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The delay in bringing out this volume has been chiefly owing to the labour bestowed upon the Oration for the Crown, in which after all I feel I have but imperfectly succeeded. He is indeed a confident man who can satisfy himself upon such a task. The previous translations which I have consulted, I should rather say which I have constantly had before me, are those of Leland, Francis, Lord Brougham, Spillan, Auger, Jacobs, and Pabst. I believe there are some others, which I have not seen.
These however I have carefully perused and compared; and to all the translators I am indebted for their assistance, but especially to Jacobs, of whose valuable notes and dissertations I have made ample
It is a pity that his labours have been confined to the political speeches of Demosthenes.
Shilleto's edition of the Oration on the Embassy was unfortunately not put into my hands until I had completed the first half of the translation. The author has proved himself to be one of the profoundest of English scholars. His plan of writing critical notes in Latin, and explanatory in English, is novel, but not unattended with advantage.
ORATIONS OF DEMOSTHENES.
THE ORATION ON THE CROWN.
This has justly been considered the greatest speech of the greatest
orator in the world. It derives an additional interest from the cir. cumstance that it was the last great speech delivered in Athens. The subject matter of it is virtually a justification of the whole public policy and life of Demosthenes; while in point of form it is a defence of Ctesiphon for a decree which he proposed in favour of Demo
sthenes, B. C. 338, not long after the battle of Chæronea. When the news of that disastrous battle reached Athens, the people
were in the utmost consternation. Nothing less was expected than an immediate invasion of Attica by the conqueror; and strong measures were taken, under the advice of Hyperides, to put the city in a posture of defence. One of the most important was the repair of the walls and ramparts. Demosthenes at this time held the office of conservator of walls, having been appointed by his own tribe at the end of the year B. C. 339. The reparation, which had been commenced before, but suspended during the late campaign, was now vigorously prosecuted. He himself superintended the work, and expended on it three talents of his own money, beyond what was
allowed out of the public treasury. The fears of the people were not realized. Philip, while he 'chastised
the Thebans, treated the Athenians with moderation and clemency; restoring their prisoners without ransom, burying their dead upon the field, and sending their bones to Athens. He deprived them indeed of most of their foreign possessions, but even enlarged their
domestic territory by the addition of Oropus. It seemed that the whole foundation upon which the credit and in
fluence of Demosthenes had rested was overthrown. The hopes which he had held out of successful resistance to Philip, of re-establishing Athenian ascendancy, or maintaining the independence of Greece, were now proved to be fallacious. The alliance of Thebes, his last great measure for the protection of Athens, appeared to have been the immediate cause of her defeat and disgrace. The very moderation