distance from this door; easily seen hy ;my person of reflection. The safe for since the current between the stove and caie way would be to rake out all half-burnt coal be- nay be almost as great as the current within the fore (hutting up the doors. Is we use raw pit- stove, (nay, when a putt'of wind beats down the coai, gieat care is n;ceflary to prevent the accu- Chimney, it may even exceed it,) thtre is a nik of rnuiation of so >t in the upper-part of the stove, some vitiated air and smoke being drawn into the It ih an inaccessible p.aee for the chimney sweep; case. If the stove cannot be placed in the arch and if we attempt to burn it out, we run a great of a party wall, it may be set adjoining to a side rilk of splitting that part of the stove which is the or outer wail, ami furnished with a cafe, a large most (lightly constructed. It ii-advisable therefore chimney, and a line-pipe, in the same mannerto burn it away every day, by giving a brisk But m thid case a great deal cf heat 15 wasted on
Hi it » qnintity <s chy Ulj(.r>n\*'(t full proportion ot sands ' Warse-eTn^fT ■with wati'r and finn ed throtrth a c oai se fl am. I, leaves a great portion of unalSmiTated Vegetable fibre, which wiil mix very intimately in the plaster, and make it a suhst nice veiy unfit for conducting heat. Th-re Is'no danger of catching tire •by tlm lining. A must tremendous fire has raped fur thrteJiotti'S, in contact with a partition of lath and piaster, (on the platter side however,) without c'-iscolouring.the thin lathi on the other file. A cottage cliitnri'y ■•nee took lire, and burnt tdi the soot was co finned. Thi« chimney was nothing but a pipe of a foot wide, ma>ie of lathe", and pi.iMc.tcd on the i side and outside ; and i! palled through a thatched roof. We therefore recomrtiend this in place of the brisk cafe for inclosing the stove. It would save brat; and as it might be made in piec-s on detachfd framec, which could b- joined by iio:i straps and hinges, any part of the irove Ci u'd bt iaul open for repairs at pleafitre. We have no hesitation in saving that a stove constructed in this manner would be greatly superior in power to any we have seen, and would he free from many of their disgusting defects. We therefore conclude thi* part of the subject hy describing one which was to have been erected in one of the churches of Edinburgh. Fig. 4. Plate 313, is a sketch of the plan of the church contained in the paraile.ogram AFED. P marks the place of the pulpit, and LMNO the front of the galleries. These are carried bick to the side-walls AB anl DC. But at the end opposite to the pulpit they do not reach so tar, but leave a space BFEC about ii feet wide. Below the back of the galleries, on each fide, there is a passage ABGIi, K1CD, separated from the seated part of the Church by partition? which reach from the floor to the galleries, so that the space HGLK is completely (hut in. The church is an an:tent Gothic building, of a iight and airy structure, having two rows-of large windows above the arcades, and a spacious window in the east end above the pu'f it. The congregation .complain of a coki air, which they feel pouting down upon their heads. This is more particularly felt by those sitting in the front? of the ga.levies. This arises chiefly from the extensive surface of the upper row of windows, and of the cold stoi;e walls above, which robs the air of its heat as it .glides up a'ong the sides of the church. It becomes heavier by collapsing, and 111 this llatc descend.- iu the middle of the chutch. The stove S is piaced against the middle of the west wall at the distance of a few inches, and is completely inclosed in a case of lath and plaster. The vtn.t, which i» to carry off the smoke and burnt air, is conveyed up or along-the wall, and through the roof or sidewall, but without any communication with the cafe. In like manner the sire-pLice door is open Vol. XXI. Part 11.
without communicating with the cafe; anffcare is raken that the holes which adnvt the air into the die Az Ib disposed that they (hall run no rilk of drawing in any air from the fire-puce door. From the top of tins cafe proceed two trunks Cj, R. each of which is two feet broid and six inches deep, ciated within and without with the most spungy piaster that can be eompolfd. The best for this purpose would be a companion of powdered charcoal and as rr.nch clay and quicklime as will give it a very flight cosiest Hi. A piece of this miy be heid in the hand, without inconvenience, within 411 irch of where it ir- of a glowing H h- it.—These trunks open lntn another trunk XVYYZ, which ranges along the partition immediately under the galleries, aivt m iy be formed externally into a corniche, a little massive indeed, but not unsightly in a building of thi< style. This trunk is coated in the fame manner. It has several opening': a, a. Sec. which have sliders that can be diawn Miilc by means of handles accessible from the outer pafsig--.—At the extremities X and Z of this trunk are two perpendicular tiunks which come up through the gallelies, and are continued to a considerate height.' At their junction with the horizontal trtinks are two doors luge enough to admit a iamri. Each prrpendicul ir trunk has also a valve by which It can be completely stopped. The stove is managed as follows: Fuiy in the morning the superintendant shuts all the slider.--, and sets a lamp (burning) in each of the trunk* X and Z, and fnuU the doors. He thru puts on and kindles the fire in the stove, and manages it cither in the^vfiian or German method. Perhaps the latter is preferable, as being liable to fewest accidents from mistake or neglect. The lamps set in the lower ends of the upright trunks presently warm them, and produce a current of air upwards. This must be supplied by the horizontal trunk, which must take it from the cafe round the st ive. Thus "a current is begun in the direction we wish. By and by the air in the case acquires heat from the stove, and the current'becomes extremely biistc. When the manager perceives this, he removes th- lamps, (huts the valves, and opens the holes a, a, &c. beginning with the most remnte, and proceeding (lowly towards the stove from each extremity of the horizontal branches. The heated air noyr issues by these hole.-, glides aiong the ceiling below the galleties, and escapes, by rising up aiong the fronts of the galleries, and will be sensil.ly felt by those fitting there, coming on their faces with .1 gentle warmth. It will then life (in great part) straight up, wsi'le some of it will glide backwards, to the comfort of thole who sit behind. The propriety ot (hutting the valves of the upright trunks is evident. If they were left open, no air would come out by the hoits <?, a, Itc.; but, on the contrary, the air would go in at these holes to'supply the current, and the stove be rendered useless. The air delivered by these holes will k'eep close to the ceiling, and will Hot, as we imagine, incommode those who sit be low the galleries. But if it should render these parts too warm, holes may be pierced through the ceiling, by which it will rife among the people above, and prove very comfort.
>' m m abler (Me. It will require the careful attention of fbrre intelligent ptrion to bring all this into a proper train at first, bv finding the proper apettures of the distctent holes, so as to render the heat equable through the whole space. Bur. this bung once ascertained the difficulty is over. The air-trunka must bv very capacious, but may be contracted towards the extremities as thtir lateral discharges dimmish; and the row ofhoie. which admit the air to the cafe round the stove must be fully able to supply them. Jn this construction the ascensional foice is but small. It i.- only the'height of a short column of warm a;r from the ground to the galleries. At fiist indeed it is great, having the unlimited height of the perocndicu.ai trunks at X and 7,; but during the use ol the stove it ig reduced to j or 10 sect. It it necessary, therefore, that the stove be highly heated, perhaps conjidcrably beyond the Ruffian practice, but yet inferior to the heat of the German iron stoves. But fiiil we strongly recommend the brick or pottery Itovcs, on account of the wholesome sweetness of the air which they furnish; and we arc ccitaio th:t a stove of moderate dime (ions, 8 feet long, for instance, by X feet high, will be fufhc'ent for warming a church holding uoo or i^co people. It the'stove coul 1 be piaced lower, which in many lituationt is very practicable, its tffects wouid be ptoportionally gieater, because ail depi nd- on the rapidity of the current. When we are limittd in height, we must extend the stove so much ihe more In length, and make the air trunks rrore capacious. Theft and mar'y ether circumstances of local modification must be attended to by the erector of the "stove; a"d without the judicious attention of an intelligent artist, we may expect nothing but disappointment. It is hardly possible to give instruction-, suited to every situation; hut a careful attention to the geneial principle which determines the ascensional force wiil free the artist from any great rilk of failure. We may fay the fame thing pf stoves for conservatories, hot houses, hot walls, See. and c^n hardly add any thing pf consequence to what we have already laid or. these beads in the articie Pneumatics, SeK. XI.
(9.) Stove in Jvarm Or Dry Malt. Very specious project* have been frequently offered for drying malt hy stoves. Many of these are to he seen in the publication's, of the Academics of Stockholm, 1'pi'al, Copenhagen, a. d some have beep tr. cted in this kingdom: but they have not Ken found to answer. We apprehend that they cannot answer. To dry malt, and make it fit for the ale and been, for which this island is so famous, it is not enough that we give it a proper and equable supply of heat Thjs alone w ould bake it and
make il flinty, causing the moist lire to penetrate the nitaly parficlts of the grain; and, by completely diiic'.virg the soluble paits, would render tacb kernel an uniseim mas.-, which would dry into a stmty grain, breaking like a piece of glas-.— A grain of ir.ait is not an vji«rt pulp. It is a Seed, in an active hate, growing, and of an organized structure. We wish to stop it in lhi3 state, and kill it, not by htating it, but by abstiacting its moisture. We thus leave it in its gianulattd or organized ferm, spungy, anil fit for imbibing the water in the mash tub, without running into a
paste. To accomplish these purposes^the constru4tir>n of our malt kiln-; seems vcry.lfliku adap. ted. The kdn is the only flee of the furnace, and
a copious current of air is formed through among the grains, cairying off witbafcthe water which is evaporating by the heat. BfTT this evaporation, being chicfiyiti cons.qiiciKVfof the vapour b:ing immediatewdifloivcd by the passing air, wiil slop a^ soon as the current of atr ftopi--. Thi* current has to make its way through maist grain, laid in a pretty thick bed and matted together. Some force, therefore* is .-.eeessary to drive it through. This 1; furnifivd by the draught of the kiln. Substituting a stove, immediately applied to the malt, will not have this effect. The only way in which we think this can he done, d'sterent from the present, is to have a horizontal flue, as ha- been proposed in th.sc projects, spread out at a small distance below the grate on which the malt Is' laid, and to cover thf- who<e with a high dome, like a g.ass-house dome. Tliis being filled with a tall column of hot air, and having no passige into it but through the tna.t, would produce the current which we wa.it. We are convinced that this will make much less fuel serve; but we are by no means certain, thai the sulphureous and carbonic acid which accompanies the air in our oimmorT kiln is not a necessary or a useful ingredient in the process. It is well known that different coaks, cinders, or charcoals, impart different qualities to the malts, and are preferred each for its o-jan pur~ pose.
* To Stove, V- a. [from the noun.] Tn keep warm in a house artificially heated.—For D.C. Jm. and the iatter part ot N.iv. take such things as are green al! wintei ; orange trees, lemon trees, ar.d myrtles if they be stayed. Rccon.
(1.) • STOUND. n.f. [from the verb.] 1. Sorrow; grief; mishap. Out of use. The Scots retain it —
IJr-gin and end the bitter balefulstound. Spins. The fox his copefmat- found, To whom complaining his unhappyslarnd, He with him far'd some better chance to find.
t. Astonistimcnt; amazement.— Thus we stood as in astomd, And wet with tear«, l.ke dew, the ground. Gaj. 3. Hour; time; season. Spenser.
(i.) Stousp is retained in Scotland only to express a sudden and sharp pain, recurring at frequent interval^. All the other senses above enumerated are out of use among the Scots as wcil as among the English.
(1.) * To SrnysD. -v. n. [stundt, I grieved, Islandick,] 1. To be in pain or sorrow. Out of use. 1. Forstnnnd. Spenser.
(2.) To Stound, in the Scottish dialect, means to give a sensation of pain at sudden and trequent intervals. See the noun, § 1.
(1.) * STOUR. »./. [stow, Runick, a battle; st oran, Saxon, to disturb.] Assault; incursion; tunimt. Obsolete.—
And he that harrow'd hell with heavy flour. The faulty fouls from thence brought to his heavenly bow'r. Spenser. Lovb, that ha« since long to thy mighty powre Per force l'ubdu'd my poor captived heart.