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Through the wide Ethiopian to the cape
Ab.-ve the deep they raise their scaly creris,
In (tupping such as this, the Irish ktrn
At length Erasmus, that sreat injur'd name, Stemm'd the wild torrent ot"a baib'rous age, AnJ drove those holy Vandals off the stage.
STEMMATA, in entomology, are 3 smooth hemisoluric dots placed gcnerai'y on the top of the head, as in most of the hymenoptcra and ot her classes. The name was first introduced by
STEMODIA, in botany, a genus of pianti belonging to the class ot diiynnmia, and order of angiospermia; and in the natural system rangirg under the 40th order, Personate. The calyx is quinquepartite; the corolla bilahialed; thtreare tour stamina; each of the filaments are bifid, an 1 have two arthetx. The capsule is bilocu.ar. Thtie is only one species;
STEMPHYLA, a word used by the ancients to express the husks of trapes, or the remains of the pressings of wine. The fame word is also used by l ime to express the remaining mass of the Olives, after the oii is pressed out.
STEMPHYLITES, a name given by the ancients to a fort of wine pressed hard from the hulks.
STEMPLES, n. s. plur. in mining, Cross bars of wood in the shafts which are funk to mines. In many places the method is to sink a perpendicular hole, or shaft, the sides of which they strengthen from top to bottom with wood-woik, to pre*ent the earth from falling in: the transverse pieces of wood used to this purpose are called staples, and by means of these the miners in some places descend, without using any rope, catching hold of these with their hands and feet.
STEMSON, n.s. in a fliip, «n arching piece of timber fixed within the apron, to reinforce the scarf thereof, in the same manner as the scarf supports the scarf of the stern. In large ships it is usually forrrtd of two pieces.
STENAY, a town of France, in the drp. of t''e MeulV, and late duchy of Bir; fiated on the Meusc, 24 rr.i'es N. Sy \V. of Verdun. Lon. 5. 19. E. Lat. co. 28. N.
* STENCH, n.s. [from Hencan, Saxon.] 1. A stmk; a had smell.—
Death, d<ath, oh amiable and lovely death!
Thou odoriferous stench. Sbak.
So lves with smoke, and doves with noifotrii
Are siom their hives, and houses, driv'n. Shai. —Physicians, by the stench of feathers, cure the riling of the mother. Bacon.—The ministry wi/i be found the si.t of the earth, the thing that keeps societies of men from stench and corruption. South. The hoary Nar,' Corrupted with thesteneb of sulphur flows. Add. 2. I find it used once lor a goo' smell.—
Clouds of fiv'rystench involve the sky. Drjd. * To Stench, V. a. [.from the noun.] 1. To make lo stink. Not proper, or in use.—The foulness of the ponds oniy stenebeth the water. Mart. 2. \Vm staunch, corruptly.] To stop; to hinder to fl >w.—Tluy had bettir (kill to let blood than stench it. K. Charles.—Restringents to stench, and incrassativc3 to thicken the blood. Harvey.
STENDAL, a town of Brandenburg, on the Ucht; 30 miles N. of Magdeburg. Lon. 11. 44. E. Lat. fa. 41. N.
STENFORT, a town of Germany, in the circle ( f Westphalia, and county of Bentheim ; with an academy, seated on the Vecht, 16 miles NW. of Munster. It appears to be included in the indemuities allotted to the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1792. See Revolution, § VIII, 9.
(1.) STENNESS, a paristi of Scot.and, in Orkney, in the island of Pomona; united to that of Firth. See Firth, N° I.
(2 )Stfnness, a village in the above parish, remarkable for a Druidical bridge or cauieway, that connects it with the opposite land.
(3.) Stenn Fss. Loch, a iake in the above parish, celebrated tor an ancient bridge, or causeway across it, whioh connects two Druidical temples, at each end j the stones of which are of the most astonishing magnitude, some of them 20 feet high ; and very similar to those of the famous monument called Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain.
(i.l STENO, Nicolas, a celebrated Danish anatomist, born in 1638. He studied under Bartholin, wirh whom he was a favourite. He then travelled through France, Germany, Holland, and Italy ; and obtained a pension from Ferdinand II. grand duke of Tuscany. In 1669, he renounced the Protestant religion, became a popish priest, and was appointed by the Pope, his apostoiical vicar for the North. He published several tracts on anatomy, and medical subjects. He died in 1603.
(2.) Stf.no Sture, a celebrated Swedish patriot. See Sweden, j 6.
STENOGRAPHIC, or ) (from stenography.} SVENOGRAPHICAL, J Of or belonging to stenography, or writing in short hand. STENOGRAPHIST, n.s. A short hand writer.
S T E N O C
STENOGRAPHY is thus briefly defined, and drolly illustrated by Dr Johnson: * Stenography, n.s. inland Shorthand.—
O th: accurst stenography of state! The piu.eely ea^lc ilirunk into i bat. Cleave/.
R A P H Y.
Sect. I. Brief History and general Sketch of the Art.
The art of stenography, or sliort writing, was known and practised by most of the ar.cient civilized nations. The Egyptians, who weie distingutlhed for learning at an early period, at first expressed their wards by a delineation wf figures
called bura$ljt>bici. A more concise mode of known. Other systems, by being too prolix, by writing seems to have been afterwards introduced, containing a multiplicity of character::, and thot«t in which only a part of the symbol or picture was characters not simple or easily remembered, t>edrawn. This answered the purpose of short-hand come ineffectual to the purpose of cxped.it'ony in some degree. After them the Hebrews, the and are only superior in obscurity to .a common! Greeks, and the Romans, adopted different me- hand. Some, again, not only reject all arbiuariev1 tiiods of abbreviating their words and sentences, and contractions, but even prepositions and terJ suited to their respective languages. The initial*, minatipns; which last, if not too lavilhsy employ-' the finals, or radicaJs, often served for whole e<$ and badly devised, highly contribute to prowords; and various combinations of these some- mote both expedition and legibility; aV(f thoueli times formed a sentence. Arbitrary marks Were they reduce their characters to fewer than carl likewise employed to determine the meaning, arid possibly express the vaisous modifications found/ to assist legibility ) and it seems probable that e- yet they make nearly one hats of them complex, vety writer, and every author of antiquity, hail In the disposition of the vowe'S these -s the greatsome peculiar method of abbreviation, calculates est perplexity in. most system". A cfot Is some'to facilitate the expression of his own sentiment*, times substituted for all the vowels indiscriminateand intelligible only to himself. iy, and the judgment 13 left to d:terrrine whico:
It is also probable* that some m'ght by these letter out of six any dot is intended to. express; means take down the heads of a discourse or ora- or a minute space is allotted fh. m ; so 'h it unlelrf tioo; but few, very few, it is presumed, coffld they be arranged with mathematical precision, have followed a speaker through all the meanders they cannot be distinguished from one another; of rhetoric, and noted with precision every sylla- but such a minute attention is inconsistent .with: tie, as it dropt from his nfiouth, in a mannef legi- the nature of short hand, which should te.tch usf pie even to themselves. To arrive at such con- to wr>te down in a short time, as well as rn frmll su inmate perfection in the art was reserved for bounds, what we wish to preserve t>f what we. more modem timesy and is still an acquisition by hear. Ivor is the plan of lifpng the pen and putno means general, tmg the next consonant in: the vowei's place, i i
In every language of Eurooe, till about the the middie of words, less liable to o^jtctioii'; or
close of the xfith centilry, the Roman plan of ab- that of representing all the vowelj by di'tntct c'-n
breviating (viz. substituting the initials or radicals, fact.rs, being obviously ill Calculated, for facility
with the help us arbitralies, for words) appears to and dispatch, and consequently jnadmilliHe into'
have bten employed.- Till then no regular alpha- any. useful system. „
bet had been invented expressiy for stenography, The person who first pvonosed the omission of*
■when an English' getrtiernan of the name of WtUii vowels iff the middle of words, which it is obvi
invented and pubtilhed one.' H's pian was loon oils- are riot wanted, and invented letters, which'
altered and improved, or at least pretended to be could bt cuijnected as in a lunnitig- hand, without
so. One alteration succeeded another j aud at lrff ng the pen in the middle of the wordy made a
intervals, fora series of years past, some men of real improvement.on the Works' of his pred'eccs
inget>uity and application have composed and sors. But most systems, eiiher in their plan or
published systems of stenography, arid doubtless execirtion^ labour under some capital defect, a*
bave themselves reaped all the advantages that at-' tended with circumstances highly, discouraging to*
tend it. But amoqg the Various methods that the rearh'er,' and which us a great measure dese\i<
have been proposed,- and the different plans that the end of theif invention, by being too corripli
h'ave been adopted by individuals, none has yet cated'to be learned with eale aud remembered
appeared fortunate enough to gain general ap- with accuracy, or to be practised with the exoe
probatiorr; or proved sufficiently simple, clear, dition which is requisite; arid so diffifnlt to be
and concise, to be universally studied aud pi ac deciphered, that a man can scarcely read what he
tised. ha'sjust written.
The Enghsli Writers on stenography,-are IVtr To obviate these defects; to provide againlt"
Addy, Aldridge, Angeil, A.met, BUndemon,' prolixity and conciseness , whieh nvg'-.t occasion Bloffet, Betsey, Bridges, Byro'm. Coles, Cross, obscurity; to exhibit a system fonirded on thd Dx, Everardt, Ewen, F?cey, Farthing,, Gibiv, simplest principles, which might be easily learned Oia:me,-Gurney. Heath, Hoi Jl'worth, rfockrns, apd ready ar.cf yet he capable of the utmost expeJeakr, Labourer, Lane, Lyle, Macauley, Mason,- dition—'were the motives that gave rise to' tho Mavor, Mct'calfe, Nicholas, Palmer, Rich, Rid- present attempt.
pith, Shelton, Stcele, Tanner, Taylor, ThickneslV, This method will be found different, from ar.y T'fsen, Webster, Westony Williamson, Willis', yet puWithed, and superior to ail in the Jitposw B. Er. and Willis, &c. Ot aii these, Dr Mavi.k. tion at the vowels and: the facility of arranging1 has given the molt complete work in his Vui-ver- them; the confusion in-pUtira* which seems to; /al Stmogrupbj, which rs now used as a class book detract from the merit 01 the best peifoinvancetf in many schools. on the subject; and it may i<e affirmed, without
Some system* are repsete with nrirneanine sym- ostentation, that characters (impicr in therr sorm/ tols, p;rp,exing aVburarreJ, acid' ill judged con- Sad more perfect in their union,' have not bees tractions; which render t!:e.-n lo d tfieult to be applied to the art of stenography, attained by a common capacity, or ordinary ap- As well as it c6uld be determined, the simplest' plication, that it is not to be wnhdr-rcd at if they characters are appropriated to the letters most 11. bave funk into neglect, and aie Mw Ho lo niter lualiy cmpluyed: indeed, as far as possible, those? Vol. XXJ. Part IJ, Eee whivlx
which are cnmo'ex have bren rejected; but as it was an object always, kept in view that the writing should be on a line, ,1 few are admitted i::to the alphabet for that reason.
The characters for the double and triple consonants are the easiest that could be invented, consistent with prrsp:cuity; for care has b-cn t.iken to provide apuiiirt all obscurity which might arise by adopting l.-tters too similar in their formation; and wiih respect to the prepositions and termination0, thole which occ.'.r molt frequently are expressed by the simplest characters which will be tound perfectly easy in their application.
The arbitrages are few in number, and the arbitrary abbrevutions, as they arc entirely from the letters of the alphabet, and chosen from some thousands of words in common use, will weli repay the learner for an hour's trouble in committing them to memory.
In the last section is laid down a scheme os abbreviation, comprised in a few rules, perfectly easy to be understood and piactiscrl by proficients in this art, which we hope will be found free from the perplexity complained of in many systems where abbreviation is admitted. The principal rules are new, are so easy, so extrusive in their use, and so consistent with expedition and legibility, if applied with judgment, that they alone mi>?ht suffice. The reamer is however advised by no me-ins to adopt any of thtm, till experience has convinced him that they may be used without error or injury to legibility. A l abbreviating rules are suited to those only who have made some progress in the stenographic art; sot although they certainly promote expedition in a wonderful manner, and a£brd the greatest case to a proficient, yet a learner, a.s expedition i; not hi? first, though his ultimate view, slum d admit of nothing that in the least renders the reading difficult.
Sect. II. Of tbe Principles O/stenografHy.
The English alphabet consists of 26 letters) fix of which are vowels, as every school-boy knows.
This alphabet, as is observed by the best grammarians who have written on the language, is both defective and redundant in expressing the various modifications of sound. But all modern alphabets are equally, and some more anomalous in these respect4.
But as it is not our intention to propose a mode of spelling different from that in common use, when appl ed to printing or long-hand writing, we shall only observe, that in stenography, where the most expeditious and concise n-et hod Is the best, if consistent with perspicuity, the following simple rules are studiously to be practised.
Rule I. All quiescent consonants in words are to be dropped; and the orthography to be directed only hy the pronunciation; which being known to all, will render this art attainable by those who caiiiiot spell with precision in longhand.
Rule II. When the absence of consonantvnot entireiy dormant, can be eati.y known, they may crir-n he omitted without the least-obscurity.
Kc'Lr HI. Two or sometimes more consonants
may, to promote greater expedition, b- exclian'p-i ed for a single one of nearly si mi I ir tour.d ; and not amMgu'ty as to tbe meanim; ensue1.
Rule IV. When two c insonants of the fame kind or fame found come together, without ar./ vowel between them, only one is to be ^pressed; but if a vowel or vowels intervene, both ^re to be written: but if they are perpendicular, horizontal, or oblique lines,- they must oniy be'drawn at size longer than usual; and characters with Ioods) must have the size of their heads doubled. Seer Plote CiJCXXI.
M'ght is to'be written mit, fight ft, machine majhin, enough emif, laui;h las, prophet fris t, physis/f^fj, through tiro', foreign foren, sovereign fo-veren, pulm Jam, receipt reset, write rite, vvright rit, ifhnd Hand, knav-ry naivrf, temptation temtation, knife nisi, st" k jltk, thigh t/A, honour onoar, indictment indite nent, acquaint aqua! it I, chaos kaos, S:c.
Strength itrtittb, leiifth tenth, friendship, srenfrip, connect conek, commandment eomnnmrnt, conjunct conjunt, humble bumlr, lumber turner, slumber flumer, number nwner, exemplary rximlary. Sec.
Rocks ,-o.r, acts aki or ax, facts fakj or fax, districts difi'iks or dijlrix, affects ofeks orasex, as-" flicts afliki or ajlix, conquer konkr, &c;
Letter leter, little title, command comand, error" eror, terror terar. Sic. But in remember, men nt} Jijler,/and such like words, where two consonants' of the fame name have an intervening vowel, both of them must be written.
These four rules with their example', being carefully considered by the learner, will leave him in no doubt concerning the disposition ami management of the consonants in this scheme of short writing; we (hall therefore oroceed to l&f down rules for the application of the voweis with ease and expedition.
Rule I. Vowels, being only simple irticulate souixis, though they are the connective:; of consonants, and employed in every word and every syllahh, are not necessary to be inserted in the middle of words ; because the consonant', if fully pronounced, with the assistance of connection, will aiway* d scover the meaning of a- won}, and make the writing perfectly legible.
Rule II. If a vowel Is not strongly accented in the incipient syllable of a word, or if it is mute in the final, it is likewise to be omitted; because the soui d of the incipient vowel is often implied in that of the first consonant, which wul consequently supoly its place.
Rule III. But if the vowel constitutes the first or last syllable of a word, or is strongly accented at in T>cginning or end, that vowel is continually to be written.'
Rule IV. If a-word begins dr ends with two or mere vowels though separated, or when there i3 a coalition of voweu, .is in diptrrongs and trip, thongs; only one of them-is to be expressed,, which mult be that- which agrees best with the' proiiu'ciatiom
Rule Vi In monosyllabic4, if they bei'in or end*with A vowel, it is always to be referred, unksathejvowc+-s>e f mute at the end of a word.
Such'are the; general principles of this art; in