Page images

eating a proper tone to the fibres of the ftonach, 4
ipnft greatly strengthen them for the performance
of their functions. Iu this climate a scarcity of
snow it no iess dreaded than a scarcity of corn,
wine, or oil. We are informed by a gentleman
who was at Syracuse in 1777, when there was a
scarcity of snow, the people of the town learned
that a small vessel loaded with that article was
palling the coast; without a moment's delibera-
tion they ran in a body to the shore and demand-
ed her cargo; wh'ch when the crew refused to
deliver up, the Syracufans attacked and took,
though with the loss of several men.

8NOWHILL, a post town and port of entry of Maryland, on the Eastern Shore, capital of Worcester county. It in seated on the SE. bank of the Pocomoke, I a miles above its mfYnx into Chesapeak Bay. It has a court-house, jail, &c It* chief trade is in corn and lumber. It is i»e miles NE. of Norfolk, and 158 S. by W. of Philadelphia. Lon. 75. 30. W. Lat. 38. 10. N.

SNOWTOWN, a town of the United States, in Lincoln county, Maine.

* Snow-white, adj. [/saw and white.] White as snow.—

Asnow-white bull shall on your shore be slain, > Dryden.

* SNOWY, adj. [from sr.ovj.] 1. White like snow>—

So shews asnowy dove trooping with crows, As yonder lady o'rr her fellows shews. Shot. Sneur headed Winter leads. Rowe. The blushing ruby on her snowy breast.


a. Abounding with show.—

Thence on the snowy top
Of cold Olympus rn W the middle air. Milt.

As when the Tartar from his Ruffian foe,
By Aftracan, over the snowy plains. Milton.

* SNUB. n. s. [from snebbe, Dutch, a nose, or knuhel, a joint of the finger.] A jag; a snag j a knot in wood.— <-» 1

Lifting up hi* dreadftri dob on high, All arm'd with raggedsnubs. Fairy Quern. (1.) *To Sno». v. a. [Rather To snib\ See She Ac, Sneb, Snib,] I. To check; to reprimand. *. To nip.—Near the sea-shores the heals and boughs ot trees toward the sea are so snubbed by the winds, as if their boughs had been pared. Rav.

(a.) * To Snu*. «. tt. [smiftn, Dutch.] To fob with convulsion. - ;,

* To SNUDGE. v. n. [sniger, Danish.] To lie idle, close, or snug.—

Now cat his bread in peace,
And snudge in quiet. Herber t.

(1.) • SNUFF, n.s. [smuf, Dutch, snot.] 1. Snot. In this fense tt is not used. a. The useless excrescence of a candle: whence mouther la chandelle.

My snuff and loathed part of nature should Burn itself out. Shal. E*en at first life's taper is a snuff. Donne. —If the liquor be of a close and glutinous consistency, it may burn without any snuff. Wilkins. 3. A candle almost burnt out.—

To hide me from the -radiant sun, and solace 1' th' dungeon by a snuff! Shak.


The fired wick of a candle remaining afterlfc fl-une.—A torch,snuff, and all, goes out in a n>o. m?nt. Addison. 5. Resentment npntsled by foisting; perverse resentment. Not used* uuUfsiulow languaue.—

What hath been seen Either insnuffj or packings of the duke's. Sbai. —Jupiter took snuff at the contempt. L'Eflrar.^t. 6. PowOered tobacco taken by the oak.

A charge atsnuff the wily rh-giirthrew. fast. (a.) SftuFF (j 1. As. &.) is ehieSy ssa.U ut tobacco, other matters being only added to pit H a more agreeable scent. £cc. The kinds of fnotf, and their several nan**, are innumerable, and new ones are daily invented; so that it Wobm be difficult to give a detail of them. We stun? only sty, that there are three principal s <rts: the fa st granulated; the second an rmpaipable powder; and the third the bran, or coarse part >■:• roaming alter sifting the second fort. "Every professed, inveterate, and incorable sr.uS-tak.-r (fays Lord Stanhope), at a moderate computation, takes one pinch i» ten minutes. Every pinch, with the agreeable ceremony of blowing and wiping the nose, &c. consumes a minute and a half. One minute and a half out of every ten, allowing 16 hoors to a snuff-taking day, amounts to two hours and 14 minutes a day, or one day out of every ten. This amounts to 36^ days in a year. Hence if the practice be persisted in 40 years, two entire years of the 1'nuff-taker's life will be dedicated to tickling his nose, and two more to Wowing tt. On calculating the expence of fhuff, snuffboxes, and handkerchiefs, it will appear, that this luxuiy encroaches as moch on the income of the snufT-taker as it does on hi) time; and that by a proper application of the time and money thas lost to the public, a fund might be constituted for the discharge of the national c<ebt." See Nicotiana.

(1.) * To Snuff-, V. a. [snuffen, Dutch.] 1. To draw in with the breath.—A heifer will put up her nose, and snuff in the air against rain. Bacon. With delight hesnufsd the smell Of mortal change on earth. MHtcn. Hesnuffi the wind. Dryden. The youth

Already seems to snufsxhe. vital air. Dryim. My troops are mounted; their Nnuitdim steeds

Snuff up the wind. Addison. —My nag's greatest fawit was snuffing up the air about Brackdenstown. Swift. B. To seent.— The cow looks up, and from afar can find The change of heav'n, and snuffi it in the wind.


For thee the bulls rebellow through the


And tempt the stream, and snuff their absent loves. Dryden. O'er all the blood-hounds boasts superior skill,

Once snuff" d, he follows with unalter'd aim.


3. To crop tht candle.—

This candle burns not clear: 'tis I raust/n^f

And out it goes. Sink


[ocr errors]

(3.) Snug Corner Cove, a bay of the 'K Fav cine Ocean, on the E. fide of Prince William's Sound, and W. coast of N. America. Lon. 14&. 30. W. Lnr. 60. co. N.

* To SNUGGLE, v. n. [from snug.] To lie close; to lie warm.

SNYDERS, Francis, a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1579* and bred under his countryman Henry Yan Balcu. He first painted fruits; afterwards animals, huntings, &C. 111 which he exceeded alt his predecessors. He also painted kitchens, &c. and gave dignity to subjects that seemed incapable of it. He was appointed painter to Ferdinand and Isabella, and the royal family of Spain. The ting of Spain and the elector Palatine adorned their palaces with his huntings. Rubens, Jordaens, and Snyders, used to co-operate in the enriching of each other's pictures according to their several talents; and thus she pictures became more valuable than if finished by either of them, singly. Snyders died in 1657.

SNYTE, a rivir of England, which rises it* Leicestershire, and running through Nottingham, falls into the Dean at Shciton.

(1.) SO, king of Egypt. See Egypt, § 9; and Sab-achus.

(t.) * So. adv. [fiva, Saxon ; soo, Dutch; so, German.] 1. In I'.ke manner. It answers to at either preceding or following. Noting comparison.—

At whom the fables feign of monstrous fizv, So stretch'd out huge in length the arch fiend lay. Milton. Thick as autumnal leaves that threw the brooks,

In Valombrosa, where th' Etrurian shades
High over-arch'd embow'r,_/» thick bestrewn
Abject and loft lay these." Milton-.
So pleas'd at first the tow'ring Alps we try.


As into air the purer spirits flow,
So flew her foul to its congenial place. Pope.
a. To such a degree.—Why is his chariot so long
in coming? Judg. v. 38.—

Can nothing great, and at the height,
Remain so long, but its own weight
Will ruin it? Ben Jonson.

Where the pow'r that charms us so? H'aller. —I viewed1 in my mind, so far an I was able, the beginning and progress of a riling world. Burnt t. Why should we mourn that he so soon i» freed? Drydrn. —Upon our first going into a company of strangers, our benevolence or aversion rises toward* several particular persons, before we have heard them speak, or so much as know who they are*. Addison.

We think our fathers fools, sa wise we're grown:

Our wiser sons, no doubt, will think us so.


3. In such a manner.—

Certain colours, mingl'dso and so. Suckling. —We seeing what he is, may certainly know that he is not so or so. Locke.—I lhail minutely tell him. the steps by which 1 was brought into this way, if so be any thing in my example is worth his notice. Locke.—This gentleman it very much in Sir


Roger's esteem, so that he lives in the family ra- .
ther as a relation than dependent. Addison. 4. It
is regularly answered by us or that, but they are
sometimes omitted.—

5s frown'd the mighty combatants, that hell
Grew darker at their frown. Milton.
—There is something equivalent in France and
Scotland; Jo as 'tis a very hard calumny upon otir affirm that so excellent a fruit will not grow
here. Temple. 5. In the lame manner.—
Me eatily indeed mine may neglect,
But God's propos'd deliverance not jo. Milton.
—To keep up the tutor's authority, use him with
great respect yourself, and cause all your family to
do so too. Locke.—According to the multifarious-
ness of this immutability,/o are the possibilities of
being. Norris. 6. Thus; in this manner.— •
Not far from thence the mournful fields ap-

So call'd from lovers that inhabit there. Dryden. Does this deserve to be rewarded fa? liryd. —It concerns every man, to enquire those matters, whether they be fa or not. Tillatfon.—No nation ever complained tney had too broad, too deep, or too many rivers; they understand better than so. Bentlef.

So when the first bold Vessel dar'd the seas, High on the Item the Thracian rais'd his strain.


—This is certain that so it is. Locke. 7. Therefore; for this reason; in consequence of this.— The god, though loth, yet was corrftrain'd t'

. obey:

So back again him brought to living light.

Fairy Queen.

Trafficke, or rove ye, and like theeves oppresse , ., .

Poor strange adventurers; exposing/?

Your soules to danger? Chapman. —Andso all that he hath to do is to endeavour by prayer and use of the means, to qualify himself for this blessed condition. Hammond.—It leaves instruction, and so instructors, to the sobriety of the settled articles and rule of the church. Hoijday.

Some are fall'n, to disobedience fall'n;
And Jo from heav'n to deepest hell. Milton.
—God makes him in his own image an intellccln-
al creature, and /a capable of dominion. Locke. 8.
On these terms; noting a conditional petition:
answered by as.

So grant my suit, as I enforce my might,
In love to be thy champion. Dryden.

So may the guilt of ali my broken vows,
My perjuries to thee be all forgotten;
As here my foul acquits thee of my death,
As here I part without an angry thought. Ro<wt.

So may kind rainB their vital moisture yield.
And swell the future harvest of thy field. Pope.
9. Provided that; on condition that; modo.—
Evil into the mind of God or man
May come and go, Jo unapprov'd, and leave
No spot or b'aaie behind. .Milton.
So the doctrine be but wholesome and edifying,
though there should be a want of txactnesa in the
manner of speaking or reasoning, it may be over-
looked. Attertury.—

..."' So thou, my dearest, truest, best Alicia; Vouchsafe to lodge me in thy gentle heai

10. In like manner; noting concession of on
position and assumption of another, answeri
as.As a war should be undertaken upon
motive, so a prince ought to consider the c
tion he is in when he enters on it. Swift, i
sometimes returns the sense of a word or fen
going before, and is used to avoid repetitioi
the t<wo brothers tvere •valiant, but the cldeft
more so; that is, more valiant. The Frencl
cle le is often used in the fame manner,
mode of expression is not to boused but in
liar language, nor eveh in that to be conn
ed.— — :"

The fat with plenty fills my heart,
The lean with love makes me too so. C
Who thinks hiswife is virtuous, though r
Is pleas'd and patient till the truth he km

Not to admire is all the art 1 know
To make men happy, and to keep them 1


—One may as well fay, that the cor.flagraM be only national, as to fay that the deluge a

Burnet.—, . w < , .

For hiving once been guilty, well they I
To a revengeful prince they itill are se. 1
He was great ere fortune made him so. J
—I l*ugh at every one, said an old cymcl,
laughs at me. Do you so? replied (bepai
pher; then you live the merriqft lire of any
in Athens. A.idiron.— They are-beautiful in t
selves, and much more so in that noble .'an;
peculiar to that great poet. AdJi/dn:—&am
place books have been long used by indurt:
young divines, add still continue Jo. Swift—\
his using ludicrous expressions, my opiwo
that they are not so. Popci
..•<j The blest to day i» as completely/^ J
As who began a thousand years ago. 1
,1*. Thus it is; this is the state.—
How sorrow iuakes him!
So, now the tempest tears him up. ct]

13. At this point; at this time.—
I'll weep and sigh;

And, leaving so his service, follow you.

14. It notes a kind of abrupt beginning. Wi O, so, and had you a council

Of ladies too! Who was your speaker?


it. It sometimes is little more than an tv?K though it implies some latent or surd cornp-iil In French, Ji.—hn astringent is not quite jn per, where relaxing the urirary passages is U iary. Arbuthnot. 16. A word of assuu'P'l thus be it.—There is Percy; if your father do me any honour, jo; if not, let him kiU next Percy himself. Sha*.—I will never bear a mind: if it be my destiuy, so-: ii it be w>« Shalt. 17. A form of petition.—

Ready are th' appellant and defer*)TM'' So please your highness to beho d the net"1

18. So much as. However much. Tn"1 tnnik, an 11 regular expression.—So mm***

the beauty of his Terse, his prose is full at stood Pepc. 19. So so* An exclamation after i'urat tiling done or known. Corrupted, 1 think, from crjsrz..

I would not have tbee linger in thy pain; So p. Sbak. Se Jo; it work:: now mistress, fit you fast.


so So ft., [cofi, cofi, Italian.] Indifferently; not a«cb iECiis- nor well.— ....

Hjs leg is but so fe 1 and yet 'tis well. Sbak. —Deliver us from t! e nauseous repetition of As tri So, which some so fa writers, I may call them !.', ic continually sounding Hi our ears, felton. :,. >o tben. Thus then it is that; therefore.—

Sj tbca the Voiscians stand but as at first.


—To a war are required a just quarrel, sufficient trees aud a pntdent choice of the designs: so i .-in, I will first justify the quarrel, balance the sorUs*ad propound deligns. Buco/:.

oOA, at town of Cuba; 60 miles N. of St


ii.) Soa, an island of Scotland, one of the small HiHiais, near St Kilda. . .. .

it.) * SOAry. v. a. [fociwi, Saxon.] 1. To «e tieeped in moisture.—

Fur tby conceit in seating will draw in,

More than the common blocks. Shak. ;. To eater by degrees into pores.—Lay a heap earth in great frosts upon a hollow vessel, puttig a caavase between, and pour water upon it, i'jMU pak through. Bacon.—Rain, foaking into tic trate, which lie near the surface, bears with it •A fad) move-able matter as occurs. H'oodward, j. To drink gluttonously and intemperate'y. Tha is a low term.—The idle chat of a foaking krfib- Luke.

:*-) * Ti Soak, Iu a. 1. To macerate in any r-udlnre; to ftttpt to keep wet till moisture is jsbuVd; to drench.—

Many of our princes
Lx drown'd andfoaii'd in mercenary blood.


—Their land shall be soaked with blood. Isa. 7 —

TLcir deep Galefus soaks the yellow sands.


—W>->rmwood, put into the brine you soak your njrt: in, prevents the birdsHtating it. Mortimer, 3, Tu draw in through the pores.— , ,

To fuck the moisture up, aud soak it in.


1. To drain; to exhaust. This seejms to be a 'W term, perhaps used erroneously for fuck.Plants that draw much nourishment from, the 'jr.d soak and exhaust it, hurt all things that. (;!"bf them. Bacon.—His forts, and his garri-.

his feast'ings, 'could not but soak his, ex* ---qatr. ifcjtoo. . 'SOAKER, a,/, [from soak.] 1. He thatmain any moisture, a. A great drinker. In

[ocr errors]

A-iucia. Ptol. mixture begins to ,umle well, tne r<it ot tne 11x1

So Aji j, 01 S.UANE, in modern geography, vium is to be added to it} and the whole is to be


an ancient town of Etruria, in the Sienr.efe, a bishop's fee; seated on a high mountain, near the river Flora, 30 miles SE. of Sienna. It is laid to be almost deserted on account of the unwholesome air; but this is almoit incredible, as towns seated on mountains have generally the best of air. Lon. 11. 46. K. Lat. 42. 40. N.

(3.) Soana, a mountain ot the French empire, in the dep. of the Doria, and late principality of Piedmont; 10 miles S. of Aosta. SOANDA, an ancient town of Armenia. SOAJsE, a river of Hiudoostan, which rises in the S. border of Allahabad, from the lake, which also gives rife to the Js'mijUDDA; but the Soane, slowing in an opposite dire ction to that river, after running a long couife of Jjoo miles, falls into the Ganges above Patna. This river, with the t;.„.; „ and the Nerbudda, by nearly surrounding tl.c S. part of Hinduostan, make it a peninsula.

SOANES, an ancient people of Colchi,s, near mount Caucasus, in whose territories the rivers abounded with golden sands, which they gathered in Iheep sk.:.s; whence Strabo deduces the origin tji the fable of Golden I'ieece. Strabo \\.

SOANGUK, a town of Hindoostan, in Guzerat \ 50 miles a. of Siorat, and 15 VV. of Noopour.

WO*SOAP, n.f.fapt, Saxon; [fapo, Latin.] A substance uled 111 washing, made of a lixivium of vegetable alkaiine allies and any unctuous substance.—Soap isa mixture of a fixed aikalme salt aud oil; iio virtues art cleansing, penetrating, attenuating, and resolving ; and any mixture of any oiiy substance with lalt may be called a soap. Ari}utbnot.—lle Is like f ullers soup. Malacbi.—A bubble blown with water, first made tenacious by dissolving a little soap in it, alter a while will appear Untied with a preat variety os colours. Nrm.-ton.-~ Soa^-rarth H found 111 great quantity on the land near the batiks of the river Hermus. H'oodiuard. Soapriihti arc much ceirnmended, after the J'oapboiiers have done with them, for cold or lour lands. Mortimer.—As rain-water diminishes their fait, so the moistening of them with chamber-lee Qr soap'iud* adds thereto, Mortimer.

(v)soap is a composition of caustic fixed alkaiine fait, and oil, sometimes hard and dry, sometimes soft and liquid; much used in washing and Whitening linens, and by dyers and fullers. Soap may be made by several methods, which, however, all depend upon -the fame principle.1 The soap \vhicb is used in medicine is made without heat. See Chemistkv, Index J also SapoNaceous, and Saponulæ.

(3.) Soap, Account.<>(•• The Manufacture Of. In manufactures, where large quantities of it are prepared,, soap is made with, heat. A lixivium ot quicklime and soda is made, but it is less concentrated than.tnat above referred to, ami only so much that it can sustain a fresli egg. A part of this lixivium is even to be diluted and mixed with an equal weight of oil of olives. The mixture 19 to be put on a gentle fire, and agitated,

When the Æfcfted with a very gentle heat, till tlie soap be completely made. A trial it to be made of it, to examine whether the just proportion of oil and alkali has been observed. Good soap of this kind ought to be firm, and very white when cold; sot subject to become moist by exposure to air, and ■entirely miscible with pure water, to which it communicates a milky appearance, but without &ny drops of oil floating on the surface. When the soap has nat these qualities, the combination tiai not been well made, or the quantity of fait ■or of oii is too great, which faults must be corrected. In soft or liquid soaps, green or black soaps, cheaper oils are employed, as oil of nut?, of hemp, of fish, &c. These soaps excepting in consistence, are not essentially different from white soap. Fixed alkalis are rrwich disposed to unite with oils that are not volatile, both vegetal. - and animal, for this union can be made even without heat. The compound resulting from it partakes Jrt the fame time of the properties of oil and of *lkali; but these properties are modified and tenv pered by each other, according to the general rule ■of combinations. Alkali forr&ul into soap has not jjearry the fame acrimony as when pure; it is ev.en deprived of almost ail its causticity, and its other saline alkajine properties are almost entirely abolished. The oil contained in soap is less combustible than when pure, from its union with the alkali, which is an. uninflammable body. It i« mrteible, er evec soluble in water to a considerable degree, by means;©f the alkali. Soap is entirely s-Iuble in spirit of wine; and still better in aquavita; sharpened by a little alkaline salt, according to Mr G< offroy. The manufacture of soap in 3/Ondon first begat) i» 1514; before which time this city was served with white soap from foreign countrie?, and with grey soap speckled with white from Bristol, which-was fold for a penny a pound; and also with black (bap; which fold for a halfpenny the pound. The principal soaps of pur own manufacture are the soft, the bard, and the ball soap. The soft soap is either white or green. See § 6. When oil unites with alkali in the formation of soap, it is little altered in the connection of its principles; for it may be separated from the a.kali by decomposing soap with any acid, and may be obtained nearly in its original state.

(4.) Soap, Acid. This is formed by the addition of concentrated acids to the expressed oils. Thus the oil is rendered partially soluble in water; but the union is not sufficiently complete to answer any valuable purpose.

(t.) Soat, Ball, commonly used in the north, is made with lees from ashes and tallow. The lees are put into the copper, and boiled till the watery part is qaite gone, and there remains nothing in the copper but a fort of saline matter; (the very strength or essence of the ley 0 to this the tallow is put, and the copper is kept boiling and stirring for above half an hour, in which time the soap is made; and then it is put out of the copper into tubs or baskets with sheet* in them, and immediately (whilst soft) made into bask, ft requires near 14 hours in this process to boil away the watery part of the ley.

t6.J Soap, (JUKES) sorr. The chief ingredients

used in making this are lees drawn from pot-al and lime, boiled with tallow and oil. First, 1 ley of a proper degree of strength (which must t estimated by the weight of the liquor), and ta low, are pot into the copper togt thcr, and as fco as they boil up the oil is added; the fire is the damped or stopped up, while the ingredients: main in the copper to unite; when they arc 1 nited, the copper is again made to boil, being ■' led with lees as it boils, till there be a sufliciei Quantity put into it; then it is boiled off and p< into cais. When the soap Is first made it pears uniform 4 bat in about a week the tallo' separates from the oil into those while graii which we see in the common soap- Soap tbi made would appear yeUow, but by a mixture 1 indigo added at the end os the boiling, it is rei Oered green.

{7.) Soap, Hard, is made with lees from aflii and tallow, and is most commonly boiled tnia the first, called the half MI, has the fame op ration as the Srft half-boil of soft white soap. (Sj § 11.) Then the copper is charged with fid lees again, and the first half-boil put into it, »hci it is kept boiling, and fed with lees as it boils, li it grains or is boiied enough; then the ley isdi charged from it, and the In 'p put into a sum: I cool and harden. Common salt is made use 1 for the purpose of graining the soap; for via tbe oil or tallow has been united with the ley. ■ ter a little boiling, a quantity of fait is throw into the mass, wiich dissolving readily in watr but not in the oij or (lal)ow, draws out the wa!i in a considerable degree, so that the oil or tallo united with the fait of the ley swims on the to; When the ley is of a propcT strength, less salt necessary to raise the turd when it is too weal There is no certain time for bringing off a bui ing of any of these sorts of soap: it frequent takes up part of two days.

(8.) So As, MEOICItlAL VSES, &C. OF. All:

line soaps are very useful in many arts and trade and also in chemistry and. medicine. Their prii cipal utility consists in a detersive quality that taj receive freW) their alkali, which is capable of M ing upon oily matters, anc) of rendering them t ponaceous and miscible with water. Hence lo: is very useful to cleanse any substances from Art matters with which they are soiled. Soap therefore daily used for washing linen and »on len cloths from oil, and for whitening silk *' freeing it from the resinous varnifc with which is covered. Pure alkaline lisiviums might be er ployed for the fame purposes; but when tin activity is not mitigated by the oil, as it is info* they are capable of altering, and even of destro ing entirely by their causticity, most subdue' especially animal matters, as silk, wool, « whereas, soap cleanses from oil almost as cut" ally as pure alkali, without danger of altennf destroying the stuff. Soap was imperfectly*"0' to the ancients. It is mentioned by Pliny ■L103! of fat and ames, and as an invention of the C-^ Aretseus fays, that the Greeks obtained u< knowledge of its medical use from the R°mJJ Its virtues, according to Bergius, are d*lerW. resolvent, and aperient, and its use recomme^' in jaundice, gout, calculous complaint** w

« PreviousContinue »