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(care dwellings. Mr Boqlton, in conjunction with Mr Pothergill, then his partner, at an expence of 9000I. creijed a handsome and extensive edifice, J<mb a view of manufa^hiring metallic toys. The first productions consisted of buttons, lwckies, ivatch-chains, trinkets, and such other articles us tvere peculiar to Birmingham, tvV>v?ity, taste, and variety, wtre, however, always conspicuous; and plated wares, called SlvJHcltj'plait, comprising a great variety of useful and ornamental articles, oecame another permanent subject of manufacture. To .open channels for the consumption of these Commodities all the northern part of Europe was explored by the mercantile partner Mr j'ljlhtrpi.i. A wide and extensive correspondence was thus established, the undertaking became well known, ar.d the manufacturer, by becoming his own merchant, eventually1 enjoyed a double profit. Impelled by an ardent attachment to the arts, and by the patriotic ambition of forming his favourite Soho into a fruitful seminary of artists, the pioprietor extended his views; and men of taste and talents were now sought for, and liberally patronised. A successful imitation of the jFitnch i>r mculie orhameiits consisting of vales, tripod", candc.ahfa, &c. Sec. extended the celebrity of the works.' Services of pute and other works in silver. Kith massive and airy, were added, and 40 afjay office was established in Birmingharn.' Mr Wat r, the ingenious improver of the steam engine, entered info paitherssiip with Mr Bouiton; and they carried on at Soho a manufactory of ster,m engines, not less beneficial to the pubiic than lucfatve td tKemlclve s. This vaJuahie machine, the natuie and excellencies of vvliich are dt scribed lh another piace (see Steam Engine), Mr Bouiton next proposed to apply to she operation of coining, and a lilitaMe appaialm wa3 erected at a great expence, in the hope of being employed hy government to mike a new copper coinage for the kuigdo'n. Artists of merit were engaged, a-d specimehs of exquisite delicacy were exhibited,; b'.it as no national coinage immediately took place, the works were employed for fuiv.e' time upon high finished medals and private coins! But the British Government, at all times ready to reward merit, did not overlook that of Mr Boulton. A copper coinage was issued in 179^; a"d the public were supplied and gratified with new penny arid two-penny piece17, and with larger and more beautiful half-fienct nil farthings than they had ever seen before. To ei urneraU al! the productions'of this manufactory woiiid'be tehou's. 'At this place, in 177-, Mr Kt;inton invented hjs expeditious method of copying pictures in oil. In a n'atio'nal view, Mr Boullou's uiidt rtak'iigs arc highly valuable and important. By collecting around him'artists of various drscripiioiis, rival taL'nts have been called forth, and by successive competition havebeeh tiiullipiicd to an extent highly beneficial to the L>uh(ic. The art« partook of the benefis, and beCini'l proportionably improved. A barren lieath ha» been covered with plenty and population; and Mr flouiton's works, which in theii infancy were little known and attended to, nowco\a several acres, give .t.nploymtnt to more than

600 prrfun«. and art said to be the first of their" kind in Europe.

(*.) * SOHO.'inters4 A form of calling from x distant pi ice.

SOUKA'J, or Ztoky. See Zyory.

SOIATOI, an island of Russia, in the Caspian Sea; 148 nvles 8E. ot Astracan.

SOJGNIF.S, a town of the Frerjch epiptre, in the dep. of Jtmappcs, and ci-devant province of A'lstrian Hainauit, in the late county of Mons, near a wood, on the Scnne; 8 miles NE. us Mons, and 17 W. of Brussels. Lon. 4.14. L. Lat. 53- 2$. N.

(1.) •SOIL. n.s. [from the verb.] 1. Dirt j spot; pollution ; 'fouIn«£>.—

All the soil of the achievement goes With me into the earth. Shah. —That would he a great foil in the new gloss of your carriage. Sbak.

Vexed I am With passions,
Which give, lome/or/perhaps to my behaviour.


A lady's honour must not be touch'd,
Which, nice as ermines, wili not bear a foil.


». [Sol, Preneh; /ohm, Latin.1 Orotjnd; earth, considered with relation to Up vegetative qualities. —Judgment may he made of waters by the foil wKertupon they run. Bœco*.

Clouds ma/ raiff,'and rain produce Fruits in her loften'd foil. Milton. —The first cause of a kingdom's thriving is the; fruit spinels of the foil. S-v/ift. 3. Land; country.—

Dorset, that with a fearful soul

Lear}* discontents d steps in foreign Jail. Sfrai. Must I thu0 leave thee, paradise! thus leave

Thee, native ,'erl! these happy walks. Milton. 4. Hung :' cotrpoft.—All the /oil on that side of Ravenna has been left there inlcnsibly by the sea. AAilison.—Improve laud by dung, and other sort of kill. Mortimer.

(1.) Soil, t. des. t.) is the mould covering the surface of the eaifh, in which vegetables prow. It serves as a support tor vegetables, and as a reservoir for receiving and communicating their nourilhment. Soils are commonly double or triple compounds of the several reputed' primitive earth?, except the burytic,' (see Earths, $ VI. iand Mineralogy, Part Hi Chap. III.] The magnesian ■'likewise sparingly occurs.' The more fertile foils afford also a small proportion of cosily substance arising from putnfiction, and some tr.»ces of marine acid and gypsum. The vulgar division into c ay, chalk, sand, and gravel, Is wril hnderstood. Loam denotes any foil moderately adhesive; and, according to the ingredient ihajt predominates ir receives the epithets of clayey, chalky, sandy, or gravelly. The intimate mixture of ciay with the cuydes of iron is called tilt, and i' of a hard consistence' and a dark reddish colour. Soils are found by amlyfts to contain their earthy Ingredients in very different proportions. According to M. Oiobert, fertile mould in the vicinity cS" Turin, where the fail of rain amounts yearly to 40 inches, affords for each 100 Darts, from 77 tc» 79 of siiex, from g to 14 of atgill, and from j U>


fi of calx; besides about one half of carbonic fr.wftr, and nearly an equal weight of pas, partly cubomc, and partly hydrocarbonic. The fame fxp^rinenter represents the composition of barren ^rils in similar situations to be from 42 to 88 p;r cent of silex, from 10 to 30 of argill, and from . to 13 of calx. The celebrated Bergman found rica foils in the valleys of Sweien, where the annual quantity of rain w 24 inches, to contain, for ea:h 100 parts, 56 of siliceous sand, 14 of argill, tai }0 of calx. In the climate of Paris, where the average fall of rain is 20 inches, fertile mixtures, according to M. Tiilet, vary from 46 to52 per cent of siicx, and from n to 17 of argill, with ot calx. Hence it app-ars that in dry countries rich earths are of a closer texture, and con:iia more of the calcareous ingredient, with less ftfthe Sliciiius. Mr Arthur Young has discovered that the value of fertile lands is nearly proportioned to the quantities of pas which equal • rights of their foil afford by d'ftiliation. Dr 'lsoml'on fays, that "the good or bad qualities ct si is depend upon a proper mixture of silica, 1'imina, I'me, magnesia, iron, carbon, carbonic an;4, ard water." See MtNUtALOOy, Part 11. Cas. IV. CJnsi I. O'dtr 111. Gams IV.

(3.1 Soils, Cultivation, Distinctions, Im?*ovemknts, &c. Of The Various. Sre knAL ECOKOMV, Part I. Seff. II—IV. Part II. W. II, V, VII.; and Part IV. &3. X.

* To Soil. y. a. \JMan, Saxon; foelen, old German; Huifler, French. I 1. To foul; to dirt; tjpolluit ; to Wain; to fully.—

A tiliy man in linpic weeds forlorn,

Aulsoil'd with dull of the long dried way.

Fairy Queen.

—Although some hercticks have abused this text, >rt the fun id not soiled in passage. Bacon.— If I sail

Myself with sin, I thr-n but vainly toil. Sandyi. I would not foil these pure ambrosial weeds.

■" Milton. Our wonftd ornaments nowsoil'd. Milton. One who cou'd n't for a taste o' th' flesh come in,

I-icks thefal'd earth. Tats. —If the eye-glass be tincterl faintly with the f~ukc of a lamp or torch, to obscure the light of the Car, the fainter lif ht in the circumference of 'V star erase, to be visible, and the star1, if the fi-si be sufficiently filed with smoke, appears 1 imething more like a mathematical point. Neivla.—

An absent hero's bed they sought to foil.


"- To dung; to manure.—Men now present, just •« tbty foil then- ground, ndt that they love the dirt, but that they expect a crop. South- 3. To fiU a horse; to purge him by giving him grass in Jc Spting. It il in Shakespeare to glut, {faouller, f.'ench.j—'

The hiltd horse. Sbak.

He merits well to have her, Not making any scruple of her foilure. Shak. SOIN1DRO, a town of the island of Cuba; 75 miles ESE. of Havanna.

« SOJOURN, n.f. [fejour, French; from the verb.J A temporary relidence; a casual and no fettled habitation. This word was anciently accented on the last syllable: Milton accents it indifferently.—

The princes, France ?nd Burgundy, Long in our court have made their am'rous sojourn. Sbak. Elcap'd the Slygian pool, though long detailed • In that obscure.soiourn. Milton.

And once a-year Jerusalem, few days Short sojourn. Milton.

* To Sojourn, T. n. [fjourner, French; seggicnuire, Italian.] To dwell any where for a time; to live as not at home; to inhabit as not in a fettled habitation. Almost out of use.—

You will return and foj-jurn with my sister.


Th* advantage of his absence took the king. And in the mean time sojourn d at my father'*.


—How comes it he is to sojourn with you \ Shak. Here dwells he; though he ffourn every where. Donne. —The sojourning of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. Exod. xii. 40. —The soldiers first assembled at Newcastle, and. there sojourned three days. Hay<ward.— To sojourn in that land lie comes invited. Milton. —He who soiourns in a foreign country, refers what he fees abroad to the state of things at home. yltteibuty.

* SOjOURNER. n.s. [from sojourn] A ternperary dweller.—We are strangers and sojournert. 1 Chron. xx;x. 16.—

With perfidiou hatred they pursu'd Thesojourncrj of Golheii. Milton.

Welcome an owner, not a sojourner. Dryd. SOJOWITZ, a town of Bohemia, in Boltflau, 4 milts S. of Benatek.

SOISSONNOIS, a ci-devant province of France, bounded on the N. by Laonnois; E. by Champagne; S. by Uric, and W. by Vaiois. It was inhabited by the ancient SutssiONEs.a brave nation of Gaul, in the time of Cæsar. It is fertile, and abounds in corn, wood, and pasture. It now forms, along with the ci-devant province of Vermandois, the department of Aisne.

SOISSONS, an ancient, large, and considerable city of France, in the department of Aisne, and Jate province of Soilionnoi*. In the time of Julius Cæsar, it was called Noviodunum, and was the capital of the Suessiones ;. whence the modern name. It was the capital of a kingdom of the fame name, under the sirst race of the French the king* of the first race resided. Soissons is fiated in a very pleasant and fertile valley, on the Aisne, 30 miles W. by N. of Rheims, and 60 NE. of Piris. Lon. 3. 14. E. Lat. 49. 13. N.

monarchs. It contains about 12,000 inhabitants,

S0IL1NESS. n. s. [from soiL] Stain; foui- and is a bishop's fee. The environs are charming,

^"•-^Make proof of the incorporation of silver but the streets are narrow, and the houses ill

and tin, whether it yield no soiliness more than built. The sine cathedral has one of the most

Baton. considerable chapters in the kingdom. St Lewis,

t, 301LURE. n.f. [from foi'.] Stain; poilu- Philip II]. and Lewis XIV\ were crowned in it.

tioa.-*"' '. " 1 The castle, though anettnt, is not that in which.


SOITO, a town of- Portugal, in Entre Duero Minho; 6 mdes N. of Barcelos.

SOK- See Soc, and Soccage.

SOKALLEN, a town of Ruffian Lithuania; 9 miles N. of Raijnitz.

SOKASPAGE, a town of the United States, in Georgia; 4 miles NE. of Oakfulkee.


SOKFLY, a town of Norway, in Rergen.

SOiCEMAN. Ztc Soc, Socage, and Soc


SOKER, an island in the Red Sea; 3 miles E. of Dj<hbei.

SOKO, a fertile district of Africa, .on the Oo'd Coalt, extending 3 miles alor-g the coist of the Voita. The Deople are ctr.ployed ,in fishing.

SOKOLOW, a town of Poland, in Podolia.

SOKOLO VVKA, a town of the oi-devant kingdom of Poland, and late Pa!atin;»te of L<-mhtr|»; now in the modern Austrian kingdom of GaliCIA; 20 miles S. of Lrmberg.

SOKOLVOD, a mountain of Croatia.

SOKOR, a fort of Russia, in the country of the Cossacs; 24 miles NVV. of T*ari;ain.

(1.) SOL, the Sun, in astronomy, astrology, &c. £?c Ast-ronomv. Index.

(2.) Sol, in chemistry, i»gold.; thus called from an opinion that this metal is in a particular manlier under the influence of the fun.

(3.) Sol, in heraldry, denotes Or, the golden colour in the arms or sovereign princes.

(4.5 Sol, in music, the fifth note of the gamut, a/, re, mi, fa,ft!, la. See Gamut.

(5.) Sol, or Sou, in the French currency, a coin made up of copper mixed with a Httie (liver, and worth upwards of an Englisn halfpenny, or the 23d part os an English {hiding. The sol when first struck was equal in value to 12 deniers Toarnois, whence it was aiso calied doiautin, a name it still retains, though its ancient vaiue be changed; the sol hiving been since augmented by three deniers, and struck with a puncheon of a fleur-de-lis, to make it current for 15 deniers. Soon after the old sols were coined over again, and both old and new were indifferently made current for 15 deniers. In 1709, the value of the fame sols was raised to 18 deniers. Towards the end cf the reign of Lewis XIV. the sol of 18 deniers was again lowered to 15; and by L«wis XVI. it was reduced to the original value of 12.

(6.1 Sol, in Dutch currency. The Dutch have two kinds of sols: the one of stiver, called foh dt grot, and likewise shelling; the other of copper, called also the^orwr.

SOLA, an isiar.d in the Caribbean Sea ; 30 mile« E. of Margarita.

* SOLACE, n.f. {solatium, Latin. Comsort; pleasure; alleviation; that which gives comfort or pleasure; recreation; amusement.— Therein sat a lady 'resh and fair,

Making sweet solace to herself alone.

Fairy $>utcn.

—Although they be glad, we are not to envy them this their solace. Hooker.

Sorrow wauld folnet. Shai.

Solace in her return. Milton, Where so soon As in our native language can i find

That solace? U'i'en,

Though si^ht be lost,

Life yet hath many solaces. Milton.

SufFrer and solace of thy woe. Prior.

(tO * To Solace, T. a. [splatter, old French; folazzare, Italian ; solatium, Litiu.j To comfort; to cheer; to amuse.—We will with some strange pastime jolace them. Shsk.

The birdi with song Solac'd the woods. Milieu. (2.) * To Solace. <v. n. To take comfort; to be recreated. Tiie neutral fense 16 obiolttc.— But one thing to rejoice and Jolace in, And cruel death hath catch'd it. Shah. This fikly land might solace as before.


SOLÆUS, or SoLEtM, in anatomy, one of the extensor muscles of the scot, rilinj; frem the upper and hinder parts cf the tibia and fibula.

{%.) SOLANDER, Daniel Charles, M.D. aneminent Swedish naturaiist, bom in the province of Nordland, in Sweden, in 1736. He studied at Up!a\ and was a pupil of the great Linnæus. He took his degree at Upsal, and m 1760 visited England, where he continued some years, and was prevailed on by his friend Sir Joseph Banks, to accompany Captain Cook in his first voyage of discovery rourid the woild, in 1768. (See Cook, ty3 HI. J 2.) fn 1773, he was appointed one of the librarians of the British Musæum. He died of an apoplectic fit, in 1782.

(2.) *solander. n.f. [fDulandrej,Tr.] A disease in horses. Di3.

{3.) Solander is the fame with Sallehdei. See FARRtFRY, Pari IV. Seel. XI.

(».) So Lander, or Solan Df.r.'s Island, in geography, an iflind in the S. Pacific Ocean, near the S. coist of New Zealand, discovered by Captain Cook, in 1770, and named by him after the celebrated Doctor. It is only a mile in circuit, but remarkably high, consisting of several hills. B-)th hills and valleys produce wood, but no inhabitants were observed cm it. Lon. 192. 49- W. Lat. 46. 31. S.

SOLANDRA, in botany, a genus of plants, ranked by some botanists under the class monoidfbia, and the order polyandria; but by that accurate botanist, Mr James Lee, of Hammersmith, it is arranged under the class polygatuia, and in the order monoecia. It is ranked in the natural system, under the 3$th order, Tricoccear. The calyx is Ample ; the capsule oblong, wreathed, and fivecelled; the seeds arc many, disposed in cells in a double order. The valves after maturity are divaricated, even to the base, and winged inwards by the partition. The only specks is

Solandra Lobata. This genus was first named Solandra, in honour of Dr Solander, by Murray in the 14th edition of the Syjlema Fegetabilium.

SOLANGO, an island on the coast of Peru; »i miles N. by W. of the Colanche, and 12 S. of Port Callo.

SOLAN Goose. See Pelicanvs, N° ».


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This is also- cultivated in gardens, particularly in Jamaica. It seldom rises above a foot in height. The stalk is herbaceous and smooth ; the Itaves oval and downy; the flowers are large and blue ; the fruit is as b:g as, and very iike,, the egg of a goose. It is often used boiled as a vegetable abng with animal food or but»

sis order, belonging to the fentandr'ta ciass of ter, and supposed to be aphrodisiac, and to cure plants; and in the natural method ranking under sterility.


mon in many places in Britain about dunghills aiid waste places. It rises to about two feet in height. The stalk herbaceous, the leaves alternate, irregularly oval, indented, and clothed with soft hairs. The flowers are white j the berries black and shining. It appears to possefe the d<e> letcrious qualities of the other nightshades in a, very high degree, and even the smell of the plant is fiid to cause sleep. The berries are equally poisonous with the leaves ; causing eardialgia, and delirium, and violent distortions ot the limbs inchildren. Mr Gataker in 1757 recommended its internal use in old fores, in sciofulous and cancerous ulcers, cutaneous eruptions, and in dropsies. He fays, that one gram infused in an ounce of water sometimes productd a considerable effect; that in the dote of 2 or 3 grains it seldom failed to evacuate the first passages, to increase very sensibly the discharges by the skin and kidneys, and sometimes to occasion headach, drowsiness, giddiness, and dimness of fight. Mr Brooir.fieW fays, that in case? in which he tried this solanum, they were much aggravated by it; and in one cafe in the dose of one grain it proved mortal to one of his patients; therefore he thinks its use is prejudicial. It is now never given internally. It wast anciently employed externally «^ a diseutient and anodyne in some cutaneous affections, tumefactions of the glands, ulcers, and disorders of the eyes,

6. Solanum Nigrum Rubr'um, a native oF the West Indie", is called gima by the negroes. It is so far from having any deleterious quality, that it is daily served up at table as greens or spinnage. It has an agreeable bitter taste.

7. Solanum Tumrosum, the common potato. See Potato. § I, 1—14; and Rural ECONOMY, Part II. Sett. III. J *.

(1.) * SOLAR. Solarv. adj. [fi'aire, French; sclarir, Latin.} 1. fking of the fun.—The corpuscles that make up the beams of light be salary effluviums. Boyle.

Goidfn fruit*,
By genial show'rs and solar heat siipply'd.


a. Belonging to the fan.—They denominate some herbs solar, and some lunar. Bacon.—Scriptuie hath been punctual in other records, concerning; salary miracles. Broum. 3. Born under or in theprcdominait influence of the fun.—

Proud beside, xssolar people are. Drytlen. 4. Measured by the sun.—The rule to find themoon's age, on any day of any filar month, cannot shew precisely an exact account of the moon, because of the inequality, and the number of days of the-/«-.'/ir months. Holder.

(a.) Solar Days. Set: Astronomy, and Chronology, Indexes.


tie ii!h order, LuriJx. The calyx is inferior; '.fcecarolla is rotate, and generally monophyllou*; the fruit a berry, bilocnlar, and containing many small and flat setds. Of this gtmis theie are 66 fcecief, most of them natives of the East and Welt Indies. The most remarkable are the following:

1. Solanum Dulcamara, a native of BritninK,i of Africa, is a (sender cii;nbing plans, rising to 5k or more feet in height. The leaves are geKtjiiy oval, pointed, and of a deep green colour; tse flowers hang in loose clusters, of a purple colour, and divdcd into five pointed segments. The calyx is purple, persistent, and divided into five. The five filaments are short, black, and inserted mo the tube of the corolla. The anther* yellow, erect, and united in a point as usual in this gtnni. The style is long, and terminates in an obtuse stigma. The berry, when ripe, is red, aM contains many flat yellowish seed's. It grows in hedges well supplied with water, and flowers about the end of June. On chewing the roots, »c first feel a bitter, then a sweet, taste; hence tb?name. The berries are poisonous, and may ''lily be mistaken by children for currants. The fcpitt1 or younger branches are directed for use, 3»'t may be employed- either fresh or dried: they ibould be gathered in the autumn. They are gi*fo in decoction or infusion. Razou directs the tallowing': Take dried dulcamara twii's half a iraa, and pour upon-it 16 ounces of spring water, which must be boiled down to 8 ounces; tbtn strain it: 3 or 4 tea spoonfuls to be taken fry 4 hours, diluted with milk t>> prevent its 'Kiting a nausea. Several authors fay, that the cilcamara partakes of the milder powers of the "gbtshade, jo;ned to a resolvent and saponaceous Swlity; hence it promotes the secretions of 11n«, sweat, the menses, and lochi.i. It is recommended in a variety of disorders; but p-articular1'in rheumatisms, obstructed menses, and lochia; Jifo in some obstinate cutaneous diseases.

i. Solanum Lokcum; This p ant is herbaceous, but grows rank. The Rowers are blue; Jn4 the fruit is fix or eight inches long, and proportionally thick. It is boiled and eaten at tabie i> the egg-plant, N° 4.

3. Solanum Lycopersicon, the Love At. or Tomato, cultivated in gardens in the warmer parts of Euiope and in ail tropical counts. The stalk is herbaceous, the leaves pinnat'4, oval, pouted, and deeply divided. The How's"1 We on simple rucemi: they are small and yel•3W. The berry is of the size of a; they are TMooth, shining, soft ; and are either of a yellow °t reddish colour. The tomato is in daily use; bung either boiled in soups ->r broths, or served u? boiled as garnishes to fljlh meats.

•(•solanum Mslongena, th* egg plant, or

(3.) Solar Eclipses dex.

U-) Solar Microscope. 3N° 7, 8 ; and Optics, Index

(j.) Solar Noon. Sec Astronomy. Index.

(6.) Solar Spots. See Astronomy, $ 51, 93—103; 14J—155.

(7.) Solar Systems. See Astronomy, Index.

(8.) Solar Year. See Astkonomy, and Chronology, Indexes.

SOLAROSA, a town of Sardinia; 9 miles NE. of Oristagni.

SOLARS, 3 islands in the E. Indian Ocean, belonging to the Dutch; abounding in all kinds of provisions. The middle one has a good harbour, and lies E. of Ende Island.

* SOLARY. See Solar.

SOLBE, a river in the isle of Man.

SOLCA, a town of the new Italian kingdom, (ci-devant republic,) in the dtp. of Panaro, district and late duchy of Modena; 7 miles N. of Mod en a.

SOI.CK, a town of Stiria; 16 miles W. of Oberwoltz.

(1.) * SOLD. The preterite and participle passive of Jell.

(*.) * Sold n. f. [souldte, old French. Tre•voux.) Military pay; warlike entertainment.— But were your will her fold to entertain.

Fairy Queen.

(x.) * SOLDAN. n.s. [fromsultan.] The emperor of the Tuiks.—

They at the soldan't chair defy'd the best.


(2.) Soudan. See Sultan.

(1.) *SOLDANEL. n.s. [soldanella, Latin.] A plant. Miller. .

(a.) Soloanel, 7 or Rindweed, in botany,

SOLDANELLA, ) a genus of piants belonging to the ciai* of pentandr'ta, aud ordtr of monogyr.ia; and in the natural system arranged under the list order, Precis. The corolla is campanulated; the border being very finely cut into a great many segments. The capsule is um'ocular, and itB apex polydentate.

SOLDANIA, a bay on the SW. coast of Africa, N. of the Capt of Good Hope. Lon. 18. 4. E. Lat. 33. Jo. S.

SOLD AU, or Dziadorf, a town of Oberland; 88 milts S.of Koniglberg.

(,1.) * SOLDER. 11. s. [from the v.-rb.] Mefaiiick cement. A nittaliitk body that will melt with less heat thin the body to be soldered.— Goldsmiths fay, the coarsest stuff

Will serve for solder weil enough. Swift.

(i.) Solder, Sodi>er, or Sodfr, a metallic or mineral composition used in soldering or joinii.g together other metals. Solders are made of gold, silver, copper, tin, bismuth, ami lead. In the composition there must always be some of the metal that Is to be soldered mixed with snme higher and fnier rrtetaR CMfiniris kirrotily made 4 kinds of Inkier, viz. solder of eight, where to seven parts of silver there is one of brafj ot copper; folder ot lix, where only a sixth part id copper; solder of four, and solder of three : but one kind or % at molt 1. now used. As mixturi-s of jold with a little copper melt with kse heat

See Astronomy, In- than pure gold itself, these mixtures serve as folders for gold: two pieces of fine gold are folderSee Microscope, ed by gold that has a small admixture of coppery and gold alloyed with copper is sjidered by such as is alloyed with more copper. A mixture of goid and copper is also a solder for fine copper as well as for fine gold. Gold being particularlydisposed to unite with iron, proves an excellent folder for the finer kinds of iron and steel instruments.- The solder used by plumbers Is made of two pounds of lead to one of block-tin. Its goodness is tried by melting it, and pouring the bigness of a crown piece on a table; for, if good, there will arise little bright lhining stars therein. The solder for copper is made like that of the pluTibcrs; only with copper and tin; and for very nice works, instead ot tin, they sometimes use a quantity of silver. Solder for tin is made of two 3ds of tin, and one of lead, or of equal parts of each; but where the work is any thing delicate, as in organ pipes, where the juncture is scarce discernible, it is made of one part of bismuth and three parts of pewter. The pewterers use a kind of solder made with two parts of tin. and one of bismuth; this composition melts with the least heat of any folder. Silver solder is that which is made of two parts of silver and one of brass, and used in soldering those metals. Spelter solder is made of one part of brass and two of spelter or z;uc, and is used by the braziers and copp-rsiniths for soldering bias-, copprr, and iron. Though spelter solder be much cheaper than silver solder, yet workmen in many cases prefer the iatter. Mr Boyle found it to run with so moderate a heat, as not to endanger the melting of the delicate parts of the work to be solJcred; and if well made, this silver folder will lie even upon the ordinary kind itself; and so si.l up those little cavities that may chance to be left in the first operation. As 10 iron, it is sufficient that it be heated to a white heat, and the two extremities, in this state, be hammered together; by which means they become incorporated one with the other.

* To Solder, V. a. [fouder, Fr. soideire, Ital. solidare, Latin.) Sec Soder. I. To unite or fasten with any kind of metallick cement.—A concave sphere of gold, fil ed with water, atul soldered uo, has, upon prising the so here withgreat force, let the water squeeze through it. Newton. 1. To mend; to unite any thing broken.—It booteth them not thus \o solder up a broken cause. Hooker.

As if the world ihouid cleave, and that il l.11 rr.en

Should solder up the rift. Sbai.

Th»u visible Rod, that smltf rest close .impossibilities, Sbak.

Replete strange hermeti k powder. That wounds nine nnies point-blank wo\iH_/l/der. Hudibrat. 'Tis quickly folder'd, or a new bespoken.

Dry den.

—At the Rest ovation the Prt sbyteri.Tns, and other sects did ail unite anil folder up their K^cral schemes, to join apain't the church. Sm'si.

* SOLDEKKR, >nji [from jildcr.j One that folders or uic:;ds.


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