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.By JdTar'.bro' pass'd, the props zvAsteps were thou plrascst rr.e'so wed, as I would be glad to

made have mote soeh. Bacan.

Sublimer yet to raise hi? queen's renown. Prior. The name of step-dame, your practised art,

—It was a faying among the ancients, uuth lies By which y<iu have eTirang'd my fa'her'slicait,

in a well ; and, to cany 0:1 ibis metaphor, wt may A'l you have eioKe against inc, or design,

justly lay, that logicfc iocs supply us with steps, Shows your aversion, but begets not mine. Dryd,

whereby we may go down to leach the water. A step-dame tod 1 have, a cursed she,

JValts. 3. Quantity of space palled or measured Who iu.es my hen-peck'd fire. Dryden.

by one'iemo»al of the foot.— i'he gradus, a Ro- —Any body would have guessed miss to have

man measure, may be transi ted a step, or the been bred up under the influence of a cruel step

Jialf of a pasfus or pace, Arbutbnot. 4. A small dame, a id John to be the fondling of a tender

'length; a fr.all pace.—There U but a step be- mother. Arbuth.

tween me and death. 1 Sa. xx. 3. $. Walk ; pas- (3.) Step, in a ship, a block of wood fixed on

i.ige ; (in the plural.)— the docks or bottom of a Ihip, and having a hole

O may thy pow'r, propitious still to me, in its upper side, fitted to receive the hctl of a

Conduct my steps to find the fatal tree. JQn. maft 0r capstern. The siep^ of the main and

(■. Gradation; degree—The same sin for tub- foremasts of every ship rest upon the kelson, to

ftai.ee hatu lundry steps a:.d degiees. Perkins, which.they are finn y secured by knees, bolts, or

7. Progression; act ut advancing.—To derive 1 spike-nail-. The step cf the mizeu-inast usually

or 3 g'cneril pi incipies of motion from phxnome- rests upon the lower deck.

p i, and af.erwards to tell us how the properties * To Stif.v.h. [-stupan, S.ixo.n,'; stappen,

juif actions of all corporeal things sol.ow from Dutch.] 1. To move by a si .ple change ot the

those manifest piincipic-6, would jt>e a very great place of the foot.—He was able, by the belfr. of

step in philosophy, though the causes us th^se wings, ill a running pace, t\> step constantly ten

principles were not yet discovered. Newton.— yards at a lime. H'ilkins. i. To advance by a

Orx injury is best defended by a v.l and this by a sudden progression.-^-Whosoever hrst after the

jd: fy these steps the old masters of the palace troubling the walcr stepped in, was made whoie.

in Fiance became masters of the kingdom; and y0, v. 4.—

by these steps a general, during pleasure, might Ventidius lately

have grown into a general for life, and a general Buried his father, by wh; fe death he steps'J

for life into a kin;:. Swift.—He may with moie Into ;i great estate. Sbai.

cafe ^raw the learner to thute pui.cipns_/7</ by 3. To move mentally.—When a person is he mng

fiep.,li'-atts. 8- Footstep; print ot the loot.— a sermon, he may give his thoughts, leave to step

From hence Astrca took her Bight, and here bac k so far a< torecolli ct the.several heads. Watts.

Tlie prints of her departing steps appear. —They are stepping 3000 ycais hack into the re

DryderHs ff'g'l. mot est antiquity, the o dy true murour of that

9. Gait; manner of walking.— ancient world. Pope. 4. To go to walk.—

Sudden from the goidtu throne I am in blood

With a submissive step I hasted down. Prior. Slept in so sjr tint, should I wade no more,

10. Action j instance of conduct.—The reputa- Returning were as tedious as. g-j o'er. Sbai. tion of a man depends upon the firststps he makes 5. To come as it were by chance.—

in the woild. Pose. The old poets step in to the assistance of the

(t.) * Step, in composition, signifies one who medalist. Addijon.

is, related only by marriage, [Steop, Saxon, from 4. To take a short walk.—

stepan, to deprive or make an or*i.an: for the See where he comes: so please you, step a

Saxons not only fdd, a step-member, but a step- side;

daughter, or step-son; to which it indeed, accord- I'll know his grievance. . Sbai.

ing to this etymology, more properly belongs: but My brothers, when they saw me wearied out,

as it is now feidom applied but to the mother, it Stepsd, as they said, to the next thicket side

seems to mean, in the mind of those who use- it, a To bring me berries. Milton.

woman wh > has stepped into the vacant place of —When your master wants a servant who hap

the tiue mother.]—H iw should their minds but pens to be abroad, answer, that he had but that

misdoubt, lest this disc-pane, which always you minute steft out. Swift. 7. To walk gravely,

match with divine doctrine as her natural and slowly, or resolutely.—I'yrrhus, the most ancient

tiue sister, be found unto all kinds ot knowledge of all the bashaw8,stepl forth, and earnestly re

astep mother. Hooker.— quested him to spare his life. Kncl/es.

Hk wditumstep dame lovtd him the more; When youstepp'd forth, how did the monster

Bnt when file saw her offered sweets refused, rage,

Her love flie turn'd to hate. Spenser. In scorn of your soft looks. Co<wlej.

You fliall not find me, daughter, His flock before him stepping to the fold.

After the slander of most step-mothers, Thomson.

111-ey'd unto you. Shak. Stepchild,»./ the chiid of a husband or wife

A father cruel, and a step dame false. Sbai. by a former marriage.

—Cato the elder, being aged, buried his wife, and Step-dame, n.s. [step and dame.] A step-mo

married a young woman: his son came to him, mother. See Step, J 2; and Step-mothEp..

and said, Sir, what have I offended, that you have Step-daughter, n.s. {step and daughters

brought a stepmother into your house? The old The daughter of one's husband or wise, by a

man answered, Nay, quite the contrary, son; former wife or husbind; often very absurdly

"'' stiled

ftV.ti Jaughtrr-in la u; H term w hich should be restricted to the sea's tvi/r. Se Affinity, § 3.

Step-father, n. f. \Jiep and father.) The hufban i of a widow, who has children by a 'crrrier liusban-1. This degree is also confounded in common language, as weil as in wiiting, an! absurdly called'fathcr-in-lr.<ii, a term, which should be solely restncttd to the father of a son's wife, or of a daughter's husband. Ste Affinity, J 3: and Father In-lau-, t, and a.

STEPHAKAS, one of the first Christian conVerts at Corinth, rapt-zed hy Paul. He came to Paul at Ephefus aiong with Fortunaius and Achnicus.

STEPHANIDES, Guiielmns, or iniliam FitxSti-pbtn, an ancent Enrl-sh historian of the n;h century, who flourished from th- reipr of K.. Stephen ta that of Richard I. See Fitz-stePhen. He it highly praised by Leland, as well as Bayle; who compares him to Plato.

STEPHANJUM, in botany, a genus of the inonogjma order boongii g to thepailandria class of plant?; and in the natural method racking under the 47th order, Steilatæ. The ca'yx is me nophyltous, turbinated, and quttquepartite; the corolla is monopetalou1-, funnel-shaped, having its tubes curved and ventricose: the pericarp-inn is a bilocular berry containing two feeds, flattened on one fide and round on the other. This genus is nearly ailitd to that of Fsychotria. There is only one species, viz.

Stethavium Gvianense, a native of the warmer t>arts of America.

STEPHANKOU'lCE, a town of Poland, in the pt'atinate of Bek?: 34 milts N. of Belcz.

S TEPHANOPHORUS, in antiquity, the chief priest of Palus, who presided over the rest. It was usual for every god to have a chits priest; that of Palias was the Stephanophorus just mentioned, and that of Hercules was called Daduchus.—Strphanophorus was also a priest that assisted the women in the celebration of the festival Thesmophoria.

STEPHANOWZE, a town of European Turkey, in Moldavia; at the conflux of the Pruth and the Baszeu: 40 miles N. of Jasli, and 116 NW. of Bender.

(1.) STFPHANUS, an able gramarian, a native of Byzantium, who lived in the j th or 6th century. He wrote a Dictionary, in which he made a great number of observations, which showed the origin of cities and colonies, of which we hare nothing remaining but a mean abridgment by Hermoiaus the giamirian; but from that work, the learned have rtce-ved gnat liejht; and Siponins, Casaubon, Scaliger, Salmaiius, Sic. have employed themselves in i-luslrating it.

(i—10.) Stefhavus, the Latin name, assumed by the learned printers of the name ot Stephens. See Stephfns, N" I—9.

(1.) STEPHEN, the fust of the 7 deacons, and first martyr for Christianity; whence he is called the Prot'jr.artyr, fromjV^Ttf, first. His election, miracies, ?ppr. henfion, examination, glorious defence, and martyrdom, A. D. 33- are recorded in Acts vi. and vii. There is litre else certain recorded Of hi:i. He is said to have been a leading

man amone the Hellenistic Jews, educated by* G umliti, and one of our Lord's 70 disciples.

(».) Stephen I. hi 'hop of Rome, succeeded Lucius, A. D. 153. He had a dispute with Sf Cyprian and Finnilian, about the rebapf izatiotl of heretic?, which he condemned. He suffered martyrdom A. D. 257, during the persecution under Vaierian.

Stephen II. was born in Rome, aid was elected Pope in 751. Astolphus, K. of the Lorn-' bards, having threatened Rome, Stephen went to" France, and asked the assistance of K. P-pin, Who marched into Italy, and prevailed on Astolphus to desist from his invasion. But on Pepiu's departure, Astolphus returned with his troop;; on which Pepin attacked and defeated him ; took several of his cities, and gave them to Stephen, which laid the foundation of that temporal power of the popes, which afterwards became lo enormous. Stephen died in 757.

(4.) Stephen III. a native of Sicily, was chosen Pope in 768. He was opposed by the anti-pope Constantine, who war. condemned in a general council in 769. Stephen died in 771.

(5.) Stephen IV. a Ro-.-.an, was elected in 816, and crowned Lewis I. in France: but died in 817.

(6 ) Stephen V. fuc-cetded Adrian III. in %Zs; and is celebrated for his virtues, learning and humility. He died in 891.

(7.) Stephen VI. was chosen by a party, lit 896, after the anti-pope Baniface VI. He caused the body of his predecessor Formosus to be taken up, and thrown into the Tiber. But this act of vindictive malice rendered him so unpopular, that, the citizens revolted, tock him prsoner, put him in jail, and soon after strangled him.

(8.) Stephen VII. succeeded Leo VI. A. D. 929, and died in 931.

^9.) Stephen VIII. a German, and a relation of the cmo. Otho L was elected Pope in 9^9, after L-o VII. His conduct wao tyrannical and very disagreeable to the Ro.nans. Ho died in 941.

do.) Stephen IX. brother of Godfrey, D. of Lower Lorrain, wa.i elected pope 111 1057. He assembled councils for a reformation of the morals of the cleigy; which indeed they stood much in need of. He died in 1058.

dr.) Stephen, king of England. See EngLand, § 22.

(12.) Stephen Battori, an excellent king of Poland, if he had not been too zealous a catholicSee PoLAifo, § 17, r8.

(l3.)SrsPHEN, Sr, K-ng of Hunpary, succeeded his father Geda, in 947. He wis the anostie ;of his country; propagated Christianity among the wild Hungarians, and enacted wile laws: for which Benedict IX canonized him.' He died at Buda, in 1038.

STEPHEN'S, a fimily of printers who flourished at the revival of learning, and co-tributed a great deai towards d'l'pel'ing the cloud of igionorance, wh;ch had so long oversh.ado.ved Europ.-. Some of the dallies before the 16th centuty were in a great me.iluie ieur, and ah of them were exceedingly corrupted. By the-r ab-lit'ts and i .defuig ible industry these defects were fupp/ie ', and the learn-.d were turuiihcl with bc.tut'fnf and'

ccnx'ct correct editions of the Greek and Roman authors.

(1.) Stephens, Henry, the first of these illustrious men, was born in France, soon afttr the discovery of printing, about 1465- He settled as a printer at Paris, under Lewis XII. A great proportion of the books which he published were Latin: They are printed in the Roman letter, and are not inelegant, though some of them abound rather too much in contractions. He died about 15*0, and left behind him three sons, (N° i, 3, 4.) His widow married Simon de Colines (C0/1neus, Lat.), who thus got possession of Henry's printing-house, and continued the profession till his death.

(1.) Stephens, Francis, the eldest son, carried on business along with bis father-in-law, Colinæus, and died ?X Paris in 1550.

(3.) Stephens, Robert the id son, was born in Ijoj. In his youth he made great proficiency in the Roman, Greek, and Hebrew languages, and at the age of 19 had acquired so much knowledge, that his step father, Colines, entrusted him with the management of his press. An edition of the New Testament was published under his inspection, which gave great offence to the Paris divines, who accused him of heresy, and threaten, ed to prevent the sale of the book. Soon after he began business himself, and married Perrete the daughter of Jodocus Badius, a printer and an author. She was a woman of learning. In 1531 he published his Tbtsaurus: a work of great importance, at which he laboured for two years. The mark which he put upon all his books was a tree branched, with a man looking upon it, and these *ords noli ahum saperc, to which he sometimes added fed time. In 1539, Francis I. made him his printer, and ordered a new set of elegant types to be founded for him. His frequent editions of the New Testament gave great offence to the doctors of the Sorbonne, who accused him of heresy for his annotations, and insisted upon the suppression of some of his books. Although Henry the French king in some measure protected him, the persecution of these divines rendered him so unhappy, not to mention the expence and loss of time which an almost couftant attendance at court unavoidably occasioncS that in 1551, ht abandoned his country and went to Geneva, where he embraced the Protestant religion. He was burnt in effigy at Paris, for having changed his religion, anil was faflely calumniated with having stolen the king's types. After his arrival at Geneva, he published an account of the dispute between him and the Pirn divines, which does as much h rnour to hij abilities as his Thesaurus does to his le .ruing, lie died in 1559, after a life of the most extraordinary industry. The books of whu. li he was the c*dit'>r were not fewer than .160. Many of them were ancient classics in different languages. Several were accompanied with annotations which lit collected, and ail of them were corrected by collating M. SS. He was so anxious to attain perfect accuracy, that he used to expose his proofs In public, a"d reward those who discovered! a mistake. His books coiiseq'icntiy were very correct. It is said that 1ns Now Testament, calirct O Aiiripcam (because the preface bvgins *itft theft vvoids),

has not a single fault. He fiist divided the Nevf Testament into verses. (See Scripture, Se3, VIII.) His estate was Itft exclusively to such of his children as should settle at Geneva. He left behind him three sons Henry, Robrrt, and Francis.

(4.) Stephens, Charles, the 3d son of Henry, was alto familiarly acquainted with the learned languages. This recommended him to Lazarus de Baif, who made him tutor to his son, and in 1540 carried him along with him to Germany. He studied medicine, and practised it with success in Fraoce. He did not, however, forsake the profession of his family, but exercised it in Paris, where he became the editor of many books remarkable for neatnes'and elegance. He wrote above 30 treatises on different subjects, particularly on Botany, Anatomy, and History. He died in

(5.) Stephens, Robert, the son of Robert, (N" 3.) did not accompany his fuher to Geneva, but continued to profess the Catholic reiigion, and to reside at Paris. His letter was remarkably beautiful. He was made king's printer, and died about T589.

(6.) Stephens, Francis, brother to the preceding, was also a printer. He embraced the Prjtcstant religion, and resided at Geneva.

(7O Stei'hens, Henry, the remaining son of Robert, was born at Paris in 1518. He b-came the most learned and most celebrated of all his fami y. From his very birth almost he gave proof* of uncommon abilities, and displayed ar ardent passion for know,edge. He settled at Paris, and published the odes of Anacreon. In 1554 ho went to Rome, aud thence to Naples. This j.rurney was undertaken in the service ot the siench, government. He was discovert J, and would have" been arrested as a spy, had he not by his skill in the language of the country been abie to pass for a native of Italy. On his return to France he assumed the title of printer to Ulric Fugger, a very rich and learned German nobleman, who allowed him a considerable pciisi >n. In 1560 he married a relation of Henry S'rimzeour, a Scottiih no^ ble.xan, with whom he was intimately acquainted. (Sec Scrimzeor, NJ 2-1 In 1571 he publiihed liis Tbesawui Linirwe Grace, one of the greatest works, pel haps, mat ever was executed by one man, if we consider the wretched materials which more ancient dictionaries could furnish. This work had been carried rn at a greater expence than he could well be-ir. He expected lobe reimbursed by the sale of the book, as .'le doubtless would have beer, but Jehu Scapula, one of, 'his own servants, txtractcl from it whatever he thmwht would !>e m.jft sevicabie lo student', and published it beforehand in 4to. By this act ct trs'.chery Henry was reduced to poverty. (.See ScAPUt-A.) About this time he « -3 much beloved by He"ry 11 J. of Frvtntv;, who treated him fa kind y, and made h'rn such flittering promises* that he resided frequently at Ccurt. But these: promises were never fulfilled*, ovr:n^ to the civil wars which soon after distracted Trance, .ind ther unfortunate de.i.fi ot king IVnry himstis. During the remainder of h-s life !i'is (it a as on was very unfilled. We find him sometimes at Paris, somu%ime. in Geneva, in Germany, and e»en in Hungary, lie d'ed at Lyons, in 1598, at the age of 70. He was fond of poetry from bis very int.irv cy. It was a custom of hi- to compos; verses on horseback, and even to write them, though he generally rot> a vi-ry cjiJttJesoTie ftetd. His TbsJaurifi was his great work, but he was .11 so the author of several other treatises. U s poeirts are numerous: Hi* Apology for HeroJotns is a witty satire on fie Roman Cnhohc«. His Qoneoriance to the New Tejlii'neni must hive been a lab nous work, and hai deservedly endeared him to every Christian who wishes to acquire1 a rat-onal and cnt cal knowledge of tlve Scripture". The number of hooks which he published though fewer than hio father, was great and superior in elegance to any thing which the world had thtn ■seen. He Lft behind him a son and two daughter's, one of Whom was married io the learned -i" Cisaubon.

(8.) Stephens, Paul, the son of Henry, continued h'S father's profeffloo at Geneva. He was a man of learning, and wrote translations ot several "book?, and publ.shtda consi.'erabl; number of the ancient dallies; but not with his father's elegance. He died in \bij, aged 6a, after selling J.i- typrs to one Clvuuet a printer. ,

(9.) Stephens, Anthony, son of Paul, the last printer of the samny, abandoned the Protestant religion, and returned to France, the country of his ancestors. He received letteri of naturalization in 1611, and was made printer to the king; tut managing his affairs ill, he was reduced to pbverty, and obliged to retire into an hospital jvhtre he died in 1674, miserable and blind, aged go.

(10.) Stephens, Robert, a learned English antiquary, ' born at Eastington, in Gloucestershire. He wa9 educated at Wofton, and thence sent to Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1681. lie then entered at the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar. In 1,701, he published A Colleflion us Bacon Lori* Verulam's Letters, with valuable Notes. He died in 17311 when a second Collec<ion of Bacon'j Lettei 1, made by him, was printed.

(11./.stephen's Chapel, St, t-he Parliament H<>n[c, where the H.iuse of Commons meet. See Westmin Ster.

(iio Stephen's Day, Sr, a festival of the Christian church, observed on the j6tli of December, in memory of the first martyr St Stf.phkn.

(13.) Stephen's Island, an island of New Zealand, in the KW. part of CooU's Straits. Lon. I8j. 6. W. Lat. 40. 36. S.

(14, 15.) Stephen's Islands, 2 islands in the I. Indian Ocean, discovered by Cartwright, in 1767; the one 3 mile-, long, the other 6; with about 1 miles water between them.

(:6.) Stephens's Medicine For The Stone. See Alkaline Salts, § 10.

Step-mother, B. /. [Jlcp and mother.1 The wife of a man, who has children by a former marriage; often erfonroufly stiled Mother-in.iaw, though no degrees in affinity can be more .distinct. (See Affinity, § 3; and Step, § ».) The situation of a step-mother is one of the most trying and critical in life. No woman should ca

Yql. XXI. I\iRT U.

ter into it, who cannot boast the prudence pf Abigail, anl the philosophy and fortitude of Socrates or Zcno. The frva nwerca has tven long and often justly com^ia;iu;d of, but the fault is sometimes on the part of the step-children.

{t.) STEPNEY, George, an English poet and statesman, descended fiom an ancient family at P. ndigr.-.it, in Pembrokeshire, but born at London, in 166;,. He was educated at Westminster, and then lent to Trinity College, Cambridge, in where he formed a strict 'fieiidship with Clurlci Moirtajeue, afterwards Eirl ot Halifax; through whose influence, alter the revolution, he was nominated to several foreign embassies; as-, in 1691, to the eiecior of Brandenburg; in 1693, '-1 the cmpeior; in 1694, to the elector of Saxo." ny; in i6j6, to the electors of Mentz and Cologn, and the congress at France; and in 1696, Q. Anne sent Jhim envoy to the States' General. In all hi« negeejations he was wry successful. Hi published feyera, poe ms, and fume political tracts; and died at Chelsea in 170?, aged only 44,

(t, 3.) Stei'ney, a partsli and village of Middlesex, E. of London, and almost contiguous to it. The parish was anciently so extensive, that 6 populous parishes have been ma !c out of it, and yet it still remains the largest ip the bilisof mortality.

, * Sn-fruicsTON*.«./ {step andJicne.] Stone laid to catch the foot, and lave it from wet or dirt.-r

Like ficppinxflinei to five a stride, In streets where kennels are too wide. S<wiji. Step-son, n.s. \.fiep and son.] the son of a husband or wife by a former marriage. See Affini•tv, § 3; and Stet, § 2.

STERANG, a town of Norway, in Aggcihuys; 16 milei NNW. of Christiania.

* STERCORACEOUS. adj. \Jiercoraceus, Latin.) Belonging to dstng; partaking of the nature of dung.—Green juicy vegetables, in a heap together, acquire a heat equal to that of a human body; then a puti.JJUrcoraceoui taste and odour. Arhutbnot.

STERCORANiSTÆ, ? or Stercchusts, STERCORAR1ANS, J from fienm, d*ng, a name which thole of the Romish church anciently gave to such as heid that the host was liable to digestion, and a'I its consequences, like other food. S-e Scotus, I.

* STERCORATION. n.J. Ifrom Jiersora., Latin.] The act 0/ dunging; the act of manuring with dung.—The Hist heip is Jlercoretion; the fiieeps dung is one of the best. Bacon.Strreora~ tion is seasonable. E-ve'yn.—The exteriour pulp of the fruit serves not 011.y for the security of the seed, whilst it hangs upon the p ar.t, but, after it is fallen upon the earth, for theJlercoration of the foil. Raj.

STKRCORISTS. See Scotus, I.

STERCUL1A, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the class of monxcia, and order of monadelpbia i and in the natural system under the 38th order, trieoceex. The male calyx is quinquepartite; there is no corolla, but there are 13 filaments. The female calyx is quinquepartite; there Is oc corotla; the gerratn is placed on a Ff{ "pillar,

pillar, and the capsule Is qujnqueloeutar, and ma-' without the tubs, the internal air is compressed

ny-sceded. There are three species; viz. by the weight of the atmosphere, which is known

""" "arp and expressed by the length of the mercury in the;

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i. Sterculia Balanqhas a. Sterculia Foetioa; and j. Sterculia Platanifoli STERE, a denomination, or rather a radical part o a di nomination, in the new system of French Measures, compounded like metre, litre, gramme. Sec. with mjria, kilo. &.C. and producing the new terms, Myriajlere, iilo/lere, keSoflrrt, decohere d'-cifterr, centiftere, &wXmi!HJter<: All these arc r>-w terms for measures of wooej for fuel. Ste Measure, i X. i—iii.

(i.) STEREOGRAPHIC, adj. [from Jtereog'ashy.] Of or belonging to Stereography.

(2.) Stereogra'hic Projection, istheprojection of the circies of the sphere on the plane of some one great circle, the eye hemp placed in the pole of that circle. Sec PROjEfTioN Of The Sphere.

• STEREOGRAPHY. 9. /. [««■« and; liereogrepbir, Pr.] The art ot drawing the forms of solids upon a plane. Harris.

STERF.QMETER, an instrument lately invented in France for measuring the volume of a body, however irregular, without plunging it ip any liquid. Is the capacity of a vessel, or the volume of air contained in that vessel, be measured, when the vessel contains air only, and also when the vesstl contains a body whole volume is required to be known, the yo,iiine of air ascertained by the first measurement, deducting the volume ascertained by the 2d, will be the volume of the body itself. Again, if it be admitted as a law, that the volume of any mass of air be inversely as the pressure to which it is subjected, the ttmperaturc being supposed constant, it will be easy to deduce, stud: the mathematical relations'of quantity, the whole bulk, provided the difference between the two bulks under two known pressures be obtained by experiment. Let it be supposed, for example, that the first pressure is double the second, er, which follows as a consequence, lh.it the second volume of the air be double the first, and that the. difference be fifty cubic inche s, it is evident that the first volume of the air will likewise be fifty cubic inches. The stereometer is intended to ascertain this difference at two known presJures. The instrument is a kind of funnel AB X. slate CCCXXIX.) composed, of a capluie in'which the body is" placed, and a tube B as Uniform in the bore as can be procured. The upper e^ge of tjie capsule is ground with emery, that it may be hermetically closed with a glass cover M (lightly greased. A double scale is pasted on the tube, having two sets of graduations j tine to indicate the length, and the other the capacities, as determined by experiment. When this instrument is used, it must be plunged in a vessel of mercury with the tube very upright, until the mercury rises within and without to a point C of the scaie. ?ee jig. %. The capsule is then clo. fed with the cover, which being gieated will prevent all communication between the external air and that contained with'n the capluie and tube. In this situation Of the instrument, in which the

tube of the common barometer. The instrument is then to be elevated, taking care to keep the tube constantly in the vertical position. It js re-? presented in this situation,^, a. second position. The mercury descends in toe tube, but not to the level of the external surface, and * column DE of mercury remains suspended in thr- tube, the; height of which is known by the scale. The interior air is therefore less compressed than before, the increase of its volume being equal to the who'p capicity of the tube from C to D, which is indicated by the second scale. It is known, therefore that the pressures are in proportion to the barometrical column, and to the fame column diminished by the subtraction of DE. And the bulks of the air in these two states are inveisely in the fame proportion : and again the difference between these bu'ks is the absolute quantity left void in the tube by the fail of the mercury; from which data, by an easy analytical process, the following rule is deduced: Multiply the number which expresses thp less pressure by that which denotes the augmentation of capacity, and divide tne product by the numbei which denotes the difference of the pressures. The quot'^nt will be the bulk of the air when subject to the greater pressure. To render this m ire easy by an example, suppose the height of the mercury in the barometer to be ^t centimetreb, and the instrument bemg empty to be olunged in the mercury to the point C- It is then covered, and raised until the small column of mercury DE is suspended, for exampje, at the heighf of six centimetre3. T^e internal a:r, which was at first compressed by a force represented by 78 centimetres, (s now compressed only by a force represented hy 78—6, or 71 centimetres, suppose it to be observed, at t1 e same time, by means of the graduations of the second scale, that the capacity of the part CD of the tube which the mercury has quitted is two cubic centimetres. Then by the rule V* X 2 give 24 cubical centimetres, which is the volume of the air included in the instrument when the mer* cury rose as high as C in the tube. The body of which the volume is to be ascertained must then be placed in the capsuie, anc} the operation repeated. Suppose, in this case, the column of meicury suspended to he eight centimetres, when the capacity of the part CD of the tube is equal to two centimetres cube. Then the greatest, pressure being denoted by 78 centimetres, as before, the least will be 70 centimetres, the diffr. rence of the pressures being 8, and the difference of the volumes two cubical centimetres. Hence ■y* X 1 gives the bulk of the included air under the greatest pressure 17-$ cubic centimetre'. If therefore ij $ centimetres be taken from 24 cerrtirhetres, or the capacity of the instrument when empty, the difference 6\j cubic centimetres wifl express the volume of the body which was introduced. And if the absolute weight of the body be multip'ied by its bulk in centimetres, and divided by the absolute weight of one cubic cen:i

rnercury stands at the face height within »nd raetre of distil.ed water, tbe quotient will exprert

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