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“ He governs all things that exist, and finite or unlimited, for they could not have knows all things that are to be known: he is limited themselves, or made themselves less not elernity or infinity, but eternal and in- perfections than they necessarily were. That finite: he is not duration or space, but he en- necessary power and knowledge should lessen dures, and is present: he endures always, and or limit themselves, is both morally and physiis present every where ; and by existing al. cally impossible ; and there was nothing else in ways, and every where, he constitutes the nature to limit or lessen them, for nature convery thing, duration and space, eternity and sisted of nothing else. Ignorance and impoinfinity
tence are still nothing. Add to this, that it is “Since every particle of space is always, something positive that must be infinite; and and every indivisible moment of duration every nothing is of such a positive nature as such where, the Creator and Lord of all things can perfections, and those necessary: Infinite joinnever be nunquam, or nusquam,
ed to a negation, that is, infinite nothing, is “ He is omnipresent, not only virtually, but absurd. Infinite deadness, infinite weaknes, also substantially; for power without substance infinite ignorance, makes the perfections which cannot subsist. All things are contained, and are thus infinitely denied, again impossible. - move in him; but without any mutual pas. Lastly, they must be undivided, as well as unsion : he suffers nothing from the notions of limited, for the same reasons, which it is albodies ; nor do they undergo any resistance most needless to repeat. Division is limitation. from his omnipresence.
It is their nature to be united. They could “ It is confessed, that God exists necessa- not have divided themselves. Infinite power, rily; and by the same necessity he exists al- or infinite knowledge, could not have been diways, and every where. Hence, also, he must vided, and thereby lessened itself. This is again be perfectly similar; all eye, all ear, all brain, both morally and physically impossible. And all arm, all the power of perceiving, under- as there was nothing else in nature, they could standing, and acting; but after a manner not not have been divided: we must still remember at all corporeal, after a manner not like that of that their contraries are nothing, and could not men, after a manner wholly to us unknown. make a part of nature.
“He is destitute of all body, and all bodily But, as Mr. Maclaurin observes, the plain shape; and therefore cannot be seen, heard, argument for the existence of the Deity, obvinor touched ; nor ought to be worshipped un- ous to all, and carrying irresistible conviction der the representation of any thing corporeal. with it, is from the evident contrivance and
“ We have ideas of the attributes of God, fitness of things for one another, which we but do not know the substance even of any meet with throughout all parts of the universe. thing: we see only the figures and colours of There is no need of nice or subtle reasonings in bodies, hear only sounds, touch only the out- this matter; a manifest contrivance immediward surfaces, smell only odours, and taste ately suggests a contriver. It strikes us like a tastes; and do not, cannot, by any sense, or sensation, and arıful reasonings against it may any reflex act, know their inward substances; puzzle us, bat without shaking our belief. No and much less can we have any notion of the person, for example, that knows the princi. substance of God.
ples of optics and the structure of the eye can “ We know him hy his properties and at- believe that it was formed without skill in that tributes: by the most wise and excellent struc- science, or that the ear was forined without ture of things, and by final causes ; but we the knowledge of sounds, or that the male and adore and worship him only on account of his female, in animals, were not formed for each dominion: for God, setting aside dominion, other, and for continuing the species. All our providence, and final causes, is nothing else accounts of nature are full of instances of this but fate and nature.” Newt. Philos. Nat. kind. The admirable and beautiful structure Princip. Math. in calce.
of things for final causes, exalt our idea of the An' ingenious divine has wrought these contriver: the unity of design shows him to be thoughts of that admirable philosopher into one. The great motions in the system, perform, and ripened them into a more express forned with the same facility as the least, sugsystem, in a discourse on this subject. Max. gest his almighty power, which gave motiob well's Disc. concerning God.
to the earth and the celestial bodies with equal The existence and principal attributes of the ease as to the minutest particles. The subtilty Supreme Being may be inferred very briefly of the motions and actions in the internal paris from the following considerations :
of bodies, shows that his influence penetrates We must either admit that impotence and the inmost recesses of things, and that he is ignorance produce power and knowledge, or equally active and present every where. The that the latter are absolutely necessary in them. simplicity of the laws that prevail in the world, selves, Now, so necessary are power and the excellent disposition of things in order to knowledge in nature, that if we deny their ab- obtain the best ends, and the beauty which solute and inconditionate necessity, we affirm adorns the works of nature, far superior to any their absolute impossibility, since there was thing in art, suggest his consummate wisdoni. nothing in nature to produce them. This is The usefulness of the whole scheme, so weli one of these instances where it is impossible for contrived for the intelligent beings that enjoy the inost disingenuons sceptic to doubt with it, trith the internal disposition and moral his utmost effort. They must likewise be in- structure of those beings themselves, show his unboundled goodness. These are the arguments time then when there was no knowing being, which are sufficiently open to the views and or else there has been a knowing being froin capacities of the unlearned; while, at the same eternity. If it be said, there was a lime when time, they acquire new strength and lustre from that eternal being had no knowledge; I reply, the discoveries of the learned.
that then it is impossible there shou'd have The Deity's acting and interposing in the ever been any knowledge; it being as imposuniverse show that he governs as weil as form- sible that things wholly void of knowledge, ed it; and the depth of his counsels, even in and operating blindly, and without any percepconducting the material universe, of which a tion, should produce a knowing being, as it is great part surpasses our knowledge, keep up an impossible that a triangle should make itself inward veneration and awe of this great being, three angles bigger than two right ones. Thus, and dispose us to receive what may be other from the consideration of ourselves, and what wise revealed to us concerning him. It has we infallibly find in our own constitutions, our been justly observed that some of the laws of reason leads us to the knowledge of this ceriain nature now known to us must have escaped us and evident truth, that there is an eternal, most if we had wanted the sense of seeing. It may powerful, and knowing being, which whether be in his power to bestow upon us oiher senses, any one will call God, it matters not. The of which we have at present no idea ; without thing is evident; and from this idea, duly conwhich it may be impossible for us to know all sidered, will easily be deduced all those other his works, or to have more adequate ideas of attributes we ought to ascribe to this eternal himself. In our present state we know enough Being. to be satisfied of our dependency upon him, “ From what has been said, it is plain to and of the duty we owe to him, ihe Lord and me, that we have a more certain knowledge of Disposer of all things. He is not the object of the existence of a God than of any thing our sense ; his essence, and indeed that of all other senses have not immediately discovered to us. substances, is beyond the reach of all our dis- Nay, I presume I may say, that we more cercoveries : but his attributes clearly appear in tainly know that there is a God, than that there his admirable works. We know that the high- is any thing else without us. When I say we est conceptions we are able to form of them are know, I mean there is such a knowledge withstill beneath his real perfections: but his power in our reach which we cannot miss, if we will and dominion over us, and our duty towards but apply our minds to that as wc do to sevehim, are manifest.
ral other enquiries. • Thongh God has given us no innate ideas “ It being then unavoidable for all rational of himself,” says Mr. Locke, “yet having fur- creatures to conclude that something has ex. nished us with those faculties our minds are isted from eternity, let us next see what kind endowed with, he hath not lest himself with of a thing that must be. There are but two out a witness : since we have sense, percep- sorts of beings in the world that man knows or tion, and reason, and cannot want a clear proof conceives; such as are purely inaterial, withof him, as long as we carry ourselves about us. out sense or perception; and sensible perceive To show, therefore, that we are capable of ing beings, such as we find ourselves to be. knowing, that is, being certain that there is a These two sorts we shall call cogitative and inGod, and how we may come by this certainty, cogitative beings; which, to our present purI think we need gn no further than ourselves, pose, are better than material and immaterial. and that undoubted knowledge we have of our “ If then there must be something eternal, own existence. I think it is heyond question it is very obvious to reason that it must necesthat man has a clear perception of his own be- sarily be a cogitative being; because it is as ing; he knows certainly that he exists, and impossible to conceive that bare incogitatire that he is something. In the next place, man maiter should ever produce a thinking intelliknows, by an intuitive certainty, that bare no- gent being, as that nothing of itself should prothing cau no more produce any real being than duce matier. Let us suppose any parcel of it can be equal to two right angles. If, there- matter eternal, we shall find it in itself unable fore, we kvow there is some real being, it is an to produce any thing. Let us suppose its parts evident demonstration, that from eternity there firınly at rest together; if there were no other has been something: since what was not froin being in the world, must it not eternally reeternity had a beginning, and what had a be: main so, a dead upactive lump? is it possible ginning must be produced by something else. to conceive that it can add motion to itself, or Next it is evident that what has its being from produce any thing? Matter then, by its own
nother, must also have all that which is in strengih, cannot produce in itself so much as aud belongs to its being from another too: all motion. The motion it has must also be from the powers it has must be owing to, and re- eternity, or else added to matter by some other ceived from, the same source. This eternal being more powerful than matter. But let source then of all beings, must be also the us suppose motion eternal 100 ; but yet matter, source and original of all power; and so this incogitative matter, and motion could never eternal being must be also the most powerful. produce thought. Knowledge will still be as
" Again, man finds in himself perception far beyond the power of nothing to produce and knowledge: we are certain then that there Divide matter into as minute parts as you will, is not only some being, but some knowing in- vary its figure and motion as much as you telligent being, in the world. There was a please, it will operate no otherwise upon other bodies, of proportionable bulk, than it did be. Whence, ere the Theban war, and fate of Troy, fore this division. The minutest particles of Have earlier bards no earlier action sung? matter repel and resist one another just as the
Good. greater do, and that is ail they can do; so that Besides, the origin and progress of learning, if we suppose nothing eternal, matter can be- and the most liseful arts, as is also observed ser begin to be; if we suppose bare matter by the same poet, confirm the notion of the without motion eternal, motion can never be- world's beginning, and of the common æra gin to be; if we suppose only matter and of its creation : to which also may be added, motion eternal, thought can never begin to that the world itself, being material and be; for it is impossible to conceive that corruptible, must have had a beginning; and matter, either with or without motion, could many phænomena occur to the ob-ervation of have, originally in and from itself, sense, per- the astronomer and natural bistorian, which ception, and knowledge, as is evident from furnish a strong presumption, that it could hence, that then sense, perception, and know- have had no long duration, and that it graduledge, inust be a properiy eternally inseparable ally tends to dissolution. From all these confrom matter, and every particle of it. Since, șiderations we may infer the existence, attritherefore, whatsoever is the first eternal being, butes, and providence of God. must necessarily be cogitative; and whatsoever The enquiring reader may farther consult, is first of all things must necessarily contain in on this interesting topic, Baxter's Matho, vol. it, and actually have, at least, all the perfec- i., Clarke on the Attributes, Paley's Natural tions that can ever after exist; it necessarily Theology, Hartley on Man, Doddridge's Lecfollows that the first eternal being cannot be tures on Pneumatology, &c. Bishop Hamilmatter. If, therefore, it be evident, that some- ton's works, vol. ii., 0. Gregory's Astronomy, thing must necessarily exist from eternity, it is the concluding chapter, Brown's Compendious also as evident that that soinetning must be a view of Natural and Revealed Religion, and cogitative being. For it is as impossible that Barrow on the Apostles' Creed. See also our incogitative matter should produce a cogitative articles ATTRIBUTES, CHRISTIANITY, being, as that nothing, or the negation of all PROVIDENCE, RELIGION, THEOLOGY,&c. being, shouki produce a positive being or matter. And for the doctrine of three persons in one
“ This discorery of the necessary existence God, the article TRINITY. of an eternal mind sufficiently leads us to the God is also used in speaking of the false dei. knowledge of God; for it will hence follow ties of the heathens, many of which were only that all other knowing beings that have a be- creatures to which divine bonours and worship ginning must depend on him, and have no were superstitiously paid. The Greeks and other ways of knowledge, or extent of power, Latins, it is observable, did not mean by the than what he gives them; and, therefore, if name of God an all-perfect being, whereof he made those, he made also the less excellent eternity, infinity, omnipresence, &c. were espieces of this universe, all inanimate bodies, sential attributes ; with them, the word only whereby his omniscience, power, and provi- implied an excellent and superior nature, and dence, will be established; and froin thence accordingly they give the appellation gods to all all his other attributes necessarily follow.” beings of a rank or class higher or more perfect
The existence of God is also farther evinced than that of men, and especially to those who by those arguments which have been usually were inferior agents in the divine administraalleged to prove, that the world had a begin- tion, all subject to the one Supreme. Thus ning, and, therefore, that it must have been men themselves, according to their system, created by the energy of divine power. In might become gods after death; inasmuch as proof of this, the history of Moses, considered their souls might attain to a degree of excelhierely as the most ancient historian, deserves lence superior to what they were capable ofin life. particular regard. His testimony is confirmed The first divinez, father Bossu observes, by the most ancient writers among the hea- were the poets: the iwo functions, though thiens, both poets and historians. It may be now separated, were originally combined. also fairly alleged, that we have no history or Now the great variety of attributes in God, tradition more ancient than that which agrees that is, the mumber of relations, capacities, and with the received opinion of the world's be. circumstances, wherein they had'occasion to ginning, and of the manner in which it was consider him, put these poets, &c. under a neproduced, and that the most ancient histories cessity of making a partition, and of separatwere written long after that time. And this ing the divine attributes into several persons; consideration is urged by Lucretius, the famous because the weakness of the human mind Epicurean, as a strong presumption that the could not conceive so much power and action world had a beginning:
in the simplicity of one single divine nature.
Thus the omnipotence of God caine to be reSi nulla fuit genitalis origo
presented under the person and appellation of Terrarum et cæli, semperque eterna fuere: Jupiter ; the wisdom of God under that of Quur supra bellum Thebanum, et funera Minerva ; the justice of God under that of JuTroie,
no. The first idols or false gods that are said Non alias aliei quoque res cecinere poetæ? to have been adored were the stars, sun, inoon, - Yet grant this heaven, this earth the heaven &c. on account of the light, beat, and other surrounds,
benefits, which we derive from them. AfterTime ne'er produç'd, eternal of themselves wards the earth came to be deified, for furnishing fruits necessary for the subsistence of men academy of belles lettres, of which Godean and animals; then fire and water became ob- was one of the first members. Cardinal Riche. jects of divine worship, for their usefulness to lieu gave him the bishopric of Grasse, which human life. In process of time, and by de, he afterwards relinquished for that of Venice; grees, gods became multiplied to infinity; and at which place he died in 1671. He wrote an there was scarce any thing but the weakness Ecclesiastical History, in 3 vols. folio; and a or caprice of some devotee or other elevated Translation of the Psalms into French verse. into ihe rank of deity; things useless or even GODFATHERS, and GODMOTHERS, destructive not excepted. See Dni and My- persons who, at the baptism of intants, answer THOLOGY
for their future conduct; and by this means To God. v. a. (from the noun.) To deify; lay themselves under ao obligation, which to exalt to divine honours (Shakspeare). ought to be reckoned indispensable, to instruct
GODALMING, a town in Surrey, with a them, or to watch closely their actions. This market on Saturdays. It is seated on the Wey. custom is of great antiquity in the Christian Lat. 51. 13 N. Lon. 0. 34 W.
church, and was probably instituted to prevent GODAVERY, or GUNGA, or GoDOURY, children being brought up in idolatry, in case a river of Hindustan, which rises atout seven- their parents died before they arrived at years ty miles north-east Bombay, and fails into the of discretion. Bay of Bengal by several mouths, between lon. GODFATHERS, was also a term anciently 81. 40 and 82. 30 E. Greenwich ; lat. 10. 20 given to a kind of seconds who attended and and 16. 50 N. This river is reckoned sacred assisted the ights in tournaments. by the Hindoos.
GODHEAD. s. (from god.) 1. Godship; GODBOTE, in our old customs, a church deity; divinity; divine nature (Milton). 2. fine.
A deity in person ; a god or goddess (Dryden). GO'DCHILD. s. (god and child.) A term GO’DLESS. a. (from god.) Without sense of spiritual relation; one for whom one be- of duty to God;
atheistical ; wicked ; irrelicame sponsor at baptism, and promised to see gious ; impious (Dryden). educated as a christian.
GO'DLIKE. a. (god and like.) Divine ; reGODDAUGHTER. s. (god and daugh- sembling a divinity; supremely excellent (Mit.et.). A girl for whom one became sponsor at ton). baptism.
GO'DLING, s. (from god.) A little diriniGODDARD (Jonathan), an English phy- ty; a diminutive god (Dryden).
an and chemist, was born at Greenwich GOʻDLINESS. s. (from godly.) , 1. Piety about 1617. He was educated at Oxford, and to God. 2. General observation of all the duhaving studied physic at that university, he ties prescribed by religion (Hooker). went abroad. On his return he took his doc- GO'DLY.a. (from god.) 1. Pious towards tor's degree, and in 1646 he was chosen a fel- God (Common Prayer). 2. Good; righteous ; low of the college of physicians, and the fol- religious (Psalms). lowing year was appointed lecturer in anatoniy Go'dly. ad. Piously; righteously (Hook.). to that society. He was greatly patronized by GO'DLYHEAD. s. (from godly.) GoodCromwell, by whom he was made head physi- ness ; righteousness (Spenser). cian to the army, and afterwards appointed GODMANCHESTER, a large village (or, warden of Merton college, and one of the according to some, a borough) of Huntingdoncouncil of state. On the restoration, Dr. God- shire, parted from Huntingdon by the river dard was removed from his wardenship by the Ouse. It is seated in a rich and fertile soil, king. He then removed to Gresham college, which yields great plenty of corn. Here is a where he had been chosen professor of physic school called 1..e free grammar school of queen in 1655. He now constantly attended those Elizabeth. When James 1. came through meetings in which the royal society originated; this place fron Scotland, the inhabitants met and on the incorporation of that body, hy royal him with 70 irew ploughs, drawn by as many charter, in 1663, he was nominated one of the teams of houses; in pursuance of the tenure first council. He was deemed an able practi- by which they hold their land. tioner, and so conscientious that he constantly GO'DMOTHER. s. (God and mother.) A prepared his own medicines. He died in 1674. woman who has undertaken sponsion in infant Bishop Ward says, that Dr. Goddard was the baptism. first Englishman who made a telescope..
GO'DSHIP. s. (from god.). The rank or GODDESS, a heathen divinity, to whom character of a god; deity; divinity (Prior). the female sex is attributed. The ancients GODSON s.' (god and son.) One for had nearly as many goddesses as gods : for un- whom one has been sponsor at the font (Shakder this character they represented the virtues, speare); graces, and principal advantages of life; as GODSTOW, a place northwest of Oxford, truth, justice, piety, fortune, victory, &c. in a sort of island formed by the divided streams
GODDES-like. a. Resembling a goddess of the Isis after being joined by the Evenlode, (Pope).
It is noted for fish, and their excellent manner GODEAU (Anthony), a French bishop, of dressing them ; but more so for the ruins of was born in 1605. He was one of those who that nunnery which fair Rosamond quitted for met at the house of M. Coorart to converse on the embraces of Henry II. polite literature, and communicate their pro- GO'DWARD.a.To Godward is toward God. ductions, which society gave rise to the French GODWIN SANDS, sandbanks off the
coast of Kent, between the N. and S. Fore. GO'DYELD. GOʻDYIELD. ad. (corrupted land. They run parallel with the coast for from God shield, or protect). three leagues, at about two and a half leagues GO'EL. a. (golep, Saxon.) Yellow(Tusser). distance, and add to the security of the capa- GO'ER. s. (from go.) 1. One that goes; a cious roads, The Downs. These sands occupy runner (Shakspeare.) 2. A walker; one the space that was formerly a large tract of low that has a gait or mauner of walking good or ground, belonging to Godwin, earl of Kent, bad (Wottor). father of King Harold ; and which being after- GOES, or Ter Goes, the capital of South wards given to the monastery of St. Augustin, Beveland, in Zealand, one of the United Proat Canterbury, the abbot neglecting to keep in vinces. Lat. 51. 33. N. Lon. 3.50 E. repair the wall that defended it from the sea, GOG, and MAGOG, the former signifying the whole tract was drowned in the year 1100, literally, the roof of a house, the latter, coverleaving these sands, upon which many ships ing, are mentioned Ezekiel xxxviü and xxxix. have been wrecked.
and Rev. xx, and are, by most interpreters, Godwin (Mary Wollstonecroft), an inge- taken in an allegorical sense for such 'princes nious writer, was born at Beverley in York- and people as were enemies to the church and shire, in 1768. Her father was of a roving saints. Gog was prince of Magog, according temper, and thereby considerably impaired his to Ezekiel, and Magog the country or people; finances. In the 24th year of her age she open- Magog is said to be second son of Japheth, ed a day-school at Islingion, which was soon Gen. x. 2. without mentioning Gog, whoni after transferred to Newington-green. She Bochart places in the neighbourhood of Cauhad for a partner a young lady to whom she casus, which he calls Gogchasan, i.e. the fore was strongly attached, whom she accompanied tress of Gog: in 1785 to Lisbon. On her return to England T. GOGGLE. v. n. To look asquint. she entered into the family of lord Kingsbo- GOGGLE-EYED. a. (Joeglegen, Saxon). Tough, as governess to his daughters ; in which, Squint-eyed; not looking straight (Ascham). howerer, she remained but a short time. In GOGUET (Antony-Yves), a French wri. 1787 she again settled in the metropolis, and ter, and author of a celebrated work, intitled, had recourse to her pen for subsistence. She L'Origine des Loir, des Arts, des Sciences, published a little work, intitled, Original Stories & de leur Progres chez les anciens Peuples, from real Life, for the use of children ; tran- 1758, 3 vols. 4to. His father was an advocate, slated some works from the French and Ger- and he was born at Paris in 1716. He was very man; and had some concern in the Analytical unpromising as to abilities, and reckoned even Review. In 1790 she published an answer to dull in his early years; but his understanding deBurke's Reflections on the French Revolution, veloping itsell, he applied to letters, and at and the year following her Vindication of the length produced the above work. The repuRights of Women. In 1792 she went to Pa- tation he gained by it was great: but he enris, and there formed an unfortunate connec- joyed it a very short time; dying the same year tion with an American named_linlay, by of the small pox, which disorder it seems he by whom she had a daughter. For him she always dreaded. It is remarkable that Conrad undertook a voyage to Norway to regulate some Fugere, to whom he left his library and his commercial concerns. This tour occasioned MSS. was so deeply affected with the death of her Letters from Scandinavia. On her arrival his friend, as to die himself three days after in England she found herself forsaken by this him. The above work has been translated man, on whom she had placed an unrequited into English, and published in 3 vols. 8vo. Jove. In this state of distress she resolved to GOGMAGOG HILLS, four miles E. of destroy herself, and accordingly, plunged into Cambridge, are the most elevated in the counthe Thames from Putney-bridge. She was ty, and afford a good prospect from their sumsaved, however, from the water, and restored mit. They are noted for the entrenchments to life. In 1796 she was married to Mr. Wil- and other works cast up there, whence some liam Godwin, the well-known author of an suppose they were the site of a Roman camp. Enquiry concerning Political Justice, and GO'ING. s. (from go.) 1. The act of other works. She died in child birth in Au- walking (Shakspeare).) 2. Pregnancy (Grew.). gust 1797, and was buried in St. Pancras 3. Departure (Milton). church.yard. Since her death have been pub- GO'LA. s. The same with CYMATIUM. lished her posthumous works, consisting of GOLCONDA, a country of the Decan of Letters and fragments; in which we meet Hindoostan, situated between the lower parts with some true touches of nature, but they are of the rivers Kisna and Godavery, and the disgraced with the intermixture of many ex- principal parts of Dowlatabad. It was forpressions which are too indelicate, not only for merly called Tellingana, or Tilling, and is now the public eye, but even for private letters of subject to the Nizam of the Decan. Itabounds the most confidential nature. This lady pos- in corn, rice, and cattle; but it is most resessed strong and original powers of mind, but markable for its diannond mines, the most her notions, particularly on political and reli- considerable in the world. The black mergious subjects, were frequently wild, visionary, chants buy parcels of ground to search for and romantic
these precious stones in. They sometimes fail GODWIT, in ornithology. See Scolo- in meeting with any, and in others they find PAX,
immense riches. They hare also inines of salt,