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in.T the stp-rv as it stands in them, we shall find the envisions turn out very anomalous. This is however the way usually practised; and there are few liydrometers, even fn>m the best maker, that hold true to a tingle division or two. Yet the method b\ computation is not more troublesome ; and one lc.i'e of harmonic progrefiionsls will ser»e to divide every stem that offers. We may make ose of a scale cf equal parts fir the stem, with the assistance os two little tables. O 'e of these contains the specific gravities in harmonic progression, coriesponding to the arithmetical scale us bulks on the stem of the hydrometer; the other consigns the divisions a~d tractions cf a division of the scale of bulk>, which correspond to an arithirctica! scale of specific gravities. We believe this to be the best method of all. The scale of eqoal parts on the stem is so easily made, and the little table is so easily inspected, that it has every advantage of accuracy atid dispatch, and it gives, hy the way,-an amusing view of the relation of the bulks and densities. We have hitherto supposed a scale extending from the lightest ;o the f cavicst fluid. But unless it be of a very inconvenient length, the division" must be very minute. And-w Den the bulk of the stein bears a grcit proportion to that of the body, the intt>ur.ient does not swim steady ; it is therefore pr >per to limit the range of the instrument in the same manner ac thole of the first ki d. A range from the density os æther to that os wafer may be very well executed in 3:1 instrument of very moderate size, and two others will do for all ti>e heavier lioiiors; or an equal range in any other densities as may suit the psnai occupations of the experimenter. To avoid the inconvenience-1 °f a hvdp'merer •with a very long and slender stem, or the necessity of having a series of them, a ttiird fort has been contrived, in wr.ich theprncirHe of both are combined. Suppose a hyd'otneterwith a stem, whose V.ulk is one 10th of that of the ball, and that it ii.iks in at her to the top of the stem; it 11 evident tint in a fluid which is one 10th heavier, the whole tiem will emerge; for the bulk of the displaced fluid is now one ioth of the whole less, a id the weight is the fame as before, and therefore the specific gravity is one 30th greater. Thus we
b. ive obtained a hydrometer which will indicate* In- means of divisions marked on the stem, all spe
c. ric gravities from 0-73 to 0 803 ; for 0-803 is one i )ti' greater than c 7.;. These divisions'must 'x; rn.'e in harmonic progressions, asbesoie directed fxrr X". entire scale, placing o"7,; at the top of the stem and o"8 -3 3t the bottom. When it stoats at the lowest division, a weight may he put on the top of the stern, which vi;l! again link it to the top. This weight must evidently be 0 07.5, or one 10th of the weight of the fluid displaced by the D 1 loaded instalment. The hydrometer, thua leaded, indicates the srrr.e specific gravity, by the t.'p ot the stem, th-.t the unload, d instrument in. t:.eates by the lowest division. Therefore, when If ded, it will indicate another series of specific giawties. from o'ifo.i to p'8.'3 (=P'So,t + O'oSo.j), r. d will float in a liquor <>f the specific gravity o 88.1.^ w''b the whole stern above the surface. I.' like manner, it' we take oil this weight and put o #i=o'o8o,3, it will sink the bydiomcter to the
ton of the stem; ar.d with this ntw weight it will indicate another series of specific gravities from 08833 to 0 97163 (=0-8833-J-0-08633). And, in the U.r.e manner, a ihi.d wcight=c8S33 will again sink it to the top of tlif stem, and tit it for another series of specific gravities up to 1-068793. A"d thus, with three weights, we have procured a hydrometer fitted for ail liquors from æther to a wort for a malt liquor of two barrels per quarter. Another weight, in the fame progression, will, extend the inftritTcnt to the strongest wort that is brewed. Th s is a very commodious farm of the instrument, and is now in very general use for examining spirituous liquors, worts, ales, brines, and many such articles of commerce. But the divisions of the scale are generally adapted to the questions which naturally occur in the business. Thus, in the co/ncierce of strong liquors, it is ufual to estimate the article by the quantity of spirit of a certain strength whi b the liquor contains. —This we have been accustomed to call Proof Spirit, an I it is s.ich that a wine gallon weighs 7 Ih Jz oz.; and it is by this strength that the excise duties are levied. Therefore the divisions on the scale, an-* the weights which connect the fucceliive repetitions of the scale, are made to express at once the numher of gallons or parts ot a gallon of proof fuiriis contained in a gallon of the liquor. Such instruments save all trouble of calculation to the exiseman or dealer; but they limit the use of a very delicate and expensive instrument to a very narrow employment. It would be much better to adhere to the expression either of specific gravity or of bulk; and then a very small table, which could be comprised in the snallest case for the instrument, might render it applicable to every kind of fluid. The reader cannot but have observed that the successive weights, by which the short sca'e of the instrument is extended to a great range of specific gravities, do not increase by equal quantities. Eaeh difference is the weight of the liquor displaced by the graduated stem of the instrument when it is sunk to the top of the scale. Tt is a determined aliquot part of the whole weight of the instrument so loaded, (in pur example it is always one 1 it h of it.) It increases theretore in the lame proportion with 'he preceding weight of the loaded instrument. In shoit, both the successive additions, aud the whole weiebt* of the loaded instrument, are quantities in geometrical progeefllou; and in like manner, the divisions on the scale, if they correspond to equal difference* of specific gravity, mult also be unequal.— Tlii- is not sufficiently attended to by the makers ; jnd they commit an error here, which is very considerable w'ien the whole ranpe of the instrument is great. For the value of one division of the scale, when the largest weight on, is as much gieater than its value, when the instrument is not loaded at all, as the lull loaded instrument is heavier than the instrument unloaded. No manner whatever of dividing the sca'e will correspond to equal differences of specific gravity through the wrote range with different weights; but if the divisions are made to indicate equal proportions of gravity when the instrument is used without a weight, thty will indicate rqua! proportions throughout. . Th's is e<* videos fr m what we have been just now fay hi:; r . . so" for the proportion of the specific gravities corresponding to any two immediately succeeding weights is always the fame. The best way, therefire, of constructing the instrument, so that the stme divisions of the scale may be accurate in all its successive repetitions with the different weights, i to make these divisions in geometrical progression. The correspond'ng specific gravities will alfa be in geometric propoition. These being all inserted in a table, we obtain them with no more trouble than by inspecting the scale which usually accompanies tie hydrometer. This table is of the most easy construction;' for the ratio of the successive bulks and specific gravities being all equal, the difference' of the logarithms are equal. This wil) be illustrated by applying it to the example already given of a hydrometer extending from o 73 to 1*068793 with three weights. This gives four repetitions- of the scale on the stem. Suppose thip scale divided into 10 parts, w e hive ♦o specific gravities.—Let these be indicated by the numbers o, J, a, 3, &c. to 40. The mark o, is affixed to the top of the stem, and the divisions downward' are marked 1, a, 3, &c. the lowest being 10. These divisions are easily determined. The stem, which we tray suppose 5 inches long, was supposed to be one 10th of the capacity of the ball. It may therefore be considered as the extremity of a rod of 11 times its length, or C5 inches; and we must find nine mean proportionals between 50 and 55 inches. Subtract each of these from 55 inches, and the remainders are the distances of the points of division from 0, the top of the scale. The smallest weight ii marked 10, the next 10, and the third 30. If the instrument loaded with the weight 20 links in s'-me liquor to the mark 7, it indicates the specific gravity 17, that is, the 17th of 46 mean proportionals between e"73 and 1-068793, or 0*944142. To obtain all these intermediate specific gravities, we have only to subtract 9-86jti29, the logarithm of o-7f, from that of 1-068793, viz. c oi88g37, and take C0041393, the 40th p'rt of the difference. Multiply this by 1, 2, 3, &c. and add the logarithm of o'73 to each of, the products. The sums are the logarithms of the specific gravities required. These will be found to proceed so equably, that they may be interpolated ten times hy a simple table of proportional parts without trie smallest sensible en Ot. Therefore the stem may be divided into a hundred parts very senfib'e to the eye (each being nearly the 20th os an inch), and 400 degrees of specific gravity obtained within the range, which is as near as we can examine this matter by any hydrometer. Thus the specific gravities corresponding to n° »6, 27, 28, 19, areas follow:
»7 0-94424 " 9
»8 0-95328 I;: 9
29 C96241 v •>
Nay, the trouble of inspecting a table may be avoided, by forming on a scale the logarithms of the numbers between 7300 and io;8';93. aru' placing along side of it a scale of the same length divided into 400 equal parts numbered from o to 400. Then, looking fur the mark, mown by the
hydrometer on this scale of equal parts, we fee opposite to it the specific gravity. We have been thus particular in the illustration of this mode of construction, because it is rea'ly a beautiful and commodious instrument, which may be of great use both to the naturalist and to the man of business.—A table may be comprised in 10' pages 8vo. which will contain the specific gravities of every fluid which can interest either, and answer .every question iclative to ti.eir admixture with as much precision aa the observations can be made. Ws therefore recommend it to our readers, and we recommend the very example which we have given as one of the most convenient. T'ie instrument need not exceed 8 inches in. length and may be contained in a pocket cafe of a inches broad and as many deep, which will also contain the scale, a thermometer, and even the table for applying i: to all fluids which have been examined.
(9.) Spec.'fic Gravity, Methods Of ExaMining. There is another method of examining the soecific gravities of fluids, first proposed br Dr Wilson, late professor of astronomy in the universiiy of Glasgow. This is by a feres of small glass babbles, differing equally, or according to some rule, from each other in specific gravity, and each marked with its proper number. When these are thrown into a fluid which is to he examined, all those which are heavier than the fluid will fall to the bottom. Then holding the vesl'el in the hand, 01 near a fire or candle, the fluid expands, and one of the floating bubbles begins to sink. Its specific gravity, therefore, was eifher equal to, or a firtle less than, that of the fluid : and the degree of the thermometer, when it Swan 1.1 sink, will inform us how much it wai deficient, if we kn,ow the law of expansion of the liquor. Sets of these bubbles fitted tor the examination of soirituous liquors, w:rh a little treatise showing the manner of using them, and calculating by. the thermometer, are made by Mr Brown, an ingenious artist of Glasgow, and are often used by the dealers in spirits, being found both accurate and expeditious. Also, though a bubble or two ihoul I be broken, the strength of spirits may easily be had by means of the remainder, unless two or three in immedhte succession be wanting: for a liquor which answers to NJ 4 will link N° 2 by heating it a few degrees, and therefore Nu 3 may be spared. This is a great advantage in ordinary business. A nice hydrometer is not only an expensive instrument, out exceedingly delicate, beins so very thin. If broken or even bruised, it is useless, and can hardly be repaired except by the very maker. As the only question here is, to d< terniine how many gallons of excise proof spirit* are contained in a quantity of liquor, the artist h;n constructed thu scries of bubbles in the li:nple!t manner possible, by prcvioully making 40 or 50 mixtures of spirits and water, and then adjusting the hubbies to these mixtures. In some sets the number on each bubble is tin. number of gallons of proof spirits cotained in ico gallons of the liquor. In other sets the number on each bubb's expresses the gallons of water which wdl make J. liquor ot this strength, if added to 14 gallons of alcohol. Thus, it n liquor answers td N° 4, then 4 gallous of water added to 14 gallon., of okahol K k a will
will make a liquor of this strength. The first is together. We do not find that this has been dor* the belt method; for we should be mistaken in to this day, although we may affirm that ther> supposing that iS gallon?, which answer to N° 4. are tew questions ot* more impoitance. It is a contains exactly 14 gallons of alcohol: it contains very curious fact in chemistry, and it would be more than 14. by examining the specific gravity molt desirable to be able \o seduce it to fume geof bodies ttir philosopher has made some veiy nerallaws: For instance, to ascertain what is the curious discoveries. The most remarks' le of these proportion of two ingredients wl.iob produces tl.1 is thr; change which the density of bodies suffers greUest change of density. This is important in by mixture. It is a most reasonable expectation, the science of physic-, because it gives us consi. that when a cubic foot of one substance Is mixed deiab'e information a* to the mode.ef action of any bow with a cubic foot of another, the bulk those mtural powers or forces by which the parof the mixture wi.l be two cubic feet; and that ticks cf tangible matter are united. If this intn18 gallons of water joined to 18 gillons of oil will J'u,e<pti:n, concent ration* rompenetration, or by fid a vessel of 36 gallons. Accordingly this was whatever name it be called, were a mere recepnever doubted; and even Archimedes,- the most tion of the particl; s of one substance into the inscrupulous ot mathematician*, proceeded on tiiis terstices of those of another it is evident that the supposition in tb? solution of his famous probiem, grertest. concern ration would be observed when a the discovery of the proportion of liiver and gold fin ill quantity of the recioictid is mixed with, or in a mixture of both. He does not even mention disseminated through, a gicat quantity of the flit as-a postulate that may be eiantid him, Co much ther. It is thus that a small quantity of fine sand did he conceive it to be an axiom. Yet a little will be received into the interstices of a quantity reflection seems sufficient to make it doubtful, of small ib it, and will increase the weight of the and to require examination. A box filled with bagful without increasing its bulk. The case is mufket-balls wiil receive a considerable quantity nowise different when a piece of freestone ha»' of small shot, and after this a considerabl- quan- grown heavier by imbibing or absorbing a quart, tity of sine sand, and after this a considerable tity of water. It" more than a certain quanti<>0--«i;ty of water. Something iike this might ty of sard has been added to the small shot, it it h tppeii "Bvthe admixture of bodies os porous tex- no longer concealed. lo like mamitr, various ture. But sirsb. substances as metals,, giafs, and quantities o£ water may combine with a mass of fluids, where no utiscontinuity o' parts can be clay, and increase its size ard weight alike. All perceived, or was lu'ptcted, seem free from every this is very conceivable, occasioning no difficulty, chance of this kind of introl'usceptton. Lord Ve- But this is not the case in any of the mixtures we rulsm, however, without being a naturalist or are now considering. In all these, the first addimathcmatician ex- profijpt, inferred from the mo- tions of either of the two substances produce but bility of fluids that they confuted of discrete par- an inconsiderable change of general density; and tides, which must have pores interposed, whatt- if is in general most remarkable,, whether it be ver be their figure. And if we ascribe the dirser- condensation or rarefaction, when the two ingteent densities, or other sensible qualities,.to differ- dients are nearly of equal hulks. We can illusence in (\zt or figure o*' those particie--, it must trate even this difference, by.reflecting on-the im-frequently happen that the smaller parties * will hilition of water by vegetable solids, such as tim-' be iddved in the interstices between the largir, her. Some kinds of wood hav-e their weight and thus contribute to the weight of the sensible much more increased' than their bulks; other miss without increasing its bulk. He therefore kinds of wood are more enlarged in bulk than i* Inspects that mixtures will be in-general lets bu.ky weight. The like happens in grains. This is cuthan the sum cf their ingredients. Accordingly,, rioue, and shows in the most unquestionable manfTie examination of this question was one of the ner that the particles ol bodies are not ill contact; first employments of the Royal Society of ton- but are kept together by forces which act at a don, and long before its institution had occupied distance. For thin distance between the centres the attention of the gentlemen who afterwards of the particles is most-eviJently susceptible cf composed it. The register of the Society's early variation ;. and this variation is occasioned by the meetings contains many experiments on this sub- introduction of another substance, which, by acting ject, with mixtures of gold and silver, of other on the patticles by attraction or repulsion, dimimetals, and of various fluids, examined by the nilhus nr increases their mutual actions, and makes hydrostatical balance of Mr Boyle, Dr Hooke new distances necessary for bringing all things amade a prodigious number, cruelly on articles of gain into equilibrium. We refer the curioui commerce, which were unfortunately lost in the reader to the ingenious the. ry of the Abbe Bosrile of London. It was soon found, however, that covich for an excellent illustration of this subject. Lord Verulam'i conjecture had been well found- Theor. Phil. Nat. § de Solutions Ckemica. ed, and that bodies changed their density very (10.) Specific GravitV Metals Altersensibly in ma:-y cases. In geneial, it was found Er> By Aix-ture. This question is no lese importthat bodies which had a strong chemical affinity ant to the man of business. Till we know the increased in density, and that their admixture was condensation of those metals by mixture, we canaccompanied with heat. By this discovery it is not teli the quantity of alloy in gold and liiver by manifest that Archimedes had not solved the meana-of their specific gravity ; nor can we tell the problem of detecting the quantity of silver mixed quantity of pure alcohol in any spirituous liquor, with the gold in King Hiero's Crown, and that or that of the valuable salt in any solution of it. the physical solution of it requires experiments For vvant of this knowledge, the dealer in gold made on all the kiuda of matter that are mixed awl liiver arc obliged to have recourse to the te
ijinur and difficult test of the assay, which cannot be made in ail place" or by all men. It is therefore much to be wished, that some persons would kirtilule a series of experiments m the most intertrting cafes: for it i: ust. be observed, that this change of density it not always a smali matter; it is sometimes very considerable and paradoxical. A remarkable instance may be given of it in the mixture of brals and tin for bells, great puns, optied speculum?, &c. The specific gravity of cast brass is near.y 8 006, and that of tin is nearly 7-363. If two parts of brase be mised with one cf tin, the specific gravity is 8*931 ; whereas, if each had retained its former bulk, the specific gravity ,.t „ , / »X 8*006 + 7-363 \ would havebeenomy 7-793 ^= j,
A mixture of equal parts should have the speciric gravity-7684 ; but it is 8-44r. A mixture of two parts tin with one part brass, instead of being 7-577, is 8-027. In ail theft cafes there is a- great increase of specific gravity, and consequently a great condensation of parts or contraction of bu'k. The first mixture of 8 cubic inches of brass, for instance, with 4- cubic inches' of tin, does not produce 11 cubic inches of bell-metal, but only \c\ pearly, having shrunk f. It wonld appear that the distances of the brass particles arc most affected, or perhaps it is the brass that receives the tin into its pores; for we find that the condensations in these mixtures are nearly proportional to the quantities of the brass in the mixtures. It i? remarkable that this mixture with the lightest of all metals has mader a composition more heavy and dense than braft can bt made by any hammering. The most remarkable instance occurs in mixing iron with platina. If 10 cubic inches of iron are mixed with \\ of platina, the bulk of the compound is only 9* inches. The iron therefore has not (imply received the platina into its ports: its own particles are brought nearer together. There are Smilar result6 in the solution of turbith mineral, and of some other salts, in water. The Water, instead of rising in the neck of the vessel, when a small quantity of the salt has been added to it, finks considerably, and the two ingredients occupy less room than the water did alone.
(H.)SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF MtXTL'RM OF1 ALCOHOL And Wateh. The fame thins happens in the mixture of water with other fluids, and different fluids with each other: But we are not able to trace any general rule that is observed with absolute precision. In most cases of fluids the greatest condensation happens when the bulks of the ingredients are nearly equal. Thus, in the mixture of alcohol and water, we have the greatest condensation when 16^ ounces of alcohol are mixed with 20 ources of water, and the condensation i'= about T'T of the whole bulk of the ingredients. It is extr^ineiy various in different substances, and ■'0 classification of them can be made in this reIptct. A dissertation has been published on this subject by Dr Hahn of Vienna, intitied De F.jf.catia 3tixtior.ii in mutaniiii Corporum Volumimbus-, in which all the remarkable instances of the variation of density have been collected. A'i we can co is to record such instances as are of chief importance, heing articles of commerce. The moll sc r upulous f this, orjeThaps of any mixture, has
been lately made by Di BUgden (now 3ir Charif* Blagden) of the Royai Society, on the requisition' of the Board ol Excise. He has puhnO.t d an account of the examination in the Pbilos. Trans. of 1791 and 1791. The alcohol was aimi.lt the strongest that can be produced, and it» sptcific gravity, when of the temperature 6o°, was o'Sae*. The whole mixtures were ot the fame temperature. Column 1. of the Table contains the /&. aa. or other measures by weight, of alcohol in the mixture. Col. contains the pounds or ourceo of water. Col. 3. is the sum of the bulk* of the ingredients, the bulk of a pound or ounce of water being accounted 1. Col. 4. is the observed specific gravity ot the mixture. Col. 5. is the specific gravity which would have been observed is the ingredients had each retained its own specific gravity; calculated by dividing the sum of the two numbers of the rirft and second coiumns by the corresponding number of the third. Col. 6. is the difference of col. 4. and col. 5. and exhibits the condensation.
The condensation is greatest when 16^ ounces of into the pore* of the w^tcr, so a» to increase its
alcohol have been added to ao of water, and the weight without increasing its bulk?" and wemiist
condensation is yrVrV' or "ear'y Ty*'1 of the grant that it may. We do not mean that it is
computed density. Since the specific gravity of simply lodged in the pores a* sand is lodged in the
alcohol is 0 815, it is evident'that 164 ounces of interstices of small sliot; but the two together oc
aicohol and Jo ounces of water have equal bulks, cupy less room than when sep irate. The experi
So that the condensation is greatest when the sub- ment3 of Mr Achard were insufficient for a deci
stances are mixed in equal volumes; and 18 gal. fion, because made on so small a quantity a« 600
Ions of alcohol mixed with 18 gallons of water grains of water. Dr Watson's experiments have,
will produce not 36 gallons of spirits, but 35 on- for the most part, the fame defect. Some of them,
ly. This is t lie mixture to which cur revenue however, are of great value in this question, and
laws refer, declaring it to be one to fix or one in are very fit for ascertaining the specific gravity of
seven under proof, and to weigh 7 Ib. Ij oz. per dilToived salts.
gallon. This proportion was probably selected (13.) Specific Velocity. See Optics, M. as the most easily composed, viz. by mixing equal * SPECIFICAL. SrEcfFicK. adj. \ seecisqur, measures of water and of the strongest spirit which French ; species and facto, Latin.] 1. That which the known processes of distillation could produce, makes a thing of the species of which it is.— Its specific gravity is o'o.;o very nearly. This e- To thee all her specifick forms I'ii show. Denh. laborate examination of the mixture of water and —As to thespecifick nature of its acts, it is deteralcohol is a standard series of experiments so mined by the object. South.— How are they kept which appeal may always be made, whttherfor to their specifick uniformities? O/anville.—These the purposes of science or of trade. Th? regula- principles I consider not as occult qualities, fuplarity of the progression is so great, that in the posed to result from the secifick forms of things, column we examined, viz. that for temperature but as general laws of nature. Newton.—All things 6o°, the greatest anomaly does not amount to oi-e were formed according to thesespecifical platforms, part in six thousand. The form of the series is Norrh.—Specifick gravity is the appropriate and also very judiciously chosen for the purposes of peculiar gravity or weight which any species of science. It would perhaps have been more direct- natural bodies have, and by whrch they are plainly stereometrical had the proportion* of the ingre- ly distinguishable from all other bodits of differdients been stated in bulks, which are more im- ent kinds. Quincy.—The specifick qualities of plants mediately connected with density. But the au- reside in their native spirit, oil and essential fait, thor has assigned a very cogent reason for his Arbutbnot.—Specifick dissert nee is that primary atchoice, viz. that the temperature of bulks varic3 tribute which distiiiguislics each species from one by a change of temperature, because the water another, while they stand ranked under the same and spirits foilow different iaws in their expansion general nature or genus. The specifick difference by heat. of wine is its pressure trom the grape ; as cyder is (ii.jspecific Gravity Ofsaltne Mixtures, piessed from app!e3. Watts. ». [In medicine.) Mr Lambert, one of the first mathematicians and Appropriated to the cure ot some particular disphilosophers of Europe, in a dissertation in the temper. It is usually applied to the arcana, or Berlin Memoirs (1761), gives a narration of expe- medicines that work by occult qualities.—The 0riments on the brines of common salt, from which peration of purging medicines have been referred he deduces a very great condensation, which he to a hidden property, a specifical virtue, and the attributes to an absorption in the weak brines of like Ihifts of ignorance, bacon.—If (he would the salt, or a lodgment of its particles in the in- drink a good decoction of farsa, with the usual terstiecs of the particles of water. Mr Achard of specificks, she might enjoy a good health. Wijem. the sam: academy, in 1785, gives a very great list * SPECIFICALLY, adv. [from specifics Ii of experiments on the bulks of various brines, such a manner as to constitute a species; accordmade in a different way, which show no such in- ing to the nature of the iyecies.—Virtues that are trososception; and Dr Watson, formerly regius specifically requisite to a due performance of this professor of chemistry at Cambridge, and now bi- duty. South.—Human reason doth not nniy graihop of Landass, thinks this confirmed by expe- dually, hat specifically, differ from the fantaftick limtnts which he narrates in his Chemical Essays, reason of brutes. Grenu.— It an axe head be fupWe cannot assent to either side, and do not think poled to fioat upon water which is sp,vifica'ly lightthe experiments decisive. We incline to Mr Lam- er, it had been supernatural. Bentlry. bert's opinion; for this reason, that in the socces- "To SPECIFICATE, v. a. [from species and live dilutions of suiphuric acid and nitric acid facio, Lat.] To mark by notation of distingii'flithere is a most evident and remarkable condensa- i"g peculiarities.—Mau is enabled to act an a itation. Now what are these but brines, of which 4'oinhle creature, without any, particular, fpr"j>" we have not been ab'e to get the fa.ine ingredient eating, concuirent, new imocrate act of the u> in a separate form? The experiments of Mr A- vint Ibeciai province. Hale. chard and Dr Watson wore made in (uch a way, "SPECIFICATION. «./. [from specifick; .fh that a single grain in the measurement bore too eification, Kr.] 1. Distinct notation; de-teiinm** great a propoi tion to t'ue whole cliangr of specific tion by a peculiar mark.—This specification or Itgravity. At the fame ti.ne, some of Dr Watson's mitation of the question hinders the dilpWs are so simple in their nature that it is very dilfi- from wand-rinir. Waits. ». Particular mcntii'"cult to with-bold the assent. Kxperirn-nts have —The constitution hert souks generally without also been made which seem sufficient for deciding the specification of any place. Jtyiife. the qutstiou " Whether tht lalt esu be received (i.'lSPECiFICik. S<eSp£cmcandS*ECiFic/ou