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(jj.) Spais, History Of, To The InauguraTion' o? Charlis V. The l«u candidates had hitherto conducted their 1 ivalihip with emulation, but without enmity. They had even mingled in their competition many expressions ot' t'riendihip and repard. Frar,cis in particular declared with his usual vivacity, that his brother Charles and he were faitly and openly suitors to the lame mistress: " The most assiduous and fortunate (added te) will win her; and the other must reft contented." But the preference was no sooner given to his rival, than Francis discovered all the palHons natural to disappointed ambition. He could not iapprest his chagrin and indignation at being baulked io hi* favourite pursuit, and rejected, in tiie face of »U Europe, for a youth yet unknown to time. The spirit os Charles ntinted such contempt; and from this jealousy, as much as from opposition of interelts, arose that emulation between those two great monarchs which involved them in almost perpetual hostilities, and kept their *ho!e age in movement. Charles and Francis had rcany inter.vring claim* in Italy; and the latter thought himself b.rund in honour to restore the "tog of Navarre to hit dominions, unjustly seized

the crown of Spain. They immediately began to negotiate; and as Henry VIII. i f England was '"e third prince of the age in power and in dignity, his friendship was cagtrly com ted by each ct the rivals. He was the natural guardian of the litanies of Europe. Sensible of the consequence K.'iich his situation pave him, and proud of his pre-eminence, Henry knew it to be his interest to keep the balance even between the contending swwers, and to restrain both, by not joining entirely jrith either; but he was seldom able to reduce his ilfai to practice. Vanity and resentment were tie great springs of all his undertakings; and his -ii^hbours, by touching these, found an cisy way •"■a draw him into their measures, aud force him 1 ?an many rash and inconsiderate enterprises. All '.te impolitic steps in Henry's government must Mt, however, be imputed to himself; many of 'htm were occasioned by the ambition and avarice "t his prime minister and favourite, cardinal Wol'■<)'■ This man, who, by his talents and accompaniments, had risen from one of the lowest conditions in life to the highest employments, both in diurch and state, enjoyed a greater degree of powtr and dignity than any English subject ever pos;Æd, and governed the haughty, presumptuous, aJ untractabie spirit of Henry, with absolute authority, Francis was equally well acquainted with tnt character of Henry and of his mirttitcr. He had Utcei'sfully flattered Wolscy's pride, hy hotiour

him with particular marks of his confidence, •nd bestowing upon him the appellation of Father, ''"or, and Governor; and he had obtained the r*flitution of Tournay, by adding a pension to :>!'se respectful titles. He now solicited an inr"»iew with the king of England near Calais; in r'-pcs of being able, by familiar conversation, to atkch him to his friendship and interest, while he Ratified the cardinal's vanity, by affording him an opportunity of displaying his magnificence iu the of two courts, and of discovering to the two nations his insiuence over their monarchs. Charles dreaded the effects o! this projected inter

view between two gallant princes, whose hrrirTr were no less susceptible of friendship than their manners were of inspiring it. Finding it imprliible, however, to prevent a visit, in which the vinity f t all parties was [.> much concerned, he endeavoured to defeat its purpose, and to pre-occupy the favour of the Kvgiilii monarch, and of his minister, by an act o! complaisance still mwre flattering and more uncommon. Relying wholly upon Henry's generosity for his safety, he landed at Dover, in his way from Spain to the Low Countries. The king of England, who was on his way to F: ?rice, charmed with such pn instance ol confidence, hastened lo receive his imperial gucit; and. Charles, during his short stay, had the address not only to give Henry favourable impressions of hi* character and intentions, but to detach Wolsey entirely from the interest of Francis. The had attracted the eye of that ambitious prelate; and as the emperor knew that the papacy was the sole point of elevation, beyond the greatness he then possessed, at which he could aspire, he made him an offer of his interest on the first vacancy. The day of Charles's departure, Henry went over to Calais with his whole court, to meet Francis. Their interview was in an open plain between Guisnes and Ardres; where the two kings and their attendants displayed their magnificence with such emulation and profuse expence, as procured it the name of the Field os the Cloth of Col J. Here Henry erected a spacious house of wood and canvas, framed in London, on which, under the figure of an English archer, was the following motto: " He prevails whom I favour;" alluding to his own political situation as holding in his hands.the balance of power among the potentate* of Europe. Feats of chivalry, however, parties of gallantry, and such exercises as were in that age reckoned manly or elegant, rather than serious business, occupied the two courts during the time that they continued together, which was 18 days. After taking leave of thi3 scene of dissipation, the king of England paid a visit to the emperor and Margaret of Savoy at Gravelines, and engaged them to go along with him to Calais; where the artful and politic Charles completed the impression which he hid begun to make on Henry and his favourite, and effaced all the friendship to which the frank and generous nature of Francis had given birth. He renewed his assurances of assisting Wolsey in obtaining the papacy; and he put him in immediate possession of the revenues belonging to the fees of Badajox and Paler.cia in Spain. He rlattered Henry's pride, hy convincing him of his own importance, and of the justness of the motto which he had chosen: offerinj; to submit to his sole arbitration any difference that might arise between him and^Francis. This important point being secured, Charles repaired tu A'x-Ia Chapelle, where he was solemnly invested with the crewn and sceptre of Charlemagne, it; presence cf a more splendid and numerous assembly than had appeared on any former inauguration. About the same time Soliman II. one of the molt acco":plh,hed, enterprising, and victorious of ','ie Turkish princes, and a constant and formidable rival to the emperor, ascended the Ottoman throne. r24-) SrAIN, (HISTORY OF, UNTIL THE Cap

TVXt or Francis, I. The first act of Charles's excommunicated Lautrec, and took into his pay administration was to appoint a diet of the em- a considerable tndy of Swiss. The papal army, pure, to be held at Worms, to concert with the commanded by Prosper Colonna, an experienced in inecs proper measures for checking the progress general, was joined by supplies from Germany and of " those new aud dangerous opinions which Naples; while Lautrec, neglected by his court, threatened to disturb the peace of Germany, and and deserted by the Swiss in its pay/was unable to overturn the religion of their ancestors." The to make head against the enemy. The city of opinions propagated by Luther and his followers Milan was betrayed by the inhabitants to the confev-ere here meant. But all his efforts for that pur- derates; Parma and Placentia were united to the were insufficient, as is related under the articles ecclesiastical state; and of their conquests in LomLuTHtR and Reformation. In iSn, the bardy, only the town of Cremona, the castle of Spaniards, dissatisfied with the departure of their Milan, and a few inconsiderable forts, remained in sovereign, whose election to the empire they fore- the hands of the French. Leo X. received the law would interfere with the administration of accounts of his rapid success with such transports iris own kingdom, and incensed at the avarice of of joy, as are said to have brought on a sever, the Flemings, to whom the direction of public as- which occasioned his death. The spirit of the fairs had been committed since the death of caidi- confederacy was broken, and its operations fufnal Ximenes, several grandees, to (hake oft' this pet)ded by this event. The Swiss were recalled; oppression, entered into an allocution, to which some other mercenaries disbanded for want of they gave the name of the Sanaa JtaHa; and the pay; a„d only the Spaniards, and a few Germans Lvord was appealed to as the means of redress. This (Q the emperor's service, remained to defend the seemed to Francis a favourable juncture tor reinsta- duchy of Milan. But Lautrec, who with the remting the family of John d' Albret in the kingdom of nallt of his army had taken shelter in the VenetiNavarre. Charles was at a distance from that an territories, destitute both of men and money, part of his dominions, and the troops ulually sta- was unable to improve this favourable opportunity tioned there had been called away to quell the as he wilhed. All his eftbrts were rendered inefcommotions in Spain. A French army, under sectual by the vizilance and ability of Colonnaaiid Andrew de Foix, speedily conquered Navarre ; but his associates. Meantime much diseord prevailed that young and inexperienced nobleman, pushed in the conclave. Wolsey's name, notwithstanding on by military ardour, ventured to enter Castile, all the emperor's magnificent promises, was scarceThe Spaniards, though divided among themselves |y mentioned there. Julio de Medici, Leo'? neunited against a foreign enemy, routed his forces, phew, thought himself sure of the election; when took him prisoner, and recovered Navarre in a by an unexpected turn of fortune, cardinal Adrian lhorter time than he had spent in subduing it. 0f Utrecht, Charles's preceptor, who at that time Hostilities thus begun in one quarter, between governed Spain in the emperor's name was unaiiithe rival monarchs, suon spread to another. The moufly raised to the papacy, to the astonishment of king of France encouraged the duke of Bouillon au Europe, and the greatest disgust of the Italians, to make war against the emperor, and to invade Francis, roused by the rising consequence of bis Luxemburg. Charles, after humbling the duke, rival, resolved to exert himself with fresli vigour, attempted to enter France; but was repelled and to wrest iri)m him his late conquests in Lombardy. worsted before"Mczierea by the famous chevalier Lautrec'received a supply of money, and a reinBayard, distinguished among his contemporaries forcemeat of 10,000 Swiss. Wjth this reinforceby the appellation of The Knight ivithaut scar and nient he was enabled once more to act offensivewithout reproach; and who united the talents of a ly, and even to advance within a few miles of Migreat general to the punctilious honour and romau- |an. when money again failing him, and the Swiss tic gallantry of the heroes of chivalry. Francis growing mutinous, he was obliged to attack the broke into the Low Countries, where, by an excess imperialists in their camp at Bicocca, where he of caution, an error not natural to him, he lost an wa3 repulsed with great (laughter, having lost his opportunity of cutting off the whole imperial ar- bravest officers and best troops. Such of the my; and, what was of still more consequence, he Swise a3 survived set out immediately for their disgusted the constable Bourbon, by giving the 0wn country ; and Lautrec, despairing of being command of the van to the duke of Alencon, ^ble to keep the field, retired into France. GeDuring these operations in the field, an unsuccess- ,,oa> which still remained subject to Francis aud tul congress was held at Calais, under the media- made it easy to execute .any scheme for the recotion of Henry VIII. It served only to exasperate very of Milan, was soon after taken by Colonna: the parties whom it was intended to reconcile, the authority'of the emperor and his faction was A league was soon after concluded, by the in- everywhere establilhed in Italy. The citadel of trigues of Wolscy, between the pope, Henry, and Cremona was the sole fortress which remained Charles, against France. Leo had already entered jn the hands of the French. The affliction of into a separate league with the emperor, and the Francis for such a succession of misfortunes was French were fast losing ground in Italy. The info- augmented by the unexpected arrival of an Englence and exactions of marefhal de Lautrec, go- Hih herald, who in the name of his sovereign devernor of Milan, had totally alienated the aft'ec- clared war against France.' The courage of this turns of the Milanese from France. Theyresolved excellent prince, however did not forsake him: to expell the troops of that nation, and put them- though his treasury was exhausted by expensive selves under the government of Francis Slbr/a, pleasures, no lese than by hostile enterprises, he trothsr to Maximilian their late duke. In this re- assembled a considerable army, and put his kingsolutio;., they were encouraged by the pope, who doin in a state of defence for refilling t-hii new e

Bcmy nemy, without abandoning any of the schemes The Venetians, who had hitherto adhered tor (he which he was forming against the emperor. He French interest, formed engagements with the emwas surprised, but not alarmed, at such a denun- peror for securing Francis Sforza in the possession cution. Meanwhile Charles, willing to draw as of the duchy of Milan ; and the pope, from a permuch advantage as possible from so powerful an suasion that the ambition of the French monarch aily, paid a second visit to the court of England was the only obstacle to peace, acceded to the in his way to Spain, where his presence was be- fame alliance. The Florentines, the dukes of come necessary. His success exceeded his most Ferrara and Mantua, and all the Italian powers, sanguine expectations. He not only gained the followed this example. Francis was left without enure friendssiip of Henry, who publicly ratified a single ally, to resist the efforts of a multitude of the treaty of Bruges; but disarmed the resent- enemies, whose armies everywhere threatened, merit of Wolsey, by assuring him of the papacy and whose territories encompassed his dominions, on Adrian's death; an event seemingly not distant, The emperor in person menaced France with an by reason of his age and infirmities. In consc- invasion on the side of Guienne; the forces of quence of these negociations an English army in- England and the Netherlands hovered over Picarvaded France, under the earl of Surrey; who, at dy, and a numerous body of Germans was prethe end of the campaign, was obliged to retire, paring to ravage Burgundy. The dread of so mawith his forces greatly reduced, without being a- ny and such powerful adversaries, it was thought, hie to make himself master of one place within the would have obliged Francis to keep wholly on. French frontier. Charles was more fortunate in the defensive, or at least have prevented him from Spain: he soqn quelled the tumults which had entertaining any thoughts of marching into Itaiy. arisen there in his absence. While the Christian But before his enemies were able to strike a blow, princes were thus wasting each other's strength, Francis had assembled a great army, with which SnTynun entered Hungary, and made himself mas- he hoped to disconcert all the emperor's schemes, Mr of Belgrade, reckoned the chief barrier of that by marching it in person into Italy: and this bold kingdom against the Turkish power. Encouraged measure, the more formidable because unexpectbj this success, he turned his victorious arms a- ed, could scarcely have failed of the desired efgainst the istand of Rhodes, at that time the seat sect, had it been immediately carried into execuof the knights of St John of Jerusalem; and tho' tion. But the discovery of a domestic conspiracy, "try prince in that age acknowledged Rhodes to which threatened the destruction of his kingdom, be the great bulwark of Christendom in the east, obliged Francis to stop short at Lyons. Charles so violent was their animosity against each other, duke of Bourbon, lord high constable of France, 'hat they suffered Solyman without disturbance was a prince of the most shining merit: his great to carry on his operations against that city and talents equally fitted him for the council or the idmd. Lille Adam, the grandmaster, made a field, while his eminent services to the crown gallant defence; but, after incredible efforts of entitled him to its first favour. But unhappily courage, patience, and military conduct, during Louisa duchess of Angouleme, the king's moi Sege of fix months, he was obliged to surrender ther, had contracted a violent aversion against the the place, having obtained an honourable capitu- bouse of Bourbon, and had taught her son, over lation from the sultan, who admired and respect- whom ssie had acquired an absolute ascendant, cd his heroic qualities. (See Rhodes and Mal- to view all the constable's actions with a jealoui Ta.) Charles and Francis were equally afliamed eye. Aster repeated affronts he retired from court, of hiving occasioned such a loss to Christendom and began to listen to the advances of the empeby their contests; and the emperor, by way of ror's ministers. Meantime tire duchess of Bourfparation, granted to the knights of St John-the bon died; and as the constable was no lese amiaMland of Malta, where they fixed their residence, ble than accompl stied, the duchess of AngouJnd continued long to retain their ancient spirit, leme, still susceptible of the tender passions, formihough much diminissiad in power and splendour, ed the scheme of marrying him. But Bourbon, Adrian VI. though the creature of the emperor, who might have expected every thing to which and devoted to his interest, endeavoured to as- an ambitious mind can aspire, from the doatinrj fume the impartiality which became the common fondness of a woman who governed her son and fither of Christendom, and laboured to reconcile the kingdom, incapable of imitating Louisa in her the contending princes, that they might unite in sudden transition from bate to iove, or of meanly 3 league against Soliman, whose conquest of counterfeiting a passion for one who had so long Rhodes rendered him more formidable than ever pursued him with unprovoked malice, rejected to Europe. The Italian states were no less desi- the match with disdain, and turned the proposal rous of peace than the pope: and so much re- into ridicule. At once despised and insulted by sard was paid by the hostile powers to the exhor- the man whom love only could have made her tJtions of his holiness, and to a bull which he if- cease to persecute, Louisa was filled with all the soed, requiring all Christian princes to consent to rage of disappointed woman; Ihe resolved to ruin, > truce for three year^, that the imperial, the since ssie Could not marry, Bourbon. For this French, and the English ambassadors at Rome, purpose ssie commenced an iniquitous suit against were empowered to treat of that matter; but him ; and by the chicanery of chancellor du Prat, while they wasted their time in fruitless nr- the constable was (tripped of his whole family esfcOciations, their masters were continuing their tate. Driven to despair by so many injuries, he preparations for war; and negociations of ano- entered into a secret correspondence with the emther kind soon took place. The confederacy a- peror and the king of England ; and he proposed, gainst France became more formidable than ever, as loon as Francis should have crossed the Alps,


rsifc an insurrection among his numerous vafkis, and introduce faK-icn enemies into the heart «rf France. Happily Trancis got intirr.ation of this conspiracy before he left the kingdom; hut not being sufficiently convinced of the Corrtabie's gnilt, he susfere.1 lo dangerous a foe to escape; and Bourbon entering intt; the emperor's sei vice, employed all the force as his enterprising genius, anJ his great talents for war, to the prejudice of his prince and his native country. In consi silence of thar discovery of* this plot, and the escape of the powerful conspir.itor, Francis relinquished his trjteirion ot leading his army in person into Italy. He was ignorant how far the infection had spread aroonj; his subject.", and afraid that his absence :.*.:^i.t encourage them to make tome tempt in favour cf a man so much beloved, ,He did not, however, abandon his design on the Milanese, but sent forward an army of 30,000 men, undo- the command of atimirai Bonnivet. Coloaua, who was entrusted with the defence of that duchy, was in no condition to resist such a force; and the c:ty df Milan, on which the whole territory depends, must have fallen into the hands or the French, had not Bonnivet, who possessed none of the talents of a general, wasted his time r.i frivolous enterprises, till the inhabitants recovered from their consternation. The imperial arvny was reinforced. Colonna died; and Lar.noy, Viceroy of Naples succeeded him in the comBland: but the chief direction of military operations was committed to Bourbon and the marquis tfe Pcscara, the greatest generals of their age. Bonnivet, destitute of troops to oppose this new army, and still more of the talents which could ncuaer htm a match for its leaders, after various movements and encounters, was reduced to the necessity of attempting a retreat into France. He was fallowed by the imperial generals, and routed »t BiagralTa, where the famous chevalier Bayard was killed. The emperor and his allies were less successful in their attempts upon France. They •vere baffled in every quarter: and Francis, tho' tcrrpptd of his Italian dominions, might still have ti:ioyed in safety the giory of hiving defended his ..ative kingdom against one half of Europe, and > ;vc hid desianc; to all his enemies; but under-. . ..uling that the king of England, discouraged by h':. former fruitless enterprises, and disgusted with •?:e emperor, was making no preparationgjfor an /■-empt on Picardy, his ancient ardour kized him

* r the conquest of Milan, and he determined, notv ithltaiuling the advanced season, to march into

• ;.y\- The French army no sooner apoeared in ..t.innt, than the whole M:lanese wa< thrown

."'.'•> consternation. The capital opened its gates. •*'i Morces of the emperor and Siorza retired to "■: and had Francis been so fortunate as to r ui sue them, they must have abandoned that post, bren totally dispersed; but hia evil genius sed ! i',', to- beliege Pavia, a town of considerable . ;'. ii,:th, well garrisoned,land defended by Anj.miK rie Le^-va, otic of the bravest officers in the ).!iii:h service! before which place he was de•. .-:'ed and taken prisoner on the 24th Feb. 15-34. > c>■'! Spain, History Of, Until The Libe\ 1 (ON ov Francis I. The captivity of Francis jil Europe with alann. Almost the wiioie

French army was cut off; Milan was immediately abandoned ; and in a few we-.ks not a Frenchman was left in Italy. The power of the emperor, and still mure his ambition, became an object of universal terror; and resolutions wire everywhere taken to set bounds to it. Meanwhile Francis, deeply impressed with a sense of his misfortune, wrote to his mother Louisa, whom he had left regent of the kingdom, the following short but expressive letter: " All, Madam, Is ioil but honour," The fame courier that carried this setter, carried also dispatches to Charles; who receiver! the nrwj of the signal and un xpccled success which had crowned his arms with the most hypocritical moderation. He would not suffer any public rejoicings to be made on account of it; and said, he pnly valued it, as it would prove the occasion of restoring peace to Christendom. Louisa, however, did not trust to these appearances, if the could not preserve what was ytt left, Ihe determined at least that nothing should be lost through lur negligence or .weakness. Instead of giving herself up to such lamentations as were natural to a woman so remarkable for maternal tenderness, she discovered all the foresight, and exerted ■all the activity, of a consummate politician. She took every possible measure for putting the kingdom in a posture of deictic, while stie employed all her address to appease the resentment and to gain the friendship of England ; and a ray of comfort from that quarter soon broke in upon the French affair'. Thouch Henry VIII. had not entered into the war against France from any concerted political views, he had always retained some imperfect idea of that balance of power which it was necessary to maintain between Charles and Francis; and the preservation of which he boasted to be his peculiar office. By hia aliiance with the emperor, he hoped to recover some part of those territories 01 the continent which had belonged to hia ancestors; and therefore willingly contributed to give him the ascendency above his rival; but having ne»er dreamt of any event so decisive and fatal as th; victory at Pavia, which seemed not only to have broken, but to have annihilated the power of Francis, he now became sensible of his own danger, as well as that of all Europe, from the lols ot a proper counterpoise to the power of Charles. Instead of Liking advantage of the distressed condition of France, Henry therefore determined to assist-her in her prtsent calamities. Some disgusts had also taken place between him and Charles, and still more between Charles and Wolsey. Thcievation of the cardinai of Medicis to St Peter s chair, on the death of Adrian, under the name of Clement VII. bad made tie English minister sensible of the insincerity of the emperor's promiles, while it extinguished all hit hopes of the papacy, and he resolved on revenge. Charles, too, had fo iil supported the appearance of moderation which lie assumed, that he. had already changed his usual styie to Henty ;.aud instead of writing to him with his own band, he dictated his letter* to a secretary, and simply subscribed "Charles.'' Influenced by all these motives, together with the glory of raising a fallen enemy-, Henry listened to the flattering submissions .of Loaih; entered into a defensive alliance with her as regent ot


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France, and engaged to vise his best offices to pro- Italy once more became the scene of war.'. Sirj cure the deliverance of her son from captivity. Francis, who it was thought woilld have infuscj jVJtanwhile Francis was rigorously confined; anil spirit and vigour into the whoie holy, had g6nc severe conditions being proposed to him as the through such a sec re of di fire si', that he was beprior of his liberty, he drew his dagger, and, corae diffident of himself, diitrilstfu! of h:i forpointinj it at hi* breast, cr>ed, " 'Twrre better tune, a"d desirous of tranquillity. He fhtt-red that a king should die thus!" His hand was with- himself, that the dread alone of sucli a confedera* held: and flattering himself, when be grew cool, cy would indjee Charles to listen to wh it was'cthat such proposition? could not come directly qiiitable, and therefore neglected to send i!ut rr-i fiom Charles, he desired that lie might be remo- inforcements to his allies in Ita y. Meantime -'rfe ved to Saain, where the emperor then resided, duke of B mrbonv who command the Imperia,i(H-; His request was complied with ; but he languished had made himself m ister of the whol- M'.lanes'v of long before he obtained a sight of his conqueror, which the emperor had promised biro, the. hiveTti. At last he was favoured with a visit; andtheem- ture; and his troops be'immg to mutiny for peror, dreading a general combination against him, want of pay, he led them to Rome, ati.1 promise:! or that Francis, as he threatened, might, in obsti- to enrich them with the spoils cf that city. Hnacy, resign his crown to the dauphin, agreed to was as good as bis word; for though be hims. If abate somewhat of his former demands. A treaty was slini in planting a sealing ladder against Me was accordingly concluded at Madrid; in consc- walls, his soidier,s, rather enraged than discoiv-t-i quence of which Francis obtained his liberty. The ged by his death, mounted to the assault with. the1 chief article was, that Purgundy fhouid be resto- utmost ardour, animated by the greatness of th* red to Charles a9 the rightful inheritance of his prize, and entering the city sword in hands, plunaicestors, and that Francis's two eldest sons should dered it for several days. Never did Rome in an/ be immediately delivered up a3 hostages for the age suffer so maiiy calamities, not even from the performance of the conditions stipulated. The Barbarians, by whom I'ne was often subdued, the enchanee of the captive monarrh for his childrtn Hun?, Vandal«, or Goth?, as now from the subwas made on the borders between France and jects of a Christian and Catholic monarch. WrulSpa'-n. The momert that Francis entered his own ever was respectable in modesty, or f.icrei in rehdominion?, he mounted a Turkish horse, and put- gion, seemed only the more to provoke £!ie rage? rag it so its speed, waved bis hand and cre-i a- of the soldiery. Virgins suffered violation in the Irvad several times, "1 am yet a king! lam yet a arms of their parents* and upon thole aita'r? t> king!" which they had fled for safety. Venerable pre->

(:6.) Spain, History or, Until The Sa- lates, alter ensuring every indignity and every" Vacje Devastation or Rome, By Tre Impe- torture, were thrown into dungeon", and rr.enaJ fiALisTs. Francis never meant to execute the ced with the most cruel death, to make them rs« treaty of Madrid: he had even left a protest in the veal their secret treasures. Clement himself, who* hands of notaries before he signed it, that his con- had neglected to make his escape in tune, Was taj sent should be considered as an involuntary deed, ken prisoner, and found that the sacrednesi of lv* and be deemed null and void. Accordingly, as character could neither procure turn liberty nor soon as he arrived in France, lie afllmbled the respect. He was confin d till he should ;vyrVr flates of Burgundy, who profesied against the ar- enormous ransom imposed by the victorious army; ticle relative to their province; and Francis cold- and surrender to the emperor all the places of It replied to the imperial ambassadors, who urged strength belonging to the church. Clia.fes receithe immediate execution of the treaty, that he ved the news of this extraordinary evciiK '.vit'h e< wou'd relieioufly perform the articles relative to qual surprise and pleasure; but to conceVi his jriy/ himself, but in tiiose affecting the French monaf- from his Sjanidi subject's, who were silled wittl chy, he must be directtd by the fense of the r,a> horror at the insult offered to the sovereign pontion. He made the highrst acknowledgments to tiff, and to lessen the indignation of ti e rest of the king of England for his friendly interposition, Europe, he expressed she most profound sorrow1 and offered to be entirely guided by his counsels, for the slid ese of hi? arms. He put himself and Charles and his ministers saw that they were over- hi? court into mourning: stopped the rejoicings' reached in those very arts of ne^octation in which for the birth of his son Philip,- arrd ordered prayj they so much cxcened, while the Italian states ob- ers to be put irp in air the churches of Spain fer" served with pleasure, that Francis was resolved the recovery- of the pope's liberty, Which he con'd rot to execute a treaty which they considered as immediately have given bitn by a later to his j?toangirous to the liberties of Europe. Clement nerals.

absolved him from the oath which he had taktn (27.) Spain, History or, Uwtm, Tvte S-ackat Madrid ; and the kings of France and England, Ing or Tunis. The concern expressed by Her.-> the Pope, the Swise, the Venetians the Fioren- ry and Frztiris for the calamity of their ally vis.4 tine*, and the duke of Milan, entered into an al- more sincere. Alarmed at the progress of the; liance, to which they gave the name of the IIolj imperial arm?, they had, even before the taking" > League, becausebis Holiness was at the head ot' of Home, entered into a closer alliance, and a-< it, in order to oblige the emperor to deliver up greed to inv,,de the Low Countries with'a- powers >'rancit's two sobs on the payment of a reasonable ful army; btrt no sooner did they hear- of the ransom, and to re-establish Sforza in the quiet pos- Pope's captivity, than they changed, by a new session of the Milanese. In consequence of this treaty, the scene of the projected- War from the league, the confederate army luuii. uc Scld, and NttucslarxU to Italy, and resolved to take the Vou XXI. Part 1. jf,« roy*

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