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■V-ftnjSioris of the viscera. The effic.cy of soap ed on pain of 20!. without giving proper notice

ia jaondice was experienced by Sylvius, and re- of his intention. And if any maker shall conceal

omsenJcd by various authors; and it was any soap or materials, he (hail forfeit the fame,

r^o^bt of use' in supplying the place of bile in and also ?oo I. Every barrel of soap (hall contain

tie orimæ vix. But it has lost much of its repu- a;6 1b. avoirdupois, half barrel 12S Ib. firkin 64

tatron in jaundice, since it is tipw known that gall lb. hats-firkin 32 Ib. besides the weight or tare of

£:ir.e» have been found in many after death, who each cask : and ail soap, excepting hard cake soap

tid been daily taking soap for months and even and ball soap, snail be put into such casks and no

yean. Of its good effects in urinary calculous other, on pain of forfeiture, and 5 1. The maker

ufefiions, we have the testimony of several, espe- shall weekly enter in writing at the next office the

Cj>1:v w hen dissolved in l itic water, by which its soap made by him in each week, with the weight

cSacj is considerably increased; for it thus be- and quantity at each boiling, on pain of 501.; and

ore:? a powerful solvent of mucus, which an in- within one week after entry clear of the duties,

f-aious modern aulhor supposes to be the chief on pain of double duty. See also stat. 5 Gco. III.

iftaJ in the formation of calculi: it is however, cap. 43. 11 Geo. III. cap. 46. 11 Gco. cap. 30.

tœy m the incipient Hat- of the disease, that these 1 Geo. flat. 2. cap. 36.

rerrediei promise effectual benefit; though they . (11.) Soap, White. Of this one sort is made generally abate the more violent symptoms where after the fame manner as green soft soap, oil alone they cannot remove the cause. With Boerhaave excepted, which 13 not used in white. The other soap was a general medicine : for as he attributed sort of white soft soap is made from the lees of rnoft complaint* to viscidity of the fluids, he, and afhe3-of lime boiled np two different times with m<A of the B •erhaavian school, prescribed it in tallow. First, a quantity of lees and tallow are ctrnjcoct-ioo with different resinous and other sob- put into the copper together, and kept boilingj since?, in gout, rheumatism, and various vifee- being fed with lees as they boll, until the whole nJ tnrnpkint'. Soap is also externally employed is boiled sufficiently; then the lees arc separated a resolvent, and gives name to several officinal Or discharged from the tallowish part, which part preparations. From its properties soap must be is removed into a tub, and the lees are thrown a1 very effectual and convenient anti-acid. It ab- way; this is called the first ha/s-boil: then the f-itb* acids as powerfully as pure alkafis.and ab- copper is filled again with fresh tallow and lees^ •qrbect earths without having the causticity of the and the suit halfboil is put out of the tub into tjrraer, and without oppressing the stomach by the copper a second time, where it is kept boilits weight lite the latter. Soap must n'so be one ing with fresh lees and tailow tiil the soap is proof the best of all antidotes to stop quickly, and duced. It is then pat out of the copper into the tnti the least inconvenience, the bad effects of a- fame soft of casks as are used for green soft soap. cii corrosive poisons, as aquafortis, corrosive sub- The common soft soap used about London, genelaute, &c. rally of a greenish hue, with some, white lumps* .'9.; Soap, Starkey's. See Chemistry, W. is prepared chiefly with tallow: a blackish sort, (io.) Soap, Taxes On. Soap imported is sub- more common in some other places, is said to be! Vet by 10 Ann. cap. 19. to a duty of ad. a pound made with whale oil.

• ivcr »nd above former duties;} and by 12 Ann. Soap-apple, n.s. a species of SafJNDUS. flat. ». cap. 9. to the farther sum of 1 d. a pound. Soap-ashes, n.s. {sonp and d/het.] The sub

A«kj by the.saTe act-', the duty 611 soap m de in stance that 1 emains after the soap-boiler has drawn

the kingdo-ri is i^d. a pound. By 17 Geo. III. bis lie. A/h. Mortimer recommends them ai

rap. 51. no person within the limits of the head cxotlleiit manure. See Soap, Jf 1. riSce of excise in London shall be permitted to SoAP-bi R?.y Tree. See Sapindus. taake ar.y soap unless he occupy a tenement of * Soapboiler, n.s. [/oapanA boll.} One whose

10L a year, be assessed, and pay the parish rates; trade is to make soap.—A soapboiler condoles with

or elsewhere, unless he be assessed, and pay to me on the duties on Castile soap. Addisoni cberch and poor. Piaces of making are to be en- Soap-earth. See Steatites. tr.-ed on pain of 501, and covers and lock« to be Soapery, n.s. The place where soap is made,

proviied under a forfeiture of 100 I.; the furnace Asri.

door of fvery utensil used in the manufacture of Soap-lek, n.s. !soaf and !ee.~\ The liquor which

soap lhail be locked by the excise officer, as soon remains after the soap is boiled. Ash. H the fire is damped or drawn out, and fastenings Soap-lie, n. s. [jlup and lie.] The lie used in

provided, under the penalty of 50 I.-, and open- making soap. AJh.

kfc* damaging such fastening incurs a penalty Soap-suds, n.J. [soapand suds.} Water impreg

ofjool. Officers are required to enter and fur- nated with soap, wrought up to a lather, in which

vf|it all times, by day or night, and the penalty clothes are washed.

of obstructing is 201. and they may unlock and (1.) * So Ap Wort. n.s. [japenaria, Lat.] Is a examine every copper, &c. between the hours of species of campion. MilUr. fire in the morning and eleven in the evening, and (1.) Soai Wort. See S.vponaria. the penalty of obstructing is ico I. silvery maker (1.) Soapy, adj. [from soap.] Like soap; coos soap before he begins any making, if within vered with soap. Ash. Lathered with soap; fapo* the bills of mortality, (hall give 11 hours, if else- naceous.

wWe 24 hours, notice in writing to the officer, (2.) Soapy Rock, a cape or rock of the F.ngof the time when he intends to begin, on pain of lifh Channel, close to the coast of Cornwall; 4 »ol- No maker (hall remove Auv soap un'urvry-' miles NVV. of Lizard Point. Vol. XXI. Part I. • r O 'SOAR.

[graphic]

* SOAR. n. s. Ifrom the verb.] Towering flight.—

Within soar Of tow'ring eagles. 1 Milton.

* To Soar. D. n. [sorare, Italian.] i. To fly aloft; to tower; to mount; properly to fly without any visible action of the wings. Milton uses it actively.—

'Tis but a base ignoble mind That mounts no higher than a bird can soar.

Sbak.

Fcather'd soon .and fledg'd, They summ'd their pens, and soaring th' air sublime,

With clang despis'd the ground. Milton.

2. To mount intelkctualiy; to tow'r with the mind.—

How high a pitch his resolution soars. Sbak. Valour soars above What the world calls misfortune. Addison.

3. To rife high.—

Who aspires must down as low As high hescar'd. Milton.

Flames rife and sink by fits; at last they soar In one bright blaze, and theQ descend no more,

Diyden.

Swallows fleet soar high. Cay.

Soar, or? a river of England, in Leicestershire.

SOARE, J anciently called Leire.

SAOVO, a town of the Italian kingdom, (cidevant republic,) in the dep. of the Mincio, district and late territory of Verona; 10 miles E. of Verona.

SOAY, an island of Scotland, near Ilcolmkill, on the coast of Sutherlandsliire, at the entrance of Loch-Inver.

(1.) * SOB. n.s. (from the verb.] A convulsive sigh; a convulsive act of respiration obstructed by sorrow.—

Break heart, or choak with sobs my hated breath. Drydtn. The short thick fob, loud scream, and shriller squall. Pope. Sighs, fobs, and passions, and the war of tongues. Pose. (1.) Sob, in geography, a river of Russia, which runs into the Oby, 32 miles SW. of Obdorikoi.

(1.) * To Sob. V. n. [fob, complaining, Saxon. Perhaps it is a mere onomatopœia copied from the found.] To heave audibly with convulsive sorrow; to sigh with convulsion.—

He twenty time s made pause to fob and weep.

Shak.

Some tears she filed, with sighj and sobbings mixt. Fairfax.

She sigh'd, she fobb'd, and furious with despair,

She rent her garments. Dryden. —When children have not the power to obtain their desire, they will, by their clamour and sobbing, maintain their title to it. Locke.

I fobb'd ;—and with faint eye*

Look'd upwards to the Ruler of the skies. Harts.

(a,) To Sob. V. a. To soak. A cant word.— The tree being fobbed and wet, swells. Mart.

SOBATZ, a town of Slavonia, on the Save; 30 miles WSW. of Belgrade, and 80 S W. of Tenielvar.

"SOBER, adj. [fibrius, Latin ; fibre, Fr.} I. Temperate, particularly in liquors; not drunken. — Live a sober, righteous, and godly life. Common Prayer.—The vines give wine to the drunkard « well as to the fibsr man. Taylor.—No sober temperate person can look with comptecency upon the drunkenness of his neighbour. South, x. Not overpowered by drink.—A law there is among the Grecians, that he which being overcome with drink did then strike any man, should suffer punishment double, as much as if he had done the fame being sober. Hooker. 3. Not mad; right in the understanding.—Another, who had a great genius for tragedy, following the fury of his natural temper, made every man and woman in his plays stark raging mad: there was not a sober person to be had. Dryden.—No sober man would put himself into danger, for the applause of escaping without breaking his neck. Dryden. 4. Regular; calm; free from inordinate passion.—This fame young sober blooded boy a man cannot make him laugh. Shak.—Cieca travelled all over Peru, and is a grave and sober writer. Abbot.—Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded. Tit. ii. 6.—The governour of Scotland being of great courage, and fiber judgment, amply performed his duty before the battle and in the(field. Hayward.—These eonfusions disposed men of any sober understanding to wish for peace. Clarendon.—Among them some sober men confessed, that as his majesty's affairs then stood, he could grant it. Clarendon.

To theft , that sober race of men, whose lives Religious, titled them the sons of God, Shall yield up all their virtue. Milton. —Be your designs ever so good, your intentions ever so sober. Wattrland. 5. Serious; solemn; grave.—

Disguis'd in fiber robes. Shah.
Come, civil night,
Thou fiber-suited matron, all in black. Sbak.

Twilight grey
Had in her fiber liv'ry all things clad. Milton.

What parts gay France from fiber Spain?
A little riling rocky chain. Prior.

For Swift and him despis'd the farce of state, The sober follies of the wife and great. Pose—See her fiber over a sampler. Pope.

* To Sober, V. a. Ifrom the adjective.] To make sober.—

Shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, And drinking largely sobers us again. Pope.

* SOBERLY, adv. [from fiber.} 1. Without intemperance. 2. Without madness. 3. Temperately; moderately.—Let any prince think soberly of his forces, except his militia of natives be valiant soldiers. Bacon. 4. Coolly; calmly.— Whenever children are chastised, let it bt done without passion, and soberly. Locke.

* Soberness, n.s. tfrom fiber.) 1. Temperance in drink.—Keep my body in temperance, soberness, and chastity. Common Prayer, a. Calmness; freedom from enthusiasm; coolness.-^ person noted for his soberness and skill in spagyrical preparations, made Helmont's experiment succeed very well. Boyle.—The soberness, of \'r" gil might have shewn "the difference. Dryden.

SOBERNHE1M, a town of Germany, in the circle of the Upper Rhine, and ci-devant cconty cr Spoohtim; now annexed to the French empur, and included in the dep. of Mont-TonEct. It is seated on the Nave, 10 miles WSW. of Kreurznach, and 30 WSW. of Mentz. Lon. Jj. 4. E. Ferro. Lat. 49. 49. N.

SOBIESKJ, John, an excellent monarch of Polled. Sec Poland, £ to, 11.

S0B1ESLAU, a town of Bohemia, in the circle cf Bechin; 10 miles E. of Bechin, and 48 SSW. cf Czzslaw.

SOBRADA, a town of Spain, in Galicia.

SOBRADLLLO, a town of Spain, in Leon.

•SOBRIETY. n.s. Lfrom sobriete, Vr./obrius, lirin.] 1. Temperance in dnnk; soberness.— idrietj hath obtained to signify temperance in ennking. Taylor, t. Present freedom from the power of strong liquor. 3. General temperance. —Moderation and sobriety in diet. Hooker. 4. freedom from indordinate passion.—The libertoe could not prevail on men of virtue and sos--idj to give up their religion. Rogers. 5. Caimans; coounsi.—Enquire with all sobriety and se»erity, what the force of imagination Is. Bacon. —S&riety in our riper years is the effect of a well. concocted warmth. Dryden.—If sometimes Ovid sppearj too gay, there is a secret gracefulness of jasth which accompanies his writings, though rhe [strict} of age be wanting. Drjden. 6. SerioaEacse; gravity.—A report without truth; and 1 tud almost said, without any sobriety, or moiety. WaUrland.

Mirth makes them not mad; Nor sobriety fad. Denbam. SOC, [Sax.] signifies power or liberty to minister jaftice or execute laws: also the circuit or territory wherein such power is exercised. Whence Ike law Latin word Jocca is used for a seigniory or iosd&ip enfranchised by the king, with the liberty of holding or keeping a court of his sockmes: And this kind of liberty continues in diners parts of England to this day, and is known t• the names of Soke andsoken.

SOCAGE. See Soccage.

(1.) • SOCCAGE. n.s. [soc, French, a ploughdart ; soceagium, barbarous Latin.] In law is a tenure of lands for certain inferiour or hulbandly frrvice* to be performed to the lord of the fee. A : fenriefs due for land being knight's service, or Sxioge; so that whatever is not knight's service, Ajutage. This soccage is of three kinds; a soclegtaX tree tenure, where a man holdeth by free fcrriceof twelve pence a-year for all manner of lirvices. Soccage of ancient tenure is of land of s^cient demesne, where no writ original shall be '•'■ici, but the wnt secundum consuetudinem manerii. Sterne of base tenure is where thole that hold it *f Save none other writ but the monsfraverunt, "A Inch sockmen hold not by certain service. Ckxi.—Tne lands are not holden in chief but by a ama tenure in soccage. Bacon.

(%.) Soccage or Socage, (fays the learned Slickftone, in his Comm. vol. II.) m its molt general and extensive signification, denote&a tenure by any determinate service. In this feme it is by aacient writers constantly put in opposition to Chivaliy or KN1GHT-SEXV1CE, where the render w»i precarious and uncertain. The service 3>iiS therefore be certain, to denominate itsoccage;

a? to hold by fealty and aos. rent; or by homage, fealty, and 10 s. rent; or, by homage and fealty without rent; or, by fealty and certain corporal services, as ploughing the lord's land for three days; or by fealty only without any other service; for all these are tenures in socage. Socage is of two sorts: free socage, where the services are not only certain but honourable; and villein socage, where the services, though certain, are of a baser nature. (See Villenage.) Such as hold by the former tenure are called, in Glanvil and other subsequent authors, by the name of liberi sokemanni, or tenants in free socage. The word is derived from the Saxon appellation soc, which signifies liberty or privilege; and, being joined to an usual termination, is called socage, in Latin socagium; signifying thereby a bee or privdeged tenure. It seems probable tharthe socage tenures were the relics of Saxon liberty; retained by such persons as had neither forfeited them to the king, nor been obliged to exchange their tenure for the more honourable, as it was called, but at the fame time more burthensome, tenure of knight-service. This is peculiarly remarkable in the tenure which prevails in Kent, called gavelkind, which is generally acknowledged to be a species of socage tenure; the preservation whereof inviolate from the innovations of the Norinan conqueror is a fact universally known. And those who thus preserved their liberties were said to hold in free and common socage. As therefore the grand criterion, and distinguishing mark of this species of tenure, are the having its renders or services ascertained, it will include under it all other methods of holding free lands by certain and invariable rents and duties; and in particular, PetitSergeanty, Tenure In BurGage, and Gavelkind. See Burgage, § a; Gavelkind, and Sergeantry.

* SOCCAGER. n.s. [from/osfafe] A tenant by soccage.

SOCERGA, a town of Maritime Austria, in Istria; 7 miles SE. of Capo.

SOCHACZOW, a town of Poland, in Massovia, on a rivulet, to miles from the Vistula.

SOCHEU, a city of China, in Chensi, the chief military one in that province. It has a fort and a temple dedicated to a blind man, who is said to have been one of the greatest politicians that ever appeared in China. Lon. Its. 10. E. Lat. 38. 48. N.

* SOCIABLE, adj. [sociable, French ; sociabilu, Latin.] 1. Fit to be conjoined.—Another law toucheth them as they are sociable parts united into one body. Hooker. 2. Ready to unite in a general interest.—

To make man mild, and sociable to man. Cato. 3. Friendly; familiar; converliuie.—

Raphael, the sociable spirit, that deign'd To travel with Tobias. Milton. 4.1nclin'd to company.—In children I like not any thing born before his time, as this must needs be in that sociable and exposed age. Wotton.

* SOC1ABLENESS. n.s. [fromsociable.] 1. Inclination to company and converse.—

Such as would call her friendship love, and feign

Tosociablenest a name profane. Donne.

0« . —Th —The two main properties of n.*n are contemplation and sociablencss. M°re. i. Freedom of conversation; good fe;!'-)wlhip.— lie-always used courtesey, and modesty: sometimes sociablerjss and fellowship. Hayward.

SOCIABLY, adv. [fromsociable.] Converlibiy j as a companion.—

Yet not terrible, That I should scar; nor sociably tnilcl. Mihcn.

* SOCIAL, adj. [socialist Lat."] i. Relating to a general or public interest; relating to society.— To love our neighbour as ouiseives is such a sunflapcntul truth for regulating human society, that

by that alor.e pr.c might determine al! the cas-; in social morality. Locke.—True self-love and Jlcial are the same. Pope, i. Easy to mix in fritmily gaiety; companionable.—

Wither" adieu! yet not with thee remove Thy martial spirit or thy social love. Pope. }. Colliding tu union or converse with one auother.—

Thou in thy secrecy although alone, 'Best with thyself accompany'd, seek'st not

Social communication. Miltoi.

* ijOCIALNESS. «./. ifrom/ccf'-'A] The c,a;. lity of being social:

SOCIETY.

INTRODUCTION.

IT raav appear somewhat excentric, if not outre, to insert the article Society, in the form of a Science. But if it be considered, how closely all the Arts and Sciences arc connected with Society, that they are ail studied, discovered, cultivated, and improved, only in consequence of t'>e association of mankind in civil Society, and that in a solitary or savage state, they cm hardly have any existence, the propriety of inserting this important article in a scientific form will appear selfevident.

Nor is this the only advantage. Hy avoiding the trammels of alphabetical arrangement, to ■which, upon our usual lexicographical plan, all ourdetached articles, and their various sections and subdivisions, are uniformly subjected,we snail be able to lay before our readers a more regular historical account of Society in genera:, and of the numerous Philosophical, Literary, Religious and Humane Societies in particular, which do honour to the present age anil nation, thau we could otherwise accomplish.

Upon this plan, therefore, the subject falls naturally to be divided into two parts: I. Concerning the rife, progress, perfection, and declension of civilized Society: and II. Giving a short account of the various public Societies for the promotion, improvement, and general diffusion, of Arts, Sciences, Religion, Morals, and Humanity. .:

Definitions.

* SOCIETY, n. /. [societe, Fr. sdeeitas, Lat.] i. Union of many in one general interest.—If the power of one society extend likewise to the making of laws for anothersoceity, as if the church could make laws for the state in temporals; or the state riiakc laws binding the church, relating to spirituals, then is that society entirely subject to the other. LtJIfy. 2. Number* united in one interest; community'.—As the practice of piety and virtue is agieeabie to our reason, so is it for the interest of private persons and publick societies. Ti/loisui. '2- Company ; converse.— ■• To make society The sweeter welcome, we will keep.ourself Till sopper-time alone. Shak* Whilst I was big in clamour, came there a man,

Who having seen me in my woner state, Shunn'd my abhorr'dsociety. Sbak. Solitude Ibmetifes is best society. MiitOi, 4. Partnership; union on equal terms.—

Among uncquali society can fort? Mitt. Heaven's greatness no society can bear. VrjJ. Society may be still farther defined a nu.uber of rational and moral beings, united for thir common preservation and happiness. The brut.5 though some of them are gregarious have no faculties, that entitle them to be called social. It is only Hum/.m Society, then, that cao become the subject of our present investigation. Tiit phenomena which it presents are highly worthy of our notice.

PARTI.

Of The ORIGIN, PROGRESS,PERFECTION, And DECLENSION Ot CIVILIZED SOC1ETY.

Sect. I. Os tbe Advantages os civiLizfo Society and its Authentic Origin.

Sn great are the advantages which each individual evidently derives from living in a social stall: and so helpless does any human being appear in a solitary state, that we naturally conclude, th.t if there ever was a period at which mankind were solitary beings, that period couid not be of lona duration; for their aversion to solitude and luv of society would soon induce them to enter into fci cial union. Such is the opinion which v;e cow ceive when we compare our own condition ai members of civilised and enlightened societj with that r,f the brutes, or with that of £iva ges in the earlier and ruder periods of social iif«1 When we hear or Indians wandering naked thro the woods, destitute of arts, unskilled in agn culture, scarce capahle of moral distinctions, voii cf ail religious sentiments, or possessed with tl most absurd notions concerning superior powers and procuring means of subsistence' in a main's cqualiy precarious with that of the beast of pre] —We iook down with pity on thtir condition or turn from it with horror. When we view th; order of cultivated society, anii consider our 11 solutions, arts, and manners—we rejoice overoui superior wisdom and hapr inrsi.

Man in 4 civ;liz-jd state appears a being of'

superiu suDcrior order to man in a savage Rate; yet some nu«osophcrs teil us, that it is only he who, having been educated in society, has born taught to deprod upon o:her«, that can be helpie!* or miferab* when placed in a solitary state. They view the savage who exerts himself with intrepidity to tuppiy his wants, or bears them with (ortitude, at the greatest; hero, and possessing the greatest hippioef*.

W>atcver be the supposed advantages of a folituy ilite, certain it is that mankind, at the ear. bet periodn, were united in society. Various tbccnrs have been formed concerning; the circum£asccs and principles which gave rise to this uni03: but we have elsewhere fhowu, that the greater part of them are founded in error; that they fjppose the original state of man to have been that of savages; and that such a supposition is contradicted by the most authentic records ot antiquity. For though the records of the earlier age* are generally obscure, fabulous, and imptrlect; yet happily there is one free from the imperrecti'jfi* of the rest, ar.d ot'undoubted autheiuicity, to which we may safeiy have recourse. (Sec SciifTUiE, SrS. I.) This record is the Pentateuch of Muses, which presents us with a genuine account of the origin of man and of society, perfectly consonant to what we have laid down tstbc article referred to. (See Sav.igism.)

According to Moses, the first society was that of i husoind and wife united in the bonds of marnass: tne first government that of a father and hmljind, the master of his family. Men lived together under the patriarchal form of government waile they employed themselves chiefly in tending Bocks and herds. Children in such circumstance! cannot soon rise to an equality with their parents, where a man's importance depends on his property, not on his abilities. When flocks and herds are the chief articles of property, the wn can only obtain these from his father: in general therefore the son must be entirely dependent on the father for the means of subsistence. If tie patent during his life bestow on his children any part of his property, he mfty do it on such conditions as snail make their dependence upon h:ta continue till the period of his death. When the community are by this event deprived of their lead, instead of continuing in a state of union, and selecting some one from among themselves whom they may invest with the authority of a parent, they separate into lo many distinct tribes, ach subjected to the authority of a different lord, the master of the family, and the proprietor of all 'ae flocks and herds belonging to it. Such was tit state of the first societies which the narrative of Moses exhibits to our attention.

StCT. If. Of the HYPOTHESES «/Pn I t.n SOP H E RS,

rtJptBiiig an Original State O/'sayagism.

Those philosophers who have made society, in its various stages between rudeness and resinenent, the subject of their speculations, have generally considered mankind, in whatever region or climate of the globe, as proceeding uniformly through certain regular gradations from one extreme to the other. They regard them, first, as gaming a precarious subsistence by gathering the

spontaneous fruits of the earth, or by sidling >>r hunting. Next, they fay, ryan rises to they.'s^herd state, and next to that of bujbanJmrn, w!*en they turn their attention from the management of ll-cks to the cultivation of the ground. Nexi, these husbandmen improve their powers, and hclter their condition, by becoming arlizans and merchants; and the beginning ot this period is the boundary between barbarity and civilization.

These are the stages, thiough which they who have written on the natural history of society hive gciicraiiy conducted mankind from luJcncU to rclinemrnt: but they have overlooked the manner in winch mankind weie at first established on this earth ; the circumstances in which the parents of the human race were originally placed; the degree of knowledge communicated to them ; and the instruction which they must have been capable of communicating to their posterity. They rather appear to consider the inhabitants of every different region of the globe as aborigines, springing at first from the ground, or dropped on the spot which they inhabit; no less ignorant than infants of the nature and relations of the objects around them, and of the purposes which they may accomplish by the exercise of their organs and faculties.

The absurdity of this theory has been fully demonstrated elsewhere: (See Savagism, §i—4.) and if we receive the Mosaic account of the original estabhlhment of mankind, we shall view the phenomena of social life in a light very different. Though many of the rudest tribes are found in the state of hunters orJiJUrs; yet the hunting or soiling state cannot have been invariably the primary form of society. Notwithstanding the powers with which we are endowed, we are in a great measure the creatures of circumstances. Physical causes exert, though indirectly, a great influence in forming the character and directing the exertions of the human race.

Moses informs us, that the first societies of men iived under the patriarchal form of government, and employed themselves in the cultivation of the ground and the management cf flocks. And as we know that mankind, being subjected to the influence both Jf physical and moral causes, are no less liable to degeneracy than capable of improvement j we may easily conceive, that though descending all from the lame original p.tir, and though enlightened with much traditionary knowledge relative to the arts of life, the order 0! society, moral distinctions, and religious obligations; yet as they were gradually, and by various accidents, dispersed over the earth, being removed to situation, in which the arts with whish they were acquainted could but little avail them, where induliry was overpowered, or indolence «ncouraged, by the seventy or the profusion of nature, they might degenerate and fall into a condition almost as humble and precarious as that of the brutal tribes.

If, then, laying aside the spirit of theory and system, we set ourselves to trace facts, ar.d to ten to evidence, though our supposed discovers may he sewer, yet tbrc,knowledge we thus ac quire will be more useful, and our so(tuIatioii> more consistent with true philosophy.

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