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G R A P H Y. 403

Simple lints rr.ay be drawn four different way*; perpendicular, horizontal, and w'uh an angle of about 45 degreti to the right and lift. An ascending oblique I-n' to tht light, which will be peifectly distinct from the re It when j >intd to any othcr chartctt r, may likewise be admitted. Thesj charactt-rs hi ing the simplest in naturt, are ailij'iied to those five consonants which molt frequently oceur, viz. /, r, 1, c hard or k, and c soft or

Every circle may he divided with a perpendicular and horizontal line, so as to form likewise four distinct characters. These being the iitxt to lines in the lui.plicity of thur torn-ation, we have appropriated them for b, d, n, and m.

The charactersexpreni.ig nine of the consonants are ail perfectly distinct from one another; ci^ht only remain which are needful, viz. f, g or J, b, p, q, v, 10, and x. To find characters for which we must have recourse to mixed cuivesand lines. The characters which we have adoptut are the simplest in nature after those already applied, admit of the easiest joihirg, and ttnd to preserve lineality and beauty in the writing.

Jt must be observ-d that we have no character for e when it has a hard found, as in castle \ or soft, as in eiij; for it always has the found of i or J, which in all cafe* wiil be sufficient to supply its place : or c being eal'er written, might be used in all cases for the hard found.

R likewise is represented by the fame character as /; only with this difference, r is written with au asctndiog stroke and / with a descending; which is always to be known from the manner of its union with (he.tojlowing character; but in a' few monosyllables where r is the only consonant in the word, and consequently stands alone, it is to he made as is iliowo in 1 he alphabet for distinction's fake. The character for b, when lineality rcquiies it, may be made from the bottom and inverted: flee Plate 3*t.J And often h may be omitted et.tiiely.

Z, as it is a letter seldom employed in ths English language, and only a coarser and harder expression of j, may be supplied by J whenever it occurs; as for Zedckiab write Siaekiub, &c. or z itself may be used.

Sect. IV. Of the Prejositions Akd TermiNations.

The prepositions and terminations in this scheme are so simple, that the greatest benefit may be reape ! from them, and very little trouble required to attain them; aj the incipient letter or the incipient consonant of all the prepositions and of several of the terminations is used to express the whole. But although in Plate CCCXXI. sufficient specimens are given of the manner of their application, that the learner of less ingenuity or more flow perception may have every assistance, we have subjoined the following directions.

Hole I. The preposition is always to be written without joining, yet so near as plainly to siiow what word it belongs to; and the b"st way is to observe the fame order as if the whole was to be connected.

Rule II. A preposition, though the fame let* terj that constitute it may be met with in the mid.

E e j die

die or end of a word, is never to be used, because

},t would expos? to obscurity.

Rule Ijl. Observe that the preposition is expressed by 'he vowel o in its proper position; and for o/jft'i anta, ante, by the vowel a, which the radices pan of the word Will easily dfstingu.sli from being only simple vowels.

The first rule fgr the prepositions i* (allowing such exceptions a* may be be seen ip the Plate) to be observed for tie termination ; arid also the second mutatis mutandis; except that whenever Jrs, /us, sys, cious, tiout, and iff occur, they ate to be expressed as directed in the fourth rule for the Consonants, whctv er in the beginning, middle, or frnd of woHs, Rut in a few words where three horizontal chaiactirs meet, it will be better13 express the Jis, Sec' by the semiellipfical character in Plate 3ji. opposite thus.

Rule IV. Tin icfiimiatWe character for tion, Jon, cjon, (iait, (ian, if to be expressei by a small circle joined to the neare/} letter, and turned to the right j and the plura.s tions, fio^s, emus, eiant, (Lint, tience, by a dot on the' same side.

Ruis V.'The terminative character soring, is to be expressed likewise by a snail circle, but drawn Jo the left hand ; and it" plllfal ings by a dot. Jo norifontal cluiacter', by the left hand is meant the top, and by trie right the spice below the letter (see ing joined, plate 3*1.) In all "tht'r characters the right and left positions cannot be rnistaken.

'Rule VI. The plural flgn J is to be arid-d to the ttithinitivf characters When necessary.

Rule VII. The separated terminalioin are never to be used but iii polysyllables or words of in ore syllables than'one.

These ruled duly observed will point out a method as- cbncife'aod elegant a* can be desireil, for expressing the tnpst frequent and longest prepositions :iri 1 terminations in the F.ngfiih language. It it should be thought necessary to inciease their number'by'the addition of other0, it will be an easy master for any one of the'least discernment to do so, by proceeding pn the principles before laid down.

Sect. V- Rules for Abbreviations.

Though a more concise method of writing, or more numerous abbrevations, may not he indispensablj reresfary, \f the'foregbmg direction!! btf : lactisetl tor a'-cutisidersblc time, >'tt contraction!, will be found extremely useful and convenient to those whp have attained a proper knowledge as (lie subject, and lead to a greater degree of expedition, at the same time that'they Diminish thi labour of Writing. It has been'oh'crvcd in the fntioduction, that abbreviations' ate 'only to be cmployed by proficients in this art; because expedition is not she first, though the ultimate','object in view: and that an easy legibility is of the utmost consequence to the learner; which, however, cannot be'pieservid, if -he'adopts too lofin these very'rules which iii time will afford him the greatest ease when applied with judgment.

The following fiioil and practical iulcs will be

found fully adequate to every pu'pslse for which they were intended, and are far superior in the facility of their application to any which we have seen.

Rule I. The usual abbreviations in long, hand are always to l-e followed ; as Mr for Master, M. D. for Doctor.of Physic, and Abp. for Arch: bishop, &c.

Rule II. Substantive?, adjectives, verb?, and participles, when the sense will direct to the meaning, are to be expressed by their initial consonant with the distinguishing marks exhibited in 1'lnte .121 ; vi/.'a substantive must have the dot exactly Over its Initial consonant j an adjective must have a dot under it; a verb is to be cxpr-ll'ed by a Comma over its initial consonant; and a participle by a comma under. The dot or comma btuig placed thus will never occasion them to be miltaken for vowels, because they should always be on one side or other; whereas the mark for parts of speech must constantly he placed exactly over or under. These bring the four principal parts of speech will be sufficient; and an adept will never be at a lose to know when he can with safety appiy this rule to them.

Rule 111. To render the writing more legible, the last letter of the word may be joined to the fi st, and the propef mark applied.

Rule IV. The constituent or radica' part of Woids, especially if they are long, will often serve for the whole, or'sometimes the first syllable; as, tye ought to mod'rate our ex. by our tie cum.; a man's man. common1)- shape his for.

Rule V. All loi'g wor^ls without exception may have their prepositions or terminations express'd by the incipient consonant of such preposition or teimingtion. 1 1

Rule VI. When there is a great dependence between the parts of 3 se'tchce, the initial letter will often suffice ; as (.. is the capital of Great B. i the eldest 5. of the king of G. B. is styled P. of H\ Kvery one, It is presumed, will allow this to be perfectly legible either in long or short hand.

Rule VII. The terminations nest and It's may be oirntted; as faithfulness is only to be written faithful; fomvadnefs, forn/ard; beedkfs, IxeJi Ttubbornhrfs, Jlul/b'i'rn, Stc.'

Rule Vlil. The second and third persons of verbs, ending in elb and ej), may be expressed by s; as, he iairii thou teaches ; instead of he loieth, tliou tcacbr/l: or even without 1 j as, he lave, Slc:

Rule IX. Words naturally supplied by the sense may often be entirely omitted, and yet net ambiguity ensue; as, In beginning CoJ created teoveii and earth, for In "beginning God created tit heaven and the earth. 'Rule X. When there is an immediate repetition of a sentence' or word, a iine Is to be drawn under she sentence or woid to be repeated ; as, Amen, Arrien,' is so be written .4men; but it an^ words inier*tne before a word or ienttnce is to be repeated, the line must be drawn as before, antj a A or mark of omission placed where the repetition should btgVi; as, Is il jijl the innocents jhculd bs

condemned - reviled \

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i G R A P H Y. 4©5

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Eabricius's Reply to Pvrrhus.

As to my poverty, ycu have irdeed, Sir, been Tightly informed. My whole elate consists in a house of but mean appearance, and a little spot of ground, from which by my own labour I draw ji.y support. But if by any means you have been persuaded to think, that this poverty makes me less considered in my country, or in any degree unhappy, you are extreinely deceived. I have no reason to complain of fortune, she supplies me with ai! that nature requires; and if I a:n without superfluities, I am aM'o free from the desire of tr.em. With these I confess I should be more r.ble to succour the necessitous, the only a IvanJape for which the wealthy are to be envied j but as small as my possessions are, I can still contribute something to the supp'oit of the state and the ^distance of my friends. With regard to honours, my country places me, poor as I am, upon a level with the richest: tor Rome knows no qualifications for great employments but virtue and ahility. She appoints me to officiate i" the most august ceremonies of relieion; she entrusts me wi'h the command of her armies; she confides to my care the most important negotiations. My poverty does not lessen the weight and influence bf my counsels in the senate; the Roman people honour me for tint very poverty which you consider a a disgrace; they know the many opportunities I have had in war to enrich myself without incurring censure; they are convinced of my ahinterested zeal for their prosperity; and if I

have any thing to complain of in the return they make, it is only the excess of their applause. What value then can I set upon your gold and silver! What king can add any thing to my fortune! Always atientive to discharge the duties incumbent

00 me, 1 have a mind sice from self reproach, and

1 have an honest fame. Dodfley s Pi eceptor.

Letter to a Friend against Waste «/time.

Converse often with yourself, and neither lavish your time, nor suffer others to rob you of it. Many of our hours are stolen from us, and others pass insensibly away; but of both these losses the most (harmful is that which happens through our own neglect. If we take the trouble to observe, we shall find that one corsiderable pait of our life is spent in doing evil, and the other in doing nothing, or in doing what we should not do. We *~ i,~ ,v. .... ,,c „.,

don't seem to know the va.ue of time, nor how precious a day is; nor do we consider that every moment brings us nearer our end. Reflect upon tins, I entreat you, and keep a strict account of time. Procrastination is the most dangerous thing in life. Nothing is properly onrg but the instant we breathe in, and all the rest is nothing ; it is the only good we possess; but then it is fleeting, and the siist comer robH us of it. Men are so weak* that they think they oblige by giving of trifles, an.I yet reckon that time as nothing for which the most grateful person in the world can never make amends. Let us therefore consider time as the most valuable of all things; and every moment soent, without some improvement in virtue or some advancement in goodness, as the greatest sublunary losi. St Paul's Speech before AgripPa and Festus. See Act;, xxvi. i—29.


(1.) STENTON, a parish of Scotland, in E. Lothian, about ,vi mile.' long, and 3 broad; besides a narrow stripe of moorish ground which »xteuds into Berwickshire to the banks of the AVhittaddcr. The surface is beautiful; the soil tiraveiy, but very various, mostly inclosed ; and husbandry in high improvement; so that the soil, though stony, yield" excellent crops. The population, in 1791, was 614 j the de-Crease 7, since


(2.) Stektpn, a town in the above parish.

STENTOR, a Grecian herald, who went to the Trojan war; and whose voice, says Homer, was lo strong, that it exceeded that of 50 men together. {Hem. II. v. 784.) Hence the following derivatives.

STENTOREAN, adj. strong-voiced; long

°(i.)C • STENTOROPHONICK. adj. [from Stentor, the Homerical herald, whose voice was as loud as that of fifty men, fan*, a voice.] Loudly speaking or sounding.—Of this stentorofbanick horn of Alexander there is a figure preserved in the Vatican. D.-rbam.

(1.) STentorophonic Tube, a speaking trumpet. See Trumpet.

(1) STENWYCK, Henry, an eminent Dutch painter, born in 1550. He studied under John


De Vries, who was eminent in architecture and perspective, but Henry excelled him. His night views of the inlides of churches, illuminated by candles and flambeaux, were much admired. He? d ed in 160.',.

(i.) Stenwyck, Henry, the Young, son of the old Henry, was taught by his father, and became also eminent. He came over to England, where he was much patronized by Charles I. He died at London in 1640.

(1.) • STEP. »./. \J*p, Saxon ;stap, Dutch.] X. Progression by one removal of the foot.— Thou sound and firm-set earth, Hear not my steps, which way they walk. Sbak.

Ling'ring perdition, worse than any death Can be at once, sliall step by step attend You and your ways. Sbak. Who was the first to explore th' untrodden path,

When life was hazarded in every step f Addis. 1. One remove in climbing , hold tor the foot; a stair.—While Solyman lay at Buda, seven bloody heads of bishops, shin in battle, were set in order upon a wooden step. Knoiles.—The breath of every single step, or stair should be never less than one foot, nor more than 18 inches. Wotton. Those heights, where William's virtue might have lUid,—


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