Page images

hig tbe riders of race-horses, and afterwards ap-'be connected by a wire or (lender rod, and a plied to the more reputable service of weighing weight on the other arm of the balance or steelloaded carriages. Fig. 5. is a plan of the machine, yard may be put in equilibrio with any load that KLMN is the plan of a rectangular box, which can be laid on the p.atform. A small counterhas a platform lid or cover, of size sufficient for poise being first hung on to balance the apparatus placing the wheels of a cart or waggon. The box when unloaded, any additional weight will meats about a foot deep, and is funk into the ground sure the load really laid on the platform. If a A be till the platform cover is even with the surface, to ac as 1 to 8, and EO to EFalso as 1 to 8, and if Jl In the middle of the box is an iron lever support- common balance be used above, 64 Ibs. on the plated on the fulcrum pin i k, formed like the nail of form will be balanced by 1 Ib. in the scale, and balance, which rests with its edge on arches of every pound will be balanced by £th of an ounce, hardened steel firmly fastened to the bottom of This would be a very convenient partition for the box. This lever goes through one side of the most purposes, as it would enable us to use a cornbox, and is furniihed at its extremity with a hard mon balance and common weights to complete steel pin Im, also formed to an edge below. In the machine: Or it may be made with a balance the very middle of the box it is crossed by a third of unequal arms, or with a steelyard. Some havo iiail of hardened steel g b, formed to an edge, thought to improve this instrument by using edges but on the upper side. These three edges are in like those of the nails of a balance, instead of one horizontal plane, as in a well made balance, points. But unless made with uncommon acculn the four corners A, A', E', E, of the box are racy, they will render the balance very dull. The firmly fixed four blocks of tempered steel, having sma'l deviation of the two edges A and E, or of their upper surfaces formed into spherical cavities, B and D, from perfect parallelism to KN, is equiwell polished and hard tempered. ABCDE re- valent to a broad surface equal to the whole deviprescnts the upper edge of an iron bar of consi- ation. Without extraordinary care, the machine derable strength, which rests on the cavities of the may be made to weigh within one soooth part of steel blocks in A and E, by means of two hard the truth, which is exact enough for any purpose steel studs projecting from its under edge, and in commerce. It is necessary that the points be formed into obtuse angled points or cones. These attached to the bars. Some have put the points points are in a straight line parallel to the side KN at A and E in the blocks of steel fastened to the of the box. The middle part C of this crooked bottom, because the cavity there lodged water or bar is faced with hard-tempered steel below, and dirt, which soon d;stroytd the instrument with is there formed into an edge parallel to AE ar.d rust. B'Jt this occasions a change of proportion KN, by which it rests on the upper edge of the in the first lever by any shifting of the crooked steel pin gb which is in the lever. In a line pa- bars; ani this will frequently happen when the rallel to AE, ai:d on the upper side of the crook- wheels of a loaded cart are pulhed on the plated bar ACE, are fixed two studs or points of form. The cavity in the steel stud sliould have a hardened steel B and D projecting upwards above little rim round it, and it Ihouid be kept full of half an inch. The platform cover has four fliort oil. In a nice machine a quarter of an inch of feet like a stool, terminated by hard steel studs, quicksilver would effectually prevent all these inwhich are stiaped into spherical cavities and well conveniences. The simplest and most ceoaoinipolilhed. With these it rests on the 4 steel points cal form of this machine is to have no balance or B, B', D', D. The bar ACE is kneed in such a second steelyard; but to make the first steelyard manner vertically, that the points A, B, D, E and EOF a lever of the first kind, viz. having the fultbe edge C are all in a horizontal plane. These crum between O and F, and allow it to project particulars will be better understood by looking far beyond the box. The long or outward arm at the elevation in fig. 6. What has been said of of this lever is then divided into a scale of weights, tbe bar ACE must be understood as also said of commencing at the side of the box. A counter- . the bar A'C'E'. Draw through the centre of the poise must be chosen, such as will, when ut the box the line abc perpendicular to the line AE, beginning of the leak, balance the smallest load BD. It is evident that the bar ACE is equivalent that will probably be examined. It will beconvenito a lever abc, having the fulcrum or axis AE ent to carry on this scale by means of eke-weights resting with its extremity C on the pin bg and hung on at the extremity of the lever, and to use loaded at b. It is also evident that a C is to a b but one movcable weight. By this method the as the load on this lever to the pressure which it divisions of the scale will have always one value, exerts on the pin g h, and that the fame propor- The best arrangement is as follows: Place the tion subsists between the whole load on the plat- mark O at the beginning of the scale, and let it form and the pressure which it exerts on the pin extend only to 100, if fur pounds; or to in, if gb. It will allo appear, on an atttntive consider- for cwts.; or to 10, if for stones; and let the ekeation, that this proportion is no-wise deranged in weights be numbeied 1, a, 3, &c. Let the lowest whatever maantr the load is placed on the plat- weight be marked on the beam. This is always form. If very untquably, the two ends of the to be added to the weight lhown by the operation, pin gb may be unequally pressed, and the lever Let the eke-weights stand at the end of the beam, wrenched and strained a little; but the total pres- and let the general counterpoise always hang at O. sure is not changed. If there be now placed a When the cart is put on the platform/tbe end of _ balance or steelyard at the side LK, in such a the beam tilts up. Hang on the heaviest eketnanner that one end of it may be directly above weight that is not sufficient to press it down, the pin lm in the end of the lever EOF, they may Now complete the balance by Hiding out the

D d d i counter

[ocr errors]

STEENKERQUE, or ) a village of the French 8TEENKIRK, ) empire, in tte dtp. of

Jemappcs, and ci-devnt prov. of Aultrijn Hainault, 15 miits N. of Mons, and 16 W. of Biusfels: famous for the defeat of K. William III. and the allied troops, by the French under the D. of Luxemburg; on the 14th July iftoi. The allies lost 7000 men, among whom were On. Micfcay, the E. of Angus, Sir R. Douglas, and Sir J. Launier: The French lost 1000, among wh inn were the Prince of Turenne, the marquis Bellc'ond;, Fcrmac,on, Tilladet, and other officers. It is seated on the Sonneqiie. near Enchien.

STEENSOORDE, a town of France, in the dep. of the North j 4 miles £. of Call'el, and 10 W. of Ypres.

STEENWICK, or ) a town of the Batavian reSTELNWYCK, i public, in the dep. of the Yssel, and ci-devant prov. of Ovcrysscl; Grated on the Aa, 30 miles SE. of Slooten, and 3* N. of Deventer. In 1581, it was taken by the duke of Parma, and the Protestant inhabitants (laughtered. In 1.591. it was retaken by Prince Maurice. Lon. j, jo.-E. Lat. 51. to. N.

(1.)' STEEP, adj. Jimp, Saxon ] Rising or descending with greal inclination; precipitous.— Thesteep places shall fall. E%ek.

He now had conquer'd Anxur'ssteip ascent.

Addison. (2.) Steep, n.s. Precipice; ascent or dclccnt

approaching to perpendicularity.—■

s that Theban monster that propos'd

Her riddle, and him, who solv'd it not, devour'd;

That once found out-and solv'd, for grits and spig-ht

Cast net self headlong from tht Iltnenian steep.

Milton. High turrets for their airy steep

'Require foundations, in proportion deep. Dryd. The next headlong steep of anarchy. Dfyd. ■r-We had on each fide naked rocks and mountains, broken into a thousand irregular steeps and precipices. Addion.

Where common shores a lullingmurmur keep, Whose torrents rulh fiom Holborn's fatal steep.

■ . . • . Gay.

* To Steep, I>. a. \ fiippen, Dutch.] To soak; t ■ mat-crate* to imbrue; to dip.—

When his hrother law the red blood trail A down so fast, and all his armour steep, For very telluess loud he 'gan to weep, fpeir'er

He, Gke an adder, lurking in the weeds,
His w.ind'nng thought in deep delire doessteep.


A napkin steeped in the harmless biood
Of sweet young Rutiand. S/mi.

The conquering wine hathsteep'd our fense
In soft and delicate I-ethe. Sbak.

Many dream not to find, neither deserve,
And yet are fltep'J in favour". Shak.
Pour days will quickly_^ny themselves in night.


—Most of the steeping' are cheap things. Bacon.— In large forgetful draughts lostcp the cares Of their past labours and their iiksome years.


—Wheat steeped in brine twtlve hours prevents the frmittmess. Mortimer.

STEEPHOLM, an island in the Bristol Channel, mid-way between England and Wales. Lon. 3. 7. W. Lat. 51. 19. N.

(1.) " STEEPLE, n. s. [steopel. stypel, Saxon.] A turret of a church generally furnished with beli*. A spire.—

You cataracts and hurricanes spout Till you have drench'd our steeples, drown'd the cocks. Sbai. — was tound in many place, and preached for wheat fallen on the ground from the clouds, was but the feed of ivy berries, and though found in steeple] or high places, might be conveyed thither or mute I by birds. Drown.—A raven 1 saw

steeple high. 1.'Estrange

They, farfrom steeples and their sicred sound, In fiekls their sullen conventicles toned. Dryd. {%.) Steeples are erected gencrany on the W. cud of churches. They arc denominated from their form, either spires or towers: the first are such as ascend continually diminishing either cojncilly or pyramidally; the latter are mere parallelopipcds, and are covered a-top platform like.

* STEEPLY, adv. [fromsteep.] With precipitous declivity.

* STEEPNESS, n.s. [fromsteep.] Precipitous declivity.—The craggedness or steefnesi of that mountain maketh many parts of it inaccessible. Bremvood.—Lord Lovel swam over Trent on horseback, but could not recover the farther side, by reason of the steepness of the bank, and so was drowned. Bacon.—Vineyards, meadows, and cornfields lie on the borders and run up all the sides ot the Alps, win re the barrenness of the rocks, or the Jteep:iefi of the ascent will suffer them. Addis.

'* STF.EPY. adj. [fromsteeps Having a precipitous declivity. 'A poetical word for steep.— Who hath dil'pos'd, but thou, the winding way,

Where springs down from the steepy craggs do
beat? If'ot ton.

A prophet some, and some a poet cry,
From steepy O'hry,' top to Pyius drove
His herd; and for his pains enjoy'd his love.


No more, my goats, (hall I behold yon climb The steipy ciifls. Dryden.

* STEER, n. s. [ styre, steor, stiore, Saxon; stier, Dutch.] A young bullock.—They think

themselves half exempted from law and obedience; and having tasted freedom, do, like * Jleer that hath been long out of his yoke, grudge arid repine ever after to come under rule again. Spenser.

Lacaon, Neptuie's pried.
With solemn pomp then sacritie'd a jlccr. Dryd.

Nor has the steer., At whose strong chest the dca.lly tiger hangs, E'er plnw'd for him. Thomson. (l.) * To Steer. <o. a. [steoran, Jtjran, Saxon j slieren, Dutch.] To direct; to guide in a passage: originally uUd of a ship, but applied to other thing"!.

A comely palmer, clad in black attire, That with a staff his feeble steps did steer. Spenr. — Ir a pilot cannot fee the pole star, it can be no fiult in him to steer his course by such stars as do best appear to him. King CharUs.

(a.) * To Steer, V- n. i. To direct a course at sea.—

As when a sli;p, by skilful steersman wrought, Nigh river's mouth, or foreland, where the wird Vecis oft, ac oft so steers, and shifts her fii!.


—In a creature, whose thoughts are more than the sands, fancy and passion must needs run him into strange courses, if reason, which is his only star and compass be not that he stceis by. Locke.

2. To conduct himself.

(i.) * STEERAGE. »./. [fromsteer.] i. The act or practice of steering.—Having got his vessel launched, he committed the steerage of it to such as he thought capable of conducting it. Spcllator. a. Direction; regulation of a course.—

He that hath the steerage of my course,

Direct my suit. Shah. Romeo and Juliet.

3. That by which any course is guided.—

Here he hung on high,
The steerage of his wings. D'yden.

4. Regulation, or management of any thing.

You raise the honour of the peerage,
Proud to attend you at \\se steerage. S-wift.

5. The stern or hinder part of the ship.

(2.) Steerage, on board a ship, is that part of the ship next below the quarter-deck, before the bulk head of the preat cabin where the steersman stands, in most ships of war. See Steerinc.

STEERING, part. n. /. in navigation, the art of directing the ship's way by the movements of the helm; or of applying' its efforts to regulate her course when she advances. The perfection of steering consists in 3 vigilant attention to the motion of the thip's head', so as to check every deviation line of her course in the first instant of its motion ; and in applying as little of the power of the helm as possible. By this lhe will run more uniformly in a straight path, as declining less to fie right and left; whereas, if a greater effort of the helm is employed, it will produce a greater declination from the course, and not only increase the difficulty of steering, but also make a crooked and irregular tract through the water. See Helm. The helmsman should diligently watch the movements of the head by the land, clouds, moon, or stars; because, although the course is in general regulated by the compass, yet the vibrations of the needle are not so quickly perceived as the sallies of the ship's head to the right or left, which, if net immediately restrained, will acquire a,ddi

tional velocity in every instant of their motion, an.1 dein md a more powerful impulse of the helm to reduce them; the application of which will operate to turn her head a« far on the contrary fide of her course. The phrases used in steering a (hip vaiy according to the relation of the wind to her course. Thus, if the wind is fair or large, the phrases used by the pilot or officer who superintends the. steerage are, port, starboard, andsteadj. The first is intended to direct the ship's course fait her to the right; the second is to guide her faithcr to the left ; and the list ia designed to keep her exactly in the line whereon (lie advances according to the course prescribed. The excess of the first and second movement is called hard a-pert, and kard-a-siarboard; the former of which gives her the preatest possible inclination to the right, and the latter an equal, tendency to the left. If, on the other hand, the wind is foul or scant, the phrases are, Ii'Js, thin, and no nearer: the first ot" which is the order to keep her close to the wind; the second, to retain her in her present situation; and the third, to keep her sails full. In a lhip of war, the exercise of steering the lhip Is usually divided among a number of the most exptrt sailors, who attend the helm in their turns; and are accordingly called Timoneers, from the French timonier, which signifies helmsman. The steerage is constantly supervised by the quarter-masters, who also attend the helm by rotaticn. In merchant ships every seaman takes his turn in this service, being directed therein by the mate of the watch, or some other officer.—As the safety of a lhip, and ali contained therein, depends in a great measure on the steerage or effects of the helm, the apparatus by which it is managed should often be diligently examined by the proper officers. Indeed, a negligence in this important duty appears almost unpardonable, when the fatal effects which may result from it are duly considered.

• STEERSMAN. > n. s. [steer and man, or

* STEERSMATE. \ mate.] A pilot; one. who steers a lhip.—

What pilot so expert but needs must wreck, Einbark'd with such asteersmate at the helm.


—In a storm, a skilful steersman will yet bear up against it. L'Lshange.

Through it the joyful steersman clears bis way.


STEEVENS, George, the most successful of all the editors and commentators of Shakespeare, wm born in 1735. His parents were in affluent cucumstances. George received the rudiments of his classical education at Kingston upon Thames, under the tuition of Dr Woodcsoii and his adiltantsj and had for a companion at that school Gibbon the historian. From Kingston he went to Eton, whence, after some yean, he was admitted a fellow-commoner of King's College, Cambridge. Alter he left the university, he accepted a commission in the Ellex militia on its first establishment: and he spent the latter years of his life at Hampstead in almost totai seclusion fiom the world; seldom mixing with society but in the shops of booksellers, in the Shakespeare Calleiy, or in the morning conversations of Sir Joseph Bank'. He died January 1800. Mr Steevcns was a classical <-£l scholar of the first order. He was equally acquainted with the belles lettres of Europe. He had studied history, ancient and modern, but particularly that of his own countiy. He possessed a strong original genius, and an abundant wit; his imagination was of every colour, and his flntir.ients were enlivened with the most brill-ant expressions. Mt Stcevcns possessed a very handsome fortune, and bis generosity was equal to his fortune.

STEFANESCHI, John Baptist, an historical painter, born at Florence, in 1581. II- was much t steemed and patronised by Ferdinand II. duke of Tuscany, tor whom he painted sevrval sacred subjects in miniature. He died in 16,59.

STEFANO, J. an eminent Italian painter, born in Florence, in 1301, and raijce called Florentino. He was the disciple of Giotto, and became superior to all his cotemporarin except his master. One of his best pictures is of Christ delivering the daemoniac. He died in 1650, aged 49.

STEFFI, a town of Franconia, in Anfpacb.


* STEGANOGRAPHIST. n. /. [*r*'« and ynfu.] He who practises the art of secret writing. Bailey,

(1.) • STEGANOGRAPHY. n.s. [w; and The art of secret writing by characters or cyphers, intelligible only to the persons who correspond one with another. Bailty.

(2.) Stecanography. See Cipher.

STEGEBURG, a town of Sweden, in E. Gothland, on the Baltic, with a harbour: 25 milts S. ot Nikooing, and 8i SW. of Stockholm. Lon. it. 40. E. Lat. 58. 16. N.

(1.) STEGEN, a town of Holftein.

12.) Stkgen, a town of Norway, in Drontheim.

* STEGNOT1CK. adj. [r»-/>4««.] Binding; tendering costive. Bailey.

(1.) STEIN, a town of the Helvetic republic, in the canton of Zurich. About 15J4 the inhabitants embraced Protestant principles. It is seated on the N. bank of the Rhine, near the lake of Constance; ij miles NE. of Zurich, and t5 VV. of Constance. Lon. 8. 48. E. Lat. 47. 32. N.

(1—5.) Stein, 4 towns of Germany: 1. in Caliuthia, on the Drave; 1 miles S^of Clagenfurt: s. in Carniola, on the Ftistritz; 10 miles N. of Laybach: 3. in Upper Saxony, and lordship of Schonberg j 7 miles SE. of Zwickau: 4. in the circle of the Upper Rhine, on the E. or right bank «>f the Rhine, 4 miles N. of Worms. It was in the late bishopric of Worms, and by the division ol the indemnities, in i8oz, was allotted to the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. See Revolution, § VIII.

STEINACH, 2 rivers of Germany, in Wirtemburg, both running into the Neckar ; the one near. Nurtingen; the other near Tubingen.

STEINAM. See Szombath.

STEINAU, a town of Silesia, capital of a circle so named, with a churches, aod cloth manufactures. It has been 4 times sacktd and burnt, in different wars; particularly in 1345, by the P^>ncks, and in 1633, by the Imperialists. It is 20 milri, SE. of Great Glogaw.

(r.; STE1NBACH, a town of Germany, in

Suabia, in the electorate of Baden: 5 miles WSW. of Gtrspach, and 38 W. of Stuttgard.

(z—4.) Steinbach, 3 other towns of Germany: i. in Austria, 6 miles S. of Steyr: 2. in Nassau-Dillenburg, 6 miles N\V. of Dillenburg: 3. in Upaer Saxony, 6 miles SE. of Wolkcnitcui.

STEINBERG, a mountain of Lower Saxony, in Calmberg: near Minden.

STEINHEIN, a town of Germany, in the late archbishopric of Mentz, on a hill near the Maine, with a castle, 9 miles from Franckfort. It appears to be allotted to the prince of Hohenlohe. Lon. 8. 54. E. Lat. 49. 52. N.

STEK.E, a town ot Denmark, on the N. coast of the isle of Mona, with a strong castle; almost insulated by a lake.

* STELE. ». /. [stela, Sax. stele, Dutch.] A stalk; a handle.

STELHOVEN, a town of the Batavian republic, in the dep. of Dommel and Scheldt, and cidevant province of Dutch Brabant; 3 miles SW. of Gertruydenburg.

(1.) STELLA, [Lat. i. e. a star.] a name given by Dean Swift to Mrs Johnson, an amiable lady, whom he long loved, and at last married; but as he never publicly acknowledged her to be his wife, nor cohabited with her as such, ihe broke her heart from the disappointment. The most plausible reason, assigned for his strange conduct in this affair, is that he had discovered, that she was his sister. See Swift, 1.

(2.) Stella, an island in the kingdom of Italy, in Lake Garda, in the dep. of Mincio, district ai d late duchy of Verona: 14 miles NW. of Verona.

(3.) Stella, a river of Maritime Austria, m Friuli; which runs into the Adriatic, 4 miles SSE. of Prisenis.

(4.) Stella, a town of Naples, in Prinicpato Citra; 17 miles SW. of Congiano.

(5.) Stella, James, a celebrated French painter, born at Lyons, in 1596. He studied painting early, and at 20 went to Rome. In passing thro'Florence, Cosmo De Medicis, the great duke, employed him, gave him lodgings, and a pension. He afterwards went to Paris, where he was patronised by Lews XIII. who gave him a good pension, lodgings in the Louvre, and honoured him with the order of St Michael. He died in 1647.

(6.; Stella, Francis, brother and disciple of James, was bom at Lyons, in t6oi» and travelled with his brother into Italy; but, though a good painter, he never equalled James. He died iu 1661.

(7.) Stella Cadens, or Falling Star. See Ignis Fatuus, Meteor, and Meteorology. (8.) Stella Marina. See Mytilus, N° 4. •STELLAR, adj. [fromstella.] Astral; relating to the stars.—

In part shed down
Their stellar virtue, on all kinds ^hat grow.


—Salt dissolved, upon fixation, returns to its affected cubes., and regular figures of minerals, at the hexagonal of crystal, and stellar figure of the stone asteria. Glanuille.

STEI.LARIA, Stitchwort, or Great Chick•weed, in botany, a genus cf plan's belonging to

ihc the class of decandria, and order of trigynia; and in tlie natural system arranged under the izd order, Caryofbtllea. The calyx is pentaphyllous and spreading. There are five petals, each divided into two segments. The capsule is oval, unilocular, and polysptrmous. There are 9 species, viz. t. Stellaria Arenaria; 1. Biflora; 3. Ck


Holostea; 7. Nemorum; g. Radians; and 9. Vnduuta. Of these, 3 are natives of Britain: viz.

1. Stellaria Graminea. lessstitebwort. The stem is near a foot high. The leaves are linear and entire, and the flowers grow in loose panicles. It is frequent in drv pastures. There is a variety of this species called bog st'itcbnuort, with smooth, oval, sessile leaves, and few leaves, which grows often in wet marstiy places. The stalk is quadrangular; the petal* scarcely longer than the calyx, and b'fid to the base.

». Stellaria Holostea, greater Jiitcbwort. The stalks are about two feet long; the petals are nearly twice the length of the calyx, and divided half-way to the base. It is common in woods and hedges.

3. Stellaria Nemorum, broad-leaved stitcb•wort. The stalks are about 1% or ig inches high, and branched in a panicle at the top. The leaves are heart-shaped, and of a paler green on the under than on the upper side; the lower ones being supported by footstalks which are hairy and channelled; the upper ones are sessile. The calyx is erect, somewhat hairy and white on the margins. The are bifid almost to-the base. There is a small nectarium between the lower stamina and the calvx.

(i.) •' STELLATE, adj. [stellatui, Lat.];Pointed in the manner of a painted star.— One making a regulus of antimony, without iron, found his returns adorned with a more conspicuous star than I have seen in several stellate reguluses of antimony and mars. Boyle.

(i.)stellate,among botanists, expresses leaves which grow not left than six at a joint, and are arranged iike the ravs of a star.

• STELLATION. n.s. [fromJlella.] Emission of light as from a star.

"STELLED. adj. Starry.—

And quench'd thestelled fires. Sbak.

STELLERA, German Groundsel, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to'thc class of oflandria, and order of monogynia; and in the natural lvstem arranged under the 31st order, Vepreeula. There is no calyx. The corolla is quadrifid. The stamina are very short. There is only one feed, which is black. The siecies are only two:

f. Stellera Chamæjasme, and

a. Stellera Passfrina.

• STELLIFEROUS. adj. [Jlella and fire.] Having stars. DiS.

STELLION. n.s. [Jlellio, Latin.] A newt. Ænstvortb.

(1.) • STELLIONATE. n. f. [Jtellionat, Fr. stellionatus. Lat.] A kind of crime which i3 committed [in law] by a deceitful felling of a thing otherwise than it really in; as, if a man sliould fell that for his own estate which is actually another man's.—It difeernetb of crimes of JlillionaU. Bac,

(«.) Stellionate, in Scots law. See Lav, Part III. Chap. III. Seel. 111. § 36.

STELLOW, a town of Germany, in Ilolstein; 9 miles NNE. of Elmestiorn.

(1.) • STEM. n. s. \jlemma, Latin.] 1. The stalk; the twig.—

Two lovely berries molded on one stem, So with two seeming bodies, but one heart. Sbak. —They spread a very large top, having no bough in the trunk or stem. Ka'eigh.—They will put forth many roots, and so carry more shoots upon a stem.

Ev'ry herb, before it grew On the green stem. Milton.

The stem thus threatened and the sap in thee, Dtops all the branches. Waller. Who now (hall bind your stems? Dryden. The low'ring Spring with lavilh rain Beats down the slender jlem. Dryden. 1. Family; race; generation. Pedigrees are drawn in the form of a branching tree.—

Ye may all, that are of noble stem, Approach. Milton. —Whosoever will undertake the imperial diadem, must hive of his own wherewith to support it; which is one of the reasons that it hath continued these two ages and more in that stem, now so much spoken of. Howl.

Learn well their lineage and their ancient stem.


3. Progeny; branch of a family.— This is a stem

Of that victorious stock. Sbak.

4. [Stammen, Swedish.] The prow or forepart os a ship.—

Orante's barque, ev'n in the hero's view, From stem to stern, by wives was overborn.


{i.) Stem, in botany, is that part of a plant arising out of the root, and which sustains the leaves, flowers, fruits, &c. By washing and rubbing the stems of trees, their annual increase it promoted; for the method of doing which, see Tree.

(3.) Stem Of A Ship, a circular piece of timber into which the two sides of a ship aie united at the fore-end: the lower end of it is scarfed to the keel, and the bowsprit rests upon its upper end. The stem is forced of one or two pieces, according to the size of the vessel; and as it terminates the (hip forward, the ends of the waits and planks of the sides and bottom are let into a groove or channel, in the midst of its suiface, from the top to the bottom; which operation is called rabiting. The outside of the stem is usually marked with a scale or division of feet, according to its perpendicular height from the keel. The intention of this is to asetrtain the draught of water at the fore pait, when the ship is in preparation for a sea-voyage, Sec. The stem at its lower end is of tqual breadth and thickness with the keel, but it grows proportionally broader ard thicker towards its upper extremity. See ShipBuilding.

* To Stem. V. a. \stxmnta, Mandick.] To oppose a current; to pass cross or forwud notwitt-star.ding ti e sirtam.—

They on the tradirg fired,


« PreviousContinue »