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very necessary assistance afforded by this society, similar institutions have been established at Algiers, Lilbon, Philadelphia, Boston, Jamaica, Dublin, Leith, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Birmingham, Gloucester, Shrop!hire, Northamptonshire, Lapcaster, Bristol, Wbitehaven, Norwich, Exeter, Kent, and Newcastle. The society has published an 8vo volume with plates, consisting of cafes, correspondence, and a variety of interesting matter relating to the object of this btnevoient mlutution. , . .. ,

VI. The Philanthropic Society was instituted in September 1788. It aims at the preveU; tion of crimes, by removing out of Uie way of evii council, and evil company, thufe children who are, in the present state of things, destined to ruin. It proposes to educate and instruct in tome uleful trade or occupation the children of convicts, or other infant poor, who are engaged in vagrant or criminal courlcs; thus to break the chain of those pernicious confederacies, deprive the wicked of successors, the gaols of inhabitants, justice of its victim1, and by ail these means add citizens to society. This institution is not only calculated to drcrealu vice and infamy, but to increase useful mdujtry; so that thole children who would otherwise succeed to their parents-hereditary crimes, aud become the next race of i« ggars and thieve.-, will now be taught to supply hy. honest, means, their own wants and the want6 of others. To carry into effect these desirable purposes, it is the fit It business of the society to select from prisons, and from the haunts of vice, profligacy, and beggary, such objects as appear most likely to become obnoxious to the laws, or prejudicial to the community } and, in the execution of tins duty, the issuance of the magistrates, the clergy and all < who are interested in the promotion of good morals and good government, is most earnestly requested. Tor the employment of the children, several houses are supported, at Cambridge Heath, near Hackney, in each of which a master-workman is piaced for the purpose of teaching the qhildren some useful tiarle. The trades already established nre those of a printer, carpenter, (hoemaker, ami taylor. The girls are at present educated as servants.

In 1791 no less than 70 chi'dren were under the protection <' this society,among whoa were many who had been yuilty of various teJonies, burglaries, and other crimes. Yet, singular as it may appear, in less than two years those very children, became no less remarkable for industry, activity, d-cency, and obedience, than they ionncrly were for the contrary vices. Such are the grounds on which the Philanthropic Society now claims the attention and solicits the patronage of the public. If we regard humanity and religion, this institution opens an asylum to the most forlorn and abject of the human race; it beiiiendi. the most friendless; it fives from the certain and fatal consequences of infamy anil vicious courses oiphans and deserted children. If we regard national prosperity and the public welfare, it Is calculated to increase industry ; and it directs that industry into the most useful and necessary channels. If we regard self-interest, its immediate object is to protect our persons from aiiuau aud murder, our

property from depredation, and our peaceful habitations from the desperate fury of midnight incendiaries.

One guinea per annum constitutes a member of the society j and L. 10 at one payment a member for life. A life-subscription, or an annual payment of at least two guineas, is a necessary qualification for being elected into the committee.

VII. Society For: The Establishment Of A Literary Fund; for the'relief of Authors and their Families*;. :Under the article LiteraRy Fund, we gave a hint of the nature of this excellent institution ; which was all that we could accomplish at that period of our work, haying then no other information respecting it, but what we fad acquired scorn one of she Society's advertisements, in a London paper. • fiut the Kev. David WilLiams, a most'intelligent and active member of that Society haying published a learned and elegant work, in 180a, with the Society's approbation, for trie express purpose of communicating information to the public respecting it, we are now happy in having it in our power to lay before our readers a more satisfactory account of an Institution, the nature and objects of which must be peculiarly pleasing to every lover of Literatme and friend to humanity. Mr Williams has given his work the dignified title of "Claims Of LiTerature: the. ■. Ok.kjin, Motives, Objects, and Transactions, of the Society Fok Thr


be keep^-upthis liberal idea of Clainu, not cbarit-, throughout the whole work. Fiomthis excellent treatise, the whole of which we would quote were it possible to find rnom, we can only insert a sew extracts. The institution had been tgrsome time in the contemplation of the founders, and one advertisement entitled "literature And Arts," had been, published in Oct. 1786, but " with no material effelj." when the benevolence of the fopndera was joused 8nd excited to its utmost pitch, by a melancholy event, which determined them to hasten the execution of. their plan.— "The subjects, (fays Mr William*, p. i03.)Uaving been frequently discussed, in the conversations ot a Club—the general origin of enterprizes in England—it had taken posseilion of the minds of the member?; and wlie:: the news arrived, that Floyer Sydenham, the belcved friend of several of these members, had silently suffered extreme distress, and died in poverty of a broken heart, a resolution was adopted to expiate the grief and lliame of t!:e event, by a Monvment To His Memor Y, in the institution of a Literary Fund

"Eight Gentlemen sufcrihed each a guinea, which they repeated 3 or 4 times in the first yr,-«r. to keep an advertisement generally befote the public, of which a copy is subjoined;" (in the vorkj "the Constitutions were drawn up, a Committee and Officeis appointed, and the Society, in miniature was formed. The advertisement connlining to draw numbers, and the receipts of the Society exceeding its expenditure, the cases of Claimants were taken into confnleiation and re. lieved; and its suit anniversary held on the 18th of May 1790." . .

By the Cown Itutions of this truly humane uiely, of which extiact is giventi om the Minute*

- bf SfnuiH Boscawis, £sq. member of the pri,aa. annual subscription, B-t '.els than a tea, rtitles the Subscriber to a voice in the ^twicuis of the Society. Donations of Tin wand upwards* wihin one year, constitute ;for life; and lcgv.ieo in trust will he hil'y received. The powers of Uiis Society |tSedin 5 Prefttent, Kice-Prrfd.'nti, 3 Ktgi/trtrt, <fiten j a Councii of not more than 50, an I (UiiiL Cjmmittes of 21 membtr'!; 7 of ,|0 out jii.;u.i!ly according to priority of jsd are then eligible into the Council; shrrs of which may, after 3 years, be re«eIoto the general Committee.—The ordinaIs is transacted by the General Committee tie jd Tlia.-sd iv ir. the MTilth—At a'las10s Snbs ribers, Council;, or Committees, ion; are by a majority; the President gives iSiag vote, on an equal division.—All APio*s For Relief must be made to a Regis^tomaf immediately summon a Committee, cases be urgent. The assistance afforded to ia distress, or to their widows and chilliiiall be at the discretion of the Committee,"

Summary of the Society's Transactions, W. a Esq, mentions, (p. 139.) that, "The 7. during nearly 11 years, wh'ch have e"«ce its institution, has administered rest-,5cases of distress; the number of ptrT3B have experienced its bounty is 1x5 ; and to distributed amounts in the whole to Jo Is."

awe numerous instances, the proat rr.ajori*tw published, frirn obvious mo ives ot deJ. "A few cafes" however " owing to the iuft^e parties or theu" known circumstances, Sr delicacy is out of the question," are pubfci- "The very first cafe of a meritorious 1 and author, in distressed circumstances, attracted the notice of the committee, was the learned but unfortunate, Dr Harwood;" HiiwoOD, M3 1.) " a man whose perfect txift of the learned language*, and labu■ diligence, both a« an ofcil instructor aud Pjlff, scarcely pr-.cured h m a Canty and prelaw sjpport.—In the iufancy of this institu'ion P*iitri it, funj< amounted to lit tie, this deferB •''>••* repeatedly received assistance, which potdhirrt from misery."

Aaang the cases during this 1 liter perbd," |œi the funds of the S'eirty had increased}, 1 Can of the late ingenious and spirited tratis■Jf tt*\" (See Mickle, 1.) " to. Nubs

expeiice of whose education, the S.icieootet!.an once, contributed by donations for (purpose, to the Gentleman under whose care jouib was placed. Another interesting cafe, t &d may be mentioned, was that of the widow «children of that distinguished I', et, and origins Robert Burns." (See Burns.) "To»»is the subscription for their relief and future TMi>iiihtr.tnt, the committee contiibuted a large P*' considering the amount of the funds then at disposal, and have since made an addition; 1j llat the whole amounts to L 4i" . ."^t Society, (continues Mr B-iseawen ) in ^itim relief, have njt ccl> haU regard tw tkt

talents ar.d wants of the objects, in behalf 9s whom it was solicited, but also to the nature and utility of their <wortt. Writers, who have contributed to the instruction of the riling generation, to the advancement of morality, or the support of religion, have, uniformly, obtained its ci<u;H*i nanre and assistance; while the authors of flanderons, immoral, or of impious woiks, have, i»» general, been speedily detected, and iiignomiaW ously repelled." p. I46.

Mr Williams, in the 5th Section of his exetf* lent treatise, p. 8z. upon Fatro*ace, say« " if statesmen, instead of advancing the domestics of their own families and those ol their friends, wer< to bestow the places at their disposal on rrei) of real Literature, the advantageous effects would soon be perceived, not only in the conduct of ouu* ness, but in the general morals of the country. But not a shilling is devoted by the public, to the support, to the relief in distress, or to the solace in misery, of these persons, whose talents and in. ventions direct and modify all useful employments* without participating in their profits iind Comforts. Men of genius, like all men of large possessions; arc inattentive to little tilings. They are tlicro*'ore> generally iht instruments and the prey ot mediocrity, which is frugal and prudent, which often; strips them of their tame, as well as the profitable fruits of their labours." p. Sa,.

After* variety of judicious remarks on Freeschools, Charity-schools, and vaiious ot her source* of Literary MiJ'r't, both in England and Fiaiiec, Mr Williams observes, (p. 77.) "All the persons from which these classes arc formed have Claims, I will not fay to compassion' and charity, but; tc Justice, Somewhere; and if it cannot yes be rendered by the laws, which are obliged to punish offences and ciimes, whatever be their origin, we must endeavour to administer the best substitute for it we can afford, in the corrective humanity of the Sociity For A Literary Fund."

"Literary distref:," (he ads, p. 89,) " it mi;-!* be imagined, would deeply interest the seirair heart;' but tin ugh, in all its circumstances, it is the most afseiiliiig, every method hitherto devised, by the? managers of ihe Literary Fund, has scarce1/ introduced it to the aften ioii of any elevated anj opulent women. The claims of other charities, which sometimes sooth, sometimes ivrtnch tlitir sensibility, attract them in great numbers ; but the miseries of genius impress by reflection, not mtiw ly hy sentiment; they affect the seiifibili'y of the mmd,L*ot that of the organization.—Patroi* Esses* there arc, of fulsome flattery, Or of political parties, but none of general literature, an.'j reat g-uius. on their own account; for all,of those pietenlrons.havq been repeatedly " lencbai With the.spear of lib::' riel," in the efforts towards establishing the LiteRary Fund. The female claimants on this fund? are as nuintroiis as the male; but Seven i-iims Only, have assisted it with their subscription!

If this fact appear surprising to the benevolent ftiendS of Literature, what will they thint of the feelings ot the learned and the affluent among tur ourn i0vnirjm,K, when they ait insovmec), that an Institution of this kind had existed, and been repeatedly advertised in the principal London pa' fen ft* *» >«an>i Wiifcwt prvlwiuj iliive ttnt

*A tubsubscribers from North Britain? With a kind •"of patriotic or pbilo-ndtional anxiety, we have ex'amined the subscription List; and amidst a vast number of the most respectable names among the nobility, genuy and clergy of England, and several of Ireland, we could only discover 3 subscribers, Who, wecould be certain, belong by birth, property, or tit les to Scotland: viz. the most Noble ihe MarQuis Of Bute, the Rt. Hon. the Earl Of Fife, •and Sir John- Sinclair of liMler, B.irt. There are only other 4 names in the whole numerous list, •which we can suspect to be of Scottish origin: viz. J.Adam, Esq. the Hon David Anftruther, Governor Bruce, and Nathaniel Atcheson Esq, who i» probably of the noble Goeford familviof Irtlar.d, originally from Scotland. In short it is equally ■astonishing and unacountahle, that in a' nation so 'long and 'so justly famed for producing eminent Literary Characters, and which has also lately produced several, who-have been allowed to perish in poverty, for want of such an institution, (See Bruce, J; and Fercusson :) there should appear such a criminal dilatorincfs and backwardness to encourage an institution of such evident utility, and which has been so long a national desideratum.

We have only to add, that the Claim's Of LiTerature are supported, enforced auttembellimed, by a number of beautiful Poetical Compositions; the first of which is an Address to thcDvnf. Of Somerset, President of the society, by H. J. •Pye, Esq, the next two are Anniversary Poems by the celebrated Captain Morris, the Elder; the 4th is an anniversary Ode by W. Boscawe". Esq. aster which follow 13 beautiful Poem-: in the various forms of Odes, Addresses, Songs, Lines, Sec. by Messrs Bofcawen, Morris, Fitzgerald, Dyer, Pye, Dr Busby, Dr Israeli, Birch, Dr Symmons, and Mrs Rigaut. Among these, without prrfuming to compare their other merits, the most humorous appears to be Mr Bofcawen'? song, to the tune of The Sons of Atiacevv, of which we fh ill only quote the first and last verses:

"To Apollo, their king at fam'd Helicon's court,

The lean ragged Muses preferr'd a p;t;tion, That his Godlhip would please, when to earth they resort,

To provide for his sisters, and mend their condition.

"What avails all our merit,

"Taste, knowledge, or spirit, "If a poor barren laurel is all we inherit? "If Fortune with Dulnes- and Envy combine "Gainst the son* of true Genius, and Fifends of the Nine."

The ingc-mus author, in the fame strain of pure classical humour, carries on the complaint of the Goddesses, through other two stanzas ; and in the 4th gives Apollo's reply; with his advice, to " Go to Bacchus—he'll op n each true British heart." In the 5th stanza, the Muses wait on the God of wine, and obtain his cheerful consent; and the Poet concludes, in his na'ne, in the 6th (as we ihill do our review of this excellent work,) thus:

"Then thus be inspir'd a kind liberal B 'nd, While free as their mirth their humanity flows:) •' Unite, iny brave fellows, unite hc.rt and hand, "To raise drooping Genius and lighten its woes! *

"From this happy day, "Every Muse shall display, "Yoiir fame hi blight colours that uevt-r deesy: "Nor snail Fortune with Dulnesis and Envy con bine

"'Gainst the Sonsof true Genius, and Friends oft) Nine.

Sect. II. Of SociFTrF.s for Promoting Sc Ence and Literature.

I. The Royal Society of London is anademy or body of persons of eminent learning, ii stituted by Charles II. fi r the promoting of n,,ti ral knowledge. The origin of this society is ;r: ced by Dr Sprat, its earliest historian-, no farthi back than to "some space after trie end i the civil wars" in the 17th centm-y. The freof the first meetings of the barned men who hi the foundation of it, ix by him fixed in the nrive fry of Oxford, at the lodgings of Dr Wikii warden of Wadham college. But Dr Birch, the authority of Dr Wallis, o^e of its earliest ;<most considerable members, affigrs it an radii origin. According to him, certain worthy pc: sons, residing in Londv.n about 1645, being "ii quititive into natural and the new and exptrime: tai philosophy, agreed to meet weetly on a cei tain day, to discourse upon such subjects, an were known by the title of The Invisible or Pkih fopbicul College." In 1S48 and 1649, the comp< r.y who formed these meetm^ were divided, pa; retiiing to O"ford and part rerr.ainir'g in London bus they continued' the fame pursuits as whea u nittd, corresponding with each ether, and givin a mutual account of their resp<ctive discovertAbout 1659 the greater part of Oxford society rt turned to London and again uniting with thei fellow-labourers met once, if not twice, a week a Grefham college, during term time, til! they wer soaltered by the public distractions of that yea and the place of their meeting made a quarter fu soldiers. On the restoration i.i 1660 their meeting were revived, and attended by a greater con course of men eminent for their rank and learning They were at last taken notice of by the kin;' who having himself a considerable taste for phyfi cal science, gave them an ample char"er, dated th l$th July 1662, ar.d afterwards a second data ij-th April 1763, by which they were erected inti a corporation, consisting of a president, council and fellows, for promoting natural knowledge and to give their investigations, against whirl strange prejudices were entertained, every psffibl support, he sometimes honoured their mtetiug with hid presence.

Their manner of electing fellows is by ballot iug. Their council are in number 11, inchidin; the president, vice-president, treasurer, and tw< secretaries; 11-of whom are continued for tht next year, a.;d 10 mote added to them ; all chofer on St Andrew's day. Each member at his admission subscribes an engagement that lie will endeavour to promote the good of the society; from which he may be speed at any time, by signify':;; to the president that he desires to withdraw. T"-* charge* are now five guineas paM to the tvensui at admission; and 13s. per quarter so lonp at ..." person continues a member: or, in lieu of Mi. ,<■'nial siibfcripf ion, a composition of »j guineas in we payment.

Their deS^r. K to" make f ikbful records of j' :1k works of nature or art which come within :;.- teach; so that the present a* well as future i.- may be enabled to put a n ark on errors have been strengthened by long prescripts; 'o restore truths tnat have been reglectod; 13 p-Jth torse already V own to more v aicus iff ; to make the way more passable to what resets tmre-.eaW," fcc. To this purpose they :•<; tt:ide a jjreat number of experiments aud "b113 iræs ert most of the works of nature ; and all-:mbu;uf fiiort histories of nature, art*, oianui-Tite^ useful engines, contrivances, &c. The t. Mt oiiich they have rendered to the public iif very They have improved naval, civil «-i military architecture; advanced the fecuiity i i perfectwri of navigation ; improved agriculi'/r; and put not only this kis;jdom, but also hiad, the plantations, &c. upon planting. 17 bave registered experiment', histories, rela:.. J, r.bst,rv,*tions, &c. and reduced them into œrcotnmun stock; and have, stem time to time, fj liftedthofc which they reckoned most useful, iMc-the title of Philo'oibical Transactions, &c. I'iliid the rest up in public registers, to be tranfr:u:d to posterity, as a solid ground-work fer fu

Ufl tjftf-.S.

1>efhavea library adapted to their institution; t- iri, which Mr Henry Howard, afterwards i'itof Norfolk, contributed the Norfo'cian filar, whkh is now greatly increased by a contiiiilferies of benefactions. The museum of natufilrd artificial rarities, given them by Daniel Ctait, Esq; and since enriched by many others, i. :o»-reai-iTed to the Biitiih museum, arid makes J part of that great repository. Their motto is SJm in vtrba; and their place of assembling is Strierfet-house in the strand. Sir Godfrey Cop

i Bitt. left five guineas to be given annually 1 tttpttson who Ihou.d write the best paper in f t year, under the head of experimental philosofiy- Thi:. reward, which is now changed to a v medal, is the highest honour the society cas ^Sow. It U conferred on St Andrew's day.

H. The HorAL Society of Edinburgh, was Korpotated by royal charter on the loth of March '"ij, ar.d has for its object the cultivation of evetj branch of science, erudition, and taste. Its rife ■3(1 progress towards it; present state was as fol!"»»: In i7ig i literary society was established in i liLburgh by the learned Ruddiman and others, '"Inch in 1731 was succeeded by a society instiled for the improvement of medical knowledge.

IJ39 the celebrated Maclaurin conceived the i<kiof enlarging the plnn of this society, by exVriding it to subjects of philosophy and literature. Tie institution was accordingly new-modelled by 1 prated set of laws and regulations, the number of "■■embers was increased, and they were distinguishtcirom that time by the title of The Society for Imi'tnmg Arts and Sciences, or more generally by :=t title of The Philosophical Society of Edinburgh.

wetting', however, were soon interrupted by I* d (orders of the country during the rebellion ^'74$; and they were not renewed till 1751. after this period the tirst volume of the

Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh was pub'.ilhed, urubr the title of Essays and Observations, Physical and Literary, and was followed by other volumes of acknowledged merit. About trie end of 1782, in a meeting of the professors of the univeriity of Edinburgh, many of whom were likewise member, of the Society, 4 scheme was proposed by the Rev. Dr Robertson, principal of the university, for the establishment of a new society on a more extended plan, and after the model of some of the foreign academies. It appeared an expedient measure to solicit the royn] patronage ta au institution of this nature, which promised to be of national, and to request an eftablifliment by charter fiorn the, crown. The plan was approved and adopted; and the Philosophical Society, joining itc influence as a body in seconding the application from the university, hjs majesty, was m. st graciously pleased to incorporate The Royal. Society of Edin■burah by charter.

This society consists of ordinary and honorary members; and the honorary places are restricted, to persons rending cut of Great Britain arid Ireland. The election of new members f^ippointed to be made at two stated general meetings, which are to be held on the 4th Monday of January, and the 4th Monday of June. A candidate for the. place of an orrlinary member must signify by a letter, addressed to one of the meinbcis, his with '» be received into the society. He rruist then be publicly proposed at least .1 month before the day of election. If the be seconded by two of the members present, his name is to be inserted in the lift of candidates, and hung tip in the ordinary place of meeting. The election is made by ballot, and is determined in favour of a candidate, if he shall have ihe votes of two thirds of those present, in a meeting consisting of at least ax members. The general business of the society is managed by a president, two vice-presidents, with a council of 11, a general secretary, and a treasurer. These officers are chosen by ballot annually on the last Monday of November. All public deeds, wh-ther of a civil or of a literary nature, are transacted by this board, and proceed in the miine of the president or vice-president.

The society is divided into two dalles, which meet and deliberate separately. The Physical Class, has for its department the sciences ot mathematics, .natural philosophy, chemistry, medicine, natural history, and whatever relates to the improvement of arts and manufactures. Theiiterary Class has for its department literature, philology, ^history, antiquities, and foeculative philosophy. Every member is desired at his admission to intimate which of those classes he wislies to be more particularly associated with; but he is at the fame time liititled to attend the meetings of the other class, and to take part in ali its proceedings. Each class has 4 presidents and two secretaries, who officiate by turns.

At these meetings the written essays and observations of the memhers of the society, or their correspondents, arc read publicly, and become the subjects of conversation, after having been announced at a previous meeting. The author of each dissertation is desired to furnisli the focie

Q» tj ty vt-ith an abstract of it, to be read at the next meeting, when the conversation is renewed with Increased advantage, from the knowsedge previously acquired of the subject. At the same mcetitipt art exhibited such specimen* of natural or artificial curiosities, such remains of antiquity, and such experiments, as are thought worthy of the attention of the society. All objects of natural history presented to the society, are ordered by the charter of the institution to he deposited, nil receipt, in the museum of the university of F.dir.burgh; and all remains of antiquity, public record*, or ancient MSS- in the library belonging to the faculty of advocates at Edinburgh.

SMveral volumes of the Transactions ot the society have been published, which bear ample ttsttstimony to the learning and acutenesa of their various authors.

III. The. Society as Scottish Antiquaries is another relpectable literary and philosophical Society, instituted at Edinhurgh in 1781, and established by royal charter at the sam» time with the preceding. The Earl ofBuchan was the founder of it, and indeed may claim the merit of havuK given birth to both Societies; fur the Royat^qciety us EpiNBi>RgH above described, although it certauny did exist as a private }'hi'rist>!>b\cal Zscigty frop the period above mw'tioned, in' ail probability would never have existed in any other form than that of a private Society, if hi« lordshio had not applied to his Majesty for a royai charter to the society or Scottish Antiquaries. An opposition unexpected, and not altogether iiberal, was made to his lordship's application, by some ot the old members of the Philosoohical S leiefy, but ali opposition was happiiy quashed by his majesty's graciously granting ivs royai charters, and thus instituting both Societies at the fame time. The consequence is, that many of the most respectable literary characters in the kingdom are members of both Societies. And a.- the objects of both are ^Iso much the same, as wed as their general routine of business, it is unnecessary to enlarpe farther.

IV. The M K Die Al Society of London, was instituted in 1; 5 2,011 the plan recommended by Lord Bacon (t>e Augm. Scieril.Uh. iv.'cap. 2.j, to revive the Hipp"Cratlc method of composing narratives of part'Cnlar cast", in which the nature of the disease, the manner estreating it, and the consequences, are to be specified; to attempt the cure of those diseases winch, in his opinion, have been too bo dly pronounced incurable; and, lastly, to extend their inqii'iieV after the powers of particular medicines in the cure of p-irtieular cases. The collections of this society have been published, under the t'tle of Medical Obfervuticnj and {liquifies, in several volumes.

V. The Medical Society of Edinburgh was incorporated by loya; chatter in 1773 j but there Appear" to hav.- been in that city a voluntary association of the same name from the ftist establishment <f a regular school of physic in the iinivcrsi!y.' To tli'e voluntary society the public ia indebted for six volumes of curious a-J useful essay, collected principal y by th? late Dr M°nro from June 17.51 to June 17^6; but in 17,19 that society was united to another. The ordina

ry member? are esected by ballot, and three di! sentient exclude a c in lidate.

The mtetinf s of this society are be'd every S< turday evening in tlicir own had, during tt-e win ter season, when papers on subjects a*: delivered bv the several members in rotation; anc four of these die annually elected to fill the clui in rotation, with the title of annual president'.

VI. The Royal Physical Society of E»t« BURGH, is another Society instituted about i;8< upon the fa-ne principles with the Medical, tw conducted r.po.-, the fame p|.in. It is aii'o elta blisheei by royal charter. This Society has an c Irgant Hall, blii'.t on puspose for its meeting' ir Nicholson Strtet near the Public Dispensary zr.i has also an excellent Library.

VII. The Royal Medical Society of Parii was instituted in 1776. It is now swallowed in in t(ie National Institute. See that artic le.

VIII. Asiatic Society, an institution plannl by the late ioustrious Sir William Jones, and 3< tually formed at Calcutta on the 15th of January 1784, for the purpose of tracing the history, antiquities, arts, sciences, and literature, of the immense continent of Asia. As it was resolved to follow as near.y as peillibie tht of the Roya'Society of London, of which the king i-- piiinn, the patronage of the Asiatic Society was offend to the governor-general and council, as the executive power in the territories of the corrpany. By their acceptance of this cfser, Mr Hasting', as governor-general, appeared among the patron* of the new society, " but he seemed in his private (lation as the1 first liberal promoter of useful knowlede in Bengal, and especially as the great enceurager ot Persian and S'lanscrit literature, ta dtseive a particular m-irk of distinction :" he wi» requested, therefore, to accept the honorary title of president. This was handsomely declined in a letter from Mr Hastings, in which he requested '* to yield his pretensions to the gentleman white genius planned the inllitufion, and was most capable of conducting it, to the attainment of tte great and splendid purposes of its formation. On the receipt of this letter, Sir William Jones was nominated piesi lent of the society : and in h s first discourse from the chair, pointed out it J obj-istsas follow*: " It is your design, Iconcriv . (said he) to take ah ample space for your learnrJ investigations, bounding them only by the geographical limits of Asia; so that, considering Hindustan as a centre, and turning your eyes in idea lo the north, you have on your right many impoitant kingdoms in the eastern peninsula, the ancient empire of China with ail her Tartarian dependencies,' and that of Japan, with the cluster of precious islands, in which many curiosities have too long been concealed: before you bes that piojig'ous chain of mounlains, which forrm ly perhaps were a barrier against the violence of the sea; and beyed them the very interesting country of Tibet, and the vast regions of T*»t.i-' ry, from which, as from the Trojan horse df th* poets', have issued so many consummate w*rrior>t whose cramain has extended at least from the banks of the Lyisos to the mouths oi the Gangs.' on your left are the beautiful and celebrated provinces oi Iran Or Persia, the unmeasured and pf;

. . ....... :• .! . . b>s"

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