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obftruétions us the viscera. The efficacy of soaped on paia of 201. without giving proper notice is jaundice was experienced by Sylvius, and re- of his intention. And if any maker Mall conceal cum Denied by various authors; and it was any soap or materials, he hail forfcit the fame, thought of use in supplying the place of bile in and also sool. Every barrel of soap thall contain tte ormæ viz. but it has loft much of its repu. 256 16. avoirdupois, half barrel 128 lb. firkin 64 tation in jaundice, fince it is now known that gall lb. half-firkin 32 lb. besides the weight or tare of

ne kave been found in many after death, who each cask : and ail soap, excepting hard cake soap tad been daily taking soap for months and even and ball foap, fhall be put into such casks and no years. Of its good efects in urinary calculous other, on pain of forfeiture, and sl. The maker affections, we have the teftimony of leveral, espe. mall weekly enter in writing at the next office the cally when diffolved in lime water, by which its soap made by him in each week, with the weight Cacacy is considerably increased; for it thus be- and quantity at each boiling, on pain of sol.; and comes a powerful solvent of mucus, which an in- within one week after entry clear of the duties, genious modern author supports to be the chief on pain of doubie duty. See also ftat. 5 Geo. III. agcot in the formation of calcuii: it is however, cap. 43. 12 Geo. Ill. cap. 46. ni Geo. cap. 30. ou in the incipient state of the diseale, that these i Geo, Atat. 2. cap. 36. recedics promise effectual benefit; though they (11.) SOAP, WHITE. Of this one fort is made regerally abate the more violent fymptoms where after the same manner as green coft soap, oil alone they cannot remove the cause. With Boerhaave excepted, which is not used in white. The other Lap was a general medicine: for as he attributed fort of white soft soap is made from the lees of traft complaints to viscidity of the fiuids, he, and ashes of lime boiled up two diferent times with mot of the Boerhaavian school, prescribed it in tallow, Frit, a quantity of lees and tallow are conjunction with different resinous and other faba put into the copper together, and kept boiling; frances, in gout, rheumatism, and various visce. being fed with Ives as they boil, intil the whole Falconplaints. Soap is also externaliy employed is boiled sufficiently; then the lees are feparated : a raivent, and gives name to several officinal or discharged from the tallowish part, which part preparations. From its properties soap must be is removed into a tub, and the lees are thrown aa very eficitual and convenient anti-acid. It ab: way; this is called the first half-boil: then the Tabs acids as powerfully as pure alkalis and ab: copper is filled again with fresh tallow and lees, Eerbest earths, without having the causticity of the and the first hall boil is put out of the tub into farter, and without oppressing the stomach by the copper a second time, where it is kept boilits reich: like the latter. Soap must also be one ing with fresh lees and tailow tiil the soap is proof the beft of all antidotes to flop quickly, and duced. It is then put out of the copper into the With the least inconvenience, the bad effects of a same fort of casks as are used for green soft foap: cid corrosive poisons, as aquafortis, corrolive lub. The common soft foaf ured about London, genelimnie, &c.

rally of a greenish hue, with some white lumps, 19. SOAP, STARKEY's. See CHEMISTRY, Ind. is prepared chiefly with tallow: a blackish fort,

(10.) SOAP, TAXES ON. Soap imported is fub. more common in some other places, is said to be ra by 1o Ann. cap. 19. to a duty of 2d, a pound made with whale oil. over and above former duties;) and by 12 Ann. SO AP-APPLÉ, a species of SAPINDUS. ftat. 1. cap.9. to the farther sum of id. a pound. SOAP-ASHES, n.. (roap and dlhes.] The subAnd by the same act, the duty on soap m de in france that remains after the roap-boiler bas drawn tbe kingdom is itd. a pound. By 17 Geo. III. bis lic. Alh. Mortimer recommends them as cap. 32. do person within the limits of the head exctlient manure. See SOAP, I. rthce of excise in London hall be permitted to SOAP-BERRY TREE. Sce SAPINDUS. take any soap unless he occupy a tenement of * SOAPBOILER, No. [loap and boil.] One whose 10 l. a year, be aftefied, and pay the parish rates; trade is to make foap.--A soapboiler condoles with or elsewbere, unless he be allered, and pay to me on the duties on Cartile soap. Addisoni church and poor. Piaces of making are to be en. SOAP-EARTH. See STEATITES. tered on pain of sol, and covers and locks to be SOAPERY, n.. The place where foap is made. profiled under a forfeiture of sool.; the furnace An. door of every utenll used in the manufacture of SOAP-LEK, n. S. foag and lec. The liquor which Cap Thail be locked by the excise officer, as soon remains after the foap is boiled. Alth. as the fire is damped or drawn out, and fastenings SOAP-LIE, n. (foap and lie. The lie ufed in provided, under the penalty of sol., and open making soap. Alb. ing or damaging such fastening incurz a penalty SOAP-SUDS, n. /. /oap and fud's,] Water impreg. of pol. Officers are required to enter and fur. nated with foad, wrought up to a lather, in which tep at all times, by day or night, and the penalty clothes are washed. of obstructiog is 20 1. and they may unlock and (1.) *SOAPWORT. n. l. (japonaria, Lat.) is a examine every copper, &c. between the hours of species of campion. Miller. five in the morning and eleven in the evening, and (2.) SOAPWORT. See SAPONARIA. the penalty of obtructing is ícol. Every maker (1.) Soary, adj. (from soap.] Like soap; coof soap before be begins any making, if within vered with foap. Alb. Lathered with foap; fapo. the bills of mortality, Thall give 12 hours, if elle. naceous. where 24 hours, notice in writing to the officer, (2.) SOAPY ROCK, a cape or rock of the Engof the time when he intends to begin, on pain of lith Charnel, close to the coal of Cornwali; 4 sol. No maker thall remove any soap un'urvey: miles NW. of Lizard Point, VOL. XXI. PART I.

* SOAR * SOAR. n. f. [from the verb.) Towering * SOBER, adj. (Sobrius, Latin ; fobre, Fr.) 1. flight.

Temperate, particularly in liquors; not drunken. Within foar

- Live a sober, righteous, and godly life. Common Of tow'ring eagles.

Milton. Prayer.-The vines give wine to the drunkard as * To SOAR. V. n. (forare, Italian. 1. To fly a. weli as to the fober man. Taylor.- No sober temloft; to tower; to mount; properly to fly with. perate person can look with complacency upon out any visible action of the wings. Milton uses the drunkenness of his neighbour. South. 2. Not it actively.

overpowered by drink.- A law there is among the 'Tis but a bare ignoble mind

Grecians, that he which being overcome with That mounts no higher than a bird can foar. drink did then ftrike any man, should suffer pu.

Shak. nishment double, as much as if he had done the Feather'd soon and fledg'd,

same being sober. Hooker. 3. Not mad; right in They summ'd their pens, and foaring th' air the understanding.–Another, who had a great gesublime,

nius for tragedy, following the fury of his natural With clang despis'd the ground. Milton. temper, made every man and woman in his plays 2. To mount intellectually ; to tow'r with the stark raging mad: there was not a fober person to mind.

be had. Dryden. -No fober man would put him. How high a pitch his resolution foars. Shak. leif into danger, for the applause of escaping withValour foars above

out breaking his neck. Dryden, 4. Reguiar; calm; What the world calls misfortune. Addison. free from inordinate passion.-This same young 3. To rise high.

fober blooded boy a man cannot make him laugh. Who aspires must down as low

Shak.-Cieca travelled all over Peru, and is a grave As high he foar'd.

Milton, and sober writer. Abbot.-Young men likewise exFlames rife and fink by fits; at last they foar hort to be fober minded. Tit. ii. 6.-The gover. la one bright blaze, and then descend no more, nour of Scotland being of great courage, and fo.

Diyden. ber judgment, amply performed his duty before Swailows fleet foar high.

Gay. the battle and in the field. Hayward.—These conSOAR, or a river of England, in Leicestershire. fusions difpored men of any fober undertanding SOARE, S anciently called Leire.

to wish for peace. Clarendon. Among them some SAOVO, a town of the Italian kingdom, (ci. rober men confessed, that as his majesty's affairs devant republic,) in the dep. of the Mincio, district then stood, he could grant it. Clarendon.and late territory of Verona; 10 miles E. of Ve. To these, that fober race of men, whose lives rona.

Religious, titled them the sons of God, SOAY, an island of Scotland, near Ilcolmkill, Shall yield up all their virtue,

Milton. on the coast of Sutherlandshire, at the entrance - Be your designs ever so good, your intentions of Loch-Inver.

ever fo sober. Waterland. 5. Serious; folemn; (1.) * SOB. n. f. (from the verb.) A convulsive grave.sigh; a convulsive act of respiration obstructed by

Disguis'd in fober robes. Shak. sorrow.

Come, civil night, Break heart, or choak with fobs my hated Thou fober-suited matron, all in black. Shak. breath.


Twilight grey The short thick fob, loud scream, and shril. Had in her fober liv'ry all things clad. Milton. ler squall.

Pope. What parts gay France from Gober Spain? Sighs, Jobs, and passions, and the war of A little rising rocky chain.

Prior. tongues.

- Pope. For Swift and him defpis'd the farce of state, (2.) SOB, in geography, a river of Russia, wbích The fober follies of the wife and great. Pope. runs into the Oby, 32 miles SW. of Obdorfkoi. See her fober over a sampler. Pope,

(1.) * To SOB. v. n. [reob, complaining, Saxon. * To Sober. v. a. [from the adjective.] To Perhaps it is a mere onomatopæia copied from the make sober.found. To heave audibly with convulfive for.

Shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, row; to sigh with convulsion.

And drinking largely robers us again. Pope. He twenty times made pause to fob and weep. * SOBERLY. adv. [from sober.] 1. Without

Shak. intemperance. 2. Without madness. 3. TemSome tears she shed, with righs and fobbings perately; moderately.--Let any prince think lomixt.

Fairfax. berly of his forces, except bis militia of natives be She ligh'd, the robb'd, and furious with de valiant soldiers. Bacon. 4. Cool!y; calmly:spair,

Whenever children are chaftised, let it be done She rent her garments.

Dryden. without paffion, and soberly. Locke. When children have not the power to obtain * SOBERNESS. n. f. [from sober.] 1. Temper. their desire, they will, by their clamour and tobe ance in drink.--Keep my body in temperance, bing, maintain their title to it. Locke.

Joberness, and chastity. Common Prayer. 2. Calm. I fobb'd ;-and with faint eyes

ness; freedom from enthusiasm ; coolness.-A Look'd upwards to the Ruler of the skies, Harte, person noted for his foberness and skill in lpapy. (2.) TO SOB. v. a. To foak. A cant word.- rical preparations, made Helmont's experiment

The tree being Jobbed and wet, swells. Mort. succeed very well. Boyle.-The Goberness of Vir. SOBATZ, a town of Slavonia, on the Save; gil might have shewn the difference. Drydeni. 30 miles WSW. of Belgrade, and 80 SW. of Te SOBERNHEIM, a town of Germany, in the mcivar,

circle of the Upper Rhine, and ci-devant county

o! Sponbeim ; now annexed to the French em. as to hold by fealty and 20 8. rent; or by ho. poe, and inciuded in the dep. of Mont-Ton- mage, fealty, and 20 s. rent; or, by homage and rer. It is seated on the Nave, 10 miles WSW. fealty without rent; or, by fealty and certain of Kreutznaco, and 30 WSW. of Mentz. Lon. corporal services, as ploughing the lord's land 15. 4. E. Ferro. Lat. 49. 49. N.

· for three days; or by fealty only without any SOBIESKI, John, an excellent monarch of Por other service; for all these are tenures in fo. and, Sc PoLAND, ý 10, 11.

cage. Socage is of two forts: free focage, where SOBIESLAU, a town of Bohemia, in the circle the services are not only certain but honourable ; of Bechin; 10 miles E. of Bechin, and 48 SSW. and villein focage, where the services, though cer. of Czaslaw.

tain, are of a bafer nature. (See VILLENAGE.) SOBRADA, a town of Spain, in Galicia. Such as hold by the former tenure are called, in SOBRADILLO, a town of Spain, in Leon. Glanvil and other subsequent authors, by the

*SOBRIETY. n.. [from fobrieté, Fr. fobrius, name of liberi fokemanni, or tenants in free focage. Latin. 1. Temperance in dnnk; foberness. The word is derived from the Saxon appellation Sobriety batb obtained to fignify temperance in foc, which fignifies liberty or privilege; and, be. drinking, Taylor. 2. Present freedom from the ing joined to an usual termination, is called focage, power of ftrung liquor. 3. General temperance. in Latin focagium ; figoifying thereby a free or -Moderation and Tobriety in diet. Hooker. 4. privileged tenure. It seems probable that the fo. Freedom from indordinate paffion.-The liber- cage tenures were the relics of Saxon liberty; re. the could not prevail on men of virtue and fo- tained by such persons as had neither forfeited bridy to give up their religion. Rogers. 5. Calm- them to the king, nor been obliged to exchange kis; coolncl.-Enquire with all fobriety and se. their tenure for the more honourable, as it was verity, what the force of imagination is. Bacon. called, but at the same time more burthensome, - Sobriety in our riper years is the effect of a well tenure of knight-service. This is peculiarly reconcocted warmth. Dryden.-If sometimes Ovid markable in the tenure which prevails in Kent, appears too gay, there is a secret gracefulness of called gavelkind, which is generally acknowledged youth which accompanies his writings, though to be a species of focage tenure; the preservation Ibe fobriety of age be wanting. Dryden. 6. Seri. whereof inviolate from the innovations of the qulacs; gravity.-A report without truth; and Norman conqueror is a fact universally known. I had almoft faid, without any fobriety, or mo. And those who thus preserved their liberties were dety. Waterland.

said to hold in free and common socage. As Mirth makes them not mad;

therefore the grand criterion, and diftinguishing Nor sobriety sad.

Denham. mark of this species of tenure, are the having its SOC, (Sax.] fignifies power or liberty to mini. renders or services ascertained, it will include unie fter justice or execute laws : also the circuit or der it all other methods of holding free lands by territory wherein such power is exercised. Whence certain and invariable rents and duties; and in the law Latin word focca is used for a feigniory or particular, PETIT SERGEANTY, TENURE IN Burlordship cofranchised by the king, with the lio GAGE, and GAVEL KIND. See BURGAGE, Ø 2; berty of holding or keeping a court of his fock- GAVELKIND, and SERGEANTRY.

1: And this kind of liberty continues in die * SOCCAGER. n. f. [from foccage.] A tenant Sers parts of England to this day, and is known by foccage. by the names of some and foken.

SOCERGA, a town of Maritime Austria, in SOCAGE. See SoccAGE.

Iftria ; 7 miles SE. of Capo. (1.) * SOCCAGE. n. l. foc, French, a plough. SOCHACZOW, a town of Poland, in Maffo. fare ; foccagium, barbarous Latin. In law is a via, on a rivulet, 20 miles from the Vistula. tenure of lands for certain inferiour or huibandly SOCHEU, a city of China, in Chenfi, the chief Services to be performed to the lord of the fee. military one in that province. It has a fort and All fervices due for laod being knight's service, or a temple dedicated to a blind man, who is said to Jaccage; fo that whatever is not knight's service, have been one of the greatest politicians that a forage. This foccage is of three kinds; a foce ever appeared in China. Lon. 112. 20. E. Lat. 38. cage of tree tenure, where a man holdeth by free 48. N. service of twelve pence a-year for all manner of *SOCIABLE. adj. [ fociable, French; fociabilis, Services. Soccage of ancient tenure is of land of Latin.] 1. Fit to be conjoined.--Another law ancient denesne, where no writ original shall be toucheth them as they are fociable parts united Iaed, but the writ fecundum confuetudinem manerii. into one body. Hooker. 2. Ready to unite in a Surage of base tenure is where those that hold it general interest.may have none other writ but the monstraverunt, Tomake man mild, and sociable to man. Cato. and tuch fockmen hold not by certain service. 3. Friendly; familiar; conversible.Cruel-Tbc laods are not holden in chief but by Raphael, the fociable spirit, that deign'd a mean tepure in foccage. Bacon.

To travel with Tobias.

Milton. (3.) SOCCAGE or SOCAGE, (says the learned 4. Inclin'd to company.-In children I like not Blackfone, in his Comm, vol. II.) in its most ge. any thing born before his time, as this must needs neral and extensive fignification, denotes a tenure be in that fociable and exposed age. Wotton. by any determinate service. In this sente it is by * SOCIABLENESS. n. f. [from fociable.) 1. Inancient writers coostantly put in opposition to clination to company and converse. CHITALLY OG KNIGHT-SERVICE, wbere the ren- Such as would call her friendship love, and der wai precarious and uncertain. The service feign auf therefore be certain, to denominate it foccage; To fociableness a name profane.

Donne. 1 - Th

--The two main properties of gian are contem- by that alone one might determine all the cases plation and sociablene,'s. More. 2. Freedom of con- in social morality. Locke.-True self-love and fin versation; good feilowihip.-- ile always used courcial are the fame. Pope. 2. Easy to mix in friendtefey, and modefty; sometimes sociablene;'s and ly gaiety; companionable. fellowship. Hayward.

Withers adieu ! yet not with thee remove * SOCIABLY. adv. (from fociable.] Converfib. Thy martial spirit or thy social love. Pope. ly; as a companion.

3. Confitting ia union or converse with one adYet not terrible,

other.That I should fear; nor fociably mild. Milton. Thou in thy secrecy although alone,

* SOCIAL. adj. [Socialis, Lat.] 1. Relating to 'Best with thyielf accompany'd, leek'st not a general or public intereft; relating to society.-- Social communication. .

. Milton. To love our neighbour as ourselves is such a fun- * ŞOCIALNESS. 11./. (from fccial.) The qua. damental truth for regulating human society, that lity of being social:

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Who having seen me in my worier state,
Shunn'd my abhorr'd society.

Shak. I may appear somewhat excentric, if not outré, Solitude Tometimes is best fociety. Miitor.

to infert the article SOCIETY, in the form of a 4. Partnership; union on equal terms.Science. But if it be confidered, how closely all 3 Among unequals what fociety can fort? Mi. the Arts and Sciences are connected with Society, Heaven's greatness no society can bear. Dri". that they are all Audied, discovered, cultivated, SOCIETY may be find farther defined a nu.d. and improved, only in consequence of the affo. ber of rational and morai beings, uoited for their ciation of mankind in civil Society, and that in a common prefervation and happiness. The brut:s solitary or favage state, they can hardly have any though some of them are gregarious hate no fa. exiftence, the propriety of 'inserting this import- culties, that entitie them to be called forial. !! ant article in a scientific form will appear self- is only HUMAN SOCIETY, then, that can become evident.

the subject of our present investigation. The Nor is this the only advantage. By avoiding phenomena which it presents are highly worthy the trammels of alphabetical arrangement, to of our notice. ' which, upon our ufual lexicographical plan, all : ourdetached articles, and their various sections and

PARTI. subdivisions, are uniformly subjected, 'we snail bė

OF THE ORIGIN, PROGRESS, PERFECTION, able to lay before our readers a more regular hifto. rical account of Society in general, and of the nu.

AND DECLENSION OF CIVILIZED SOinerous Philosophical, Literary, Religious and Hu

CIETY. mane Societies in particular, which do honour to o

SECT. I. Of the ADVANTACES of CiviLIZED the present age and nation, than we could other. ; wise accomplifin.

bere SOCIETY and its AUTHENTIC ORIGIN. Upon this plan, therefore, the subject falls na. So great are the advantages which each indivia turally to be divided into two parts; 1. Concern- dual evidently derives from living in a social state; ing the rile, progress, perfection, and declenfion of and so helpless does any human being appear in civilized Sociсty: and II. Giving a thort account a solitary state, that we naturally conclude, that of the various public Societies for the promotion, if there ever was a period at which mankind were improvement, and general diffusion, of Arts, Sci. folitary beings, that period couid not be of long ences, Religion, Morals, and Humanity. s i duration; for their averfion to folitude and love DEFINITIONS.

of society would soon induce them to enter into lo

cial union. Such is the opinion which we cun * SOCIETY. n. s. (Focieté, Fr. foceitas, Lat.] ceive when we compare our own condition 21 1. Union of many in one general interest. If the members of civilized and enlightened fociety power of one fociety extend likewise to the making with that of the brutes, or with that of sava of laws for another foceity, as if the church could ges in the earlier and ruder periods of social life inake laws for the state in temporals; or the state When we hear of Indians wandering naked thro make laws binding the church, relating to spi the woods, dertitute of arts, unskilled in agri rituals, then is that fociety entirely subject to the culture, scarce capable of morai distinctions, vold other. Lilly. 2. Numbers united in one interest; of all religious fentiments, or pofsefled with in coinmunity.--As the practice of piety and virtue most absurd notions concerning fuperior powers is agreeable to our reason, fo is it for the interest and procuring means of fubfiftence in a manne of private perfons and publick focieties. Tillottun equaliy precarious with that of the beast of prey 3. Company; converse.

-We jook down with pity on their condition To make fociety

or turn from it with borror. When we view th: The sweeter weicome, we wili keep ourself order of cultivated society, and consider our in lupper-time alone.

Snak. Atitutious, arts, and manners--we rejoice over out Whilft I was big in clamour, came there a uperior wisdom and happiness. mnan,

Man in a civilized late appears a being of

fuperiu fuperior order to man in a savage state ; yet fume fpontaneous fruits of the earth, or by fishing or Dhaofuphers teil us, that it is only he who, having hunting. Next, they say, nan rises to the jep been educated in fociety, bas been taught to de. berd state, and next to that of hubandonen, when pend upon others, that can be helpiels or mifer. they turn their attention from the management of able when placed in a solitary state. They view facks to the cultivation of the ground. Nexi, tbe lavage who exerts bimitif with intrepidity to these husbaudmen improve their powers, and betfapply bis wauts, or bears them with fortitude, ter their condition, by bicoming artizans and as the greatest bero, and poflelling the greatest merchants; and the beginning of this period is happiness.

the boundary between barbarity and civilization. Whatever be the supposed advantages of a soli. There are the stages, though which they who try itate, certain it is that mankind, at the ear. have written on the natural history of society bare Le periods, were united in society. Various geuerainy conducted mankind from iuvenelo to 15cords have been formed concerning the circum. refinement: but they have overlooked the man.

ances and principles which gave rise to this uni. Der in which mankind were at firkt establihed on aa: but we have elsewhere thown, that the great- this earth; the circumstances in which the parents CT part of them are founded in error; that they of the human race were originally placed; the {appose the original state of man to have been degree of knowledge communicated to them; and that of lavages; and that such a suppolition is the instruction which they must have been capacontradicted by the moft authentic records of an- ble of communicating to their posterity. They tiquity. For though the records of the earlier rather appear to confider the inhabitants of every ages are general y obscure, fabulous, and imper. different region of the globe as aborigines, springfect; yet happily there is one free from the imper. ing at first from the ground, or dropped on the sections of the reft, and of undoubted authentici. spot which they inhabit ; no less ignorant than inty, to wbich we may safely have recourse. (See fants of the nature and relations of the objects am SCRIPTURE, Se&. I.) This record is the Penta. round them, and of the purposes which they may teuch of Moles, which presents us with a genu. accoinplish by the exercise of their organs and ise account of the origin of man and of society, faculties. perfe&ty consonant to what we have laid down The absurdity of this theory has been fully dein the article referred to. (See Sav:GISM.) monstrated elsewhere : (See SAVAGISM, 1-4.)

According to Moses, the firft fociety was that and if we receive the Mosaic account of the oriof a husband and wife united in the bonds of mar- ginai eftablishment of mankind, we shall view the nage: the firft government that of a father and phenomena of social life in a light very different. boiband, the matter of his family. Men lived to. Though many of the rudeft tribes are found in geber under the patriarchal form of government the state of hunters or fibers ; yet the hunting or while they employed themseives chiefly in tend. fishing state cannot have been invariably the priing flocks and herds, Children in such circum- mary form of society. Notwithstanding the powftances cannot soon rise to an equality with their ers with which we are endowed, we are in a parents, where a man's importance depends on great measure the creatures of circumstances. bis property, not on his abilities. When flocks Phyficai causes exert, though indirecily, a great and herds are the chief articles of property, the influence in forming the cbaracter and directing fon can only obtain these from his father: in ge. the exertions of the human race. peral therefore the son must be entirely depend. Moses informs us, that the first societies of at on the father for the means of subiiltence. If men ived under the patriarchal form of govern. the parent during his life bestow on his children ment, and employed themselves in the cultivation any part of his property, he may do it on fuch of the ground and the management of Hocks. conditions as anall make their dependence upon And as we know that mankind, being subjected ham continue tind the period of his death. When to the influence both of physical and moral causes, the community are by this event deprived of their are no less liable to degeneracy than capable of head, instead of continuing in a state of union, improvement; we may eafily conceive, that and feiecting some one from among themselves though defcendiog all from the same original pair, whom they may inyeft with the authority of a and though enlightened with much traditionary parent, they separate into to many diftinet tribes, knowledge relative to the arts of life, the order of rach subjected to the authority of a different lord, fociety, moral distinctions, and religious obiigathe master of the family, and the proprietor of all tions; yet as they were gradually, and by varithe flocks and herds belonging to it. Such was ious accidents, dispersed over the earth, teing rethe fate of the first societies which the narrative moved to fituations in which the arts with which of Moses exhibits to our attentioni.

they were acquainted could but little avail then, Sct. II. Oftbe HYPOTHESES OF PHILOSOPHERS,

where indukry was overpowered, or indolence en refpeeting an ORIGINAL STATE of SAVAGISM.

couraged, by the severity or the profufion of ndo

ture, they might degenerate and fall into a condi. THOSE phiiosophers who have made society, in tion almost as humble and precarious as that of its various stages between rudeness and refine the brutal tribes. ment, the subject of their speculations, have ge. If, then, laying aside the spirit of theory and Derally considered mankind, in whatever region system, we set ourleives to trace facts, and to likor climate of the globe, as proceeding uniformly ten to evidence, though our supposed discoveries through certain regular gradations from one ex- may be fewer, yet the, knowledge we thus ac. treme to the other. They regard them, first, as quire will be more useful, and our fpeculations gaining a precarious subsistence by gathering the more conGftent with true philosophy.

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