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farmers call this disease sturdiness, or the stur- stowed (Hilton). .. Endowed with extraor* dy eril.
dinary powers (Dryden). GI'DDILY. ad. (from giddy.) 1. With GIG, s. (Etymology uncertain.) 1. Ang the head seeming to turn round.' 2. Incon- thing that is whirled round in play. 2. (gigia, stantly; unsteadily (Donne). 3. Carelessly; Islandick.) A fiddle: out of use. 3. A light heedlessly; negligently (Shakspeare). open carriage, drawn by a single horse.
GIDÓINESS. s. (from giddy.) 1. The GIGA, or Jig, in music, an airy brisk state of being giddy or vertiginous. 2. Incon- movement generally written in the time of $. stancy; unsteadiness ; mutability; change- GIGA, à small island on the W. coast of ableness (Bacon). 3. Quick rotation ; inabi- Scotland, between the isle of Skye and the lity to keep its place. 4. Frolick; wanton- peninsula of Cantyre, in Argyleshire, in which ness of life (Donne).
county it is included. The inhabitants apuuG’IDDY. a. (J1013, Saxon.), i. Verti- ally export a considerable quantity of grain, ginous; having in the head a whirl, or sensa- GIGANTES, the rebel giants. tion of circular motion (Tale). 2. Rotatory; GIGANTIC. a. (gigantes, Latin.) Suitablo whirling (Pope). 3. Inconstant; nutable; to a giant; big; bulky; enormous (Pope). unsteady; cbangeful (Shakspeare). 4. That TO GIGGLE.o. n. (gichgelen, Dutch.) To causes giddiness (Prior). 5. Heedless; thought. laugh idly; to titter (Garrick). less; wild (Rowe;. 6. Tottering; unfixed GIGGLER. s. (from giggle.) A laugher; a (Shakspeare). 7. Intoxicated; elated to titterer (Herbert). thoughilessness; overcome by any overpower
GIGLET. s. (zeagl, Saxon.) A wanton; a ing incitement (Shakspeare).
lascivious girl: out of use (Shakspeare). GIDDYBRAINED, a. (giddy and brain.) GIGOT.s. (French.) The hip-joint. Careless; thoughtless (Otway).
GIGS, a term in the stable, but now almost GI'DØYHEADED. a. Without steadiness obsolete, for what are now called flaps, a kind or constancy (Burton).
of faccid fleshy enlargement on each side a GIDDYPACED. a. Moving without re- horse's jaw, which, in his mastication, fregularity (Shakspeare).
qnently falling between the grinders, is proGIDEON, in Scripture history, the son of ductive of pain, and prevents the horse from Joash, of the tribe of Manasseh. He was eating. If long and thin, they may be chosen judge of Israel in the year of the world completely taken off by a pair of scissors, 2759, and died in 2768.
and the wounds washed with a strong solution GIFFORD (Dr. Andrew), an English bap- of alum in water: if they are too Aeshy for tist minister, was born in 1700. He was this inode of extirpation, they may be slightly assistant librarian many years at the British scarificd with a bistory, or abscess lancet. Museum, and died in 1784, bequeathing his GIHON, in ancient geography, one of the library to the baptist academy at Bristol. Dr. rivers of Paradise; according to Wells, the Gifford was a learned antiquary and a pious eastern branch of the Euphrates, into which divine.
it divides after its conjunction with the TiGIFT. s. (from give.) 1. A thing given or gris. bestowed (Matthew). 2. The act of giving GILBERT (William), a learned physician, (Millon). 3. The right or power of bestowing who discovered several of the properties of the (South). 4. Ohlation; offering (Tobit). 5. loadstone, was born at Colchester, in 1540, A bribe (Deuteronomy). 6. Power; faculty and educated at Cambridge, but took his des (Skakspeare).
gree of M.D. abroad. On his return to Eng. Gift, Donum, in law, is a conveyance land he was elected a fellow of the college of which passeth either lands or goods, and is of physicians in London in 1573, and practised a larger extent than a grant, being applied to in the metropolis with great success and repute, things moveable and immoveable; yet as to so that queen Elizabeth appointed him her things immoveable, when taken strictly, it is physician in ordinary. In 1000 lie published applicable only to lands and tenements given a work, intitled De Magnete, magneticisque in tail; but gift and grunt are too ofien con- Corporibus, and de magno Magnete tellure, founded.
Physiologia nova. He died in 2003. (IXaia New-Year's Gifts, presents male on new- kins). year's day, as a token of the giver's good will, GILBERT (Sir Humphrey), an able narias well as by way of presage of a happy year. gator, who took possession of Newfoundland This practice is very ancicut, the origin
of it in the name of qucen Elizabeth; but was onamong the Romans being referred 10 Tatius successful in an attempt he male to plant a coking of the Sabines, who reigned at Rome con- lony on the continent of America." He conjointly with Romulus, and who having consi- tended for the existence of a N.W. passage to dered as a good omen a present of some sprigs the Indies, in a book written for that purpose. of vervain gathered in a wood consecrated io He died in 1583. Strenia the goddess of strength, which he re- GILBERTIA. In botany, a genus of the ceived on the first day of the new year, autho- class decandria, order monogynia. Calyx four rised this custom afterwards, and gave to these or five-toothed; corol four or fire-petalled; presents the name of Strene.
nectary cylindrical, truncate; anthers inserted GIFTED. a. (from gifl.) 1. Giren ; be into the margia.of the nectary ; capsule fowcelled; the cells about one-seedel. Four spe- zabeth Negus, by whom he had many child." cies; natives of the isle of Bourbon.
ren, two of whoin only survived him. Mrs. CILBERTINES, an order of religious, Gill dicd in 1704. His works arc, i Comthus called from St. Gilbert of Sempringham inentary on the Old and New Testament, in 9 in the county of Lincoln, who founded the rols. folio. A Body of Divinity, in 3 vols. sme about the year 1148; the monks of whicle quarto. The Cause of God and Truth, « rols. observed the rule of St. Augustin, and were octaro. A Treatise concerning the Prophecies accouter canons: and the nuns that of St. of the Old Testament respecting the Messiah. Benedict. The founder of this order erected a A Dissertation on the Antiguity of the Hedouble monastery, or rather two different ones, brew Language, Leiters, Vowel-Points, and contiguous iv each other, the one for men, the Accents. Sermops, on the Canticles, folio; other for women, but parted by a very high besides a great number of sermons and controwall. St. Gilbert himself founded 13 monas- versial pieces on different subjects. The docteries of this order, viz. four for inen alone, tor was a man of considerable labour and ina and nine for men and women together, which dustry; his works, though somewhat tedious had in them 700 brethren and 1500 sisters. and dull, exhibit marks of sound piety and a At the dissolution there were about 25 houses good understanding; but we do not now recolof this order in England and Wales.
lect a single trait of genius. GILBOA, mountains of Samaria, stretch- GILLS, in ichthyology, the respiratory oring out from west to cast, on the confines of gan of fishes, anatomically denominated branthe half tribe of Manasseh, and of the tribe of chiæ, and in many respects rery closely assimiIssachar; and to the south part of the valley lating to the lungs of quadruperls. The gills of Jezreel, beginning westward at the city of or branchiæ lic in two large openings, one on Jezreel, situated at the foot of these moun. each side of the head. Their form is seinicira tains, reaching almost quite to the Jordan, ly- cular, and terminate with a fringe of beautiful ing at the distance of six miles from Scytho- fibrillæ, resembling, in their form, the rane of polis: famous for the death of Saul and his a feather. They are perpetually subject to an sou Jonathan, and the defeat of the Israelites alternating action from the pressure of the by the Philistines.
water, nor is any red blood to be discovered GILI. Sec GUILD.
where such alternate pressure dues not exist. To Giidi v. a pret. gilded or gilt. (gildan, Over these gills is a large flap, or valve, allowSaxon.) 1. To overlay with thin gold (Spena ing a communication externally, by which the ser). 2. To cover with any yellow matter water fishes are compelled to take into their Shak.): 3. To adorn with lustre (Pope). mouths with their food finds an exit without 4. To brighten ; to illuminate (South).6. passing into the stomach. The blood is col
To recommend by adventitious ornaments sected from the infinite ramification of the (Shakspeare).
small branchial arteries, by a vast number of GI'LDER. s. (from gild.) 1. One who small veins, gradually communicating and enlay's gold on the surface of any other body larging, which at length, instead of uniting to (Bacon). 2. A coin, from one shilling and form a pulmonary vein, as in quadrupeds, and sixpence, to two shillings (Shakspcure): return the blood to the heart, unite and forin
GI'LDING. s. (from gild.) Gold laid on an aorta descendens, which, without the interany surface by way of ornament (Bacon). vention of the contraction or dilation of the GILDING (Art of). See GOLD.
heart, circulates the blood through every part GILEAD), in Scripture history, the son of of the systein, to be returned to the heart by Machir, and grandson of Manasseh, had his the corporeal veing alone. The heart of fishes, inheritance allotted him in the mountains of which is single instead of double, is, hence, a Gilead, whence he took his name. See Ge. mere pulmonary and not a corporeal heart. ne is xxxi, xxxvii, &c.
Gills, in botany. See LAMEL. GILEAD (Balm of). See DRACOCEPHA. Gori, a measure of capacity, containing a
quarter of an English pini. GILEAD (Balın of, Tree). See AMYRIS. Gill, contracted from Gillian, is an appel
GILL (John, D.D.), a protestant dissent- lation for a woman in ludicrous language: ing minister of the baptist (lenomination, and GILL-COVER, in ichthyology, the bony or the son of Edward and Elizabeth Gill, tras cartilaginous substance placed on the memborn at Kettering in Northamptonshire, No. brane that covers the gills. vember 23, 1697. His sentiments, as a divine, GILLIFOWER. GILLIFLOWER (Clore), were throughout Calvinistic: “ And perhaps in botany. See DIANTHUS. no man (says the Rev. Mr. Toplady, a minis- GilliFLOWER (Queen's), in hotany. See ter in the church of England), since the days HESPERIS. of Austm, has written so largely in defence of GILLIFLOWER (Stock), in botany. Sce the system of grace; and certainly no man las CHEIRANTHUS. treated that momentous subject, in all its GILOLO, a large island of the East Indies. branches, more closely, judiciously, and suc- It lies directly under the equinoctial line, in lan. cessfully.” He dierl at Camberwell, October 130.0 E. The inhabitanis are fierce and crurl. 14, 1771, aged 73 years 10 montlis and 10 GILPIN (Bernard), an English divine of düye lu 1718 the doctor inarried Mrs. Eli- extraordinary merit, was born at Kentinire in
Westmoreland in 1513, and educated at Queen's séa-compass is suspended in its box that usualcollege, Oxford, where he took his degrees in ly stands in the binacle. arts, and was chosen a fellow'. On the com- GI'MCRACK. s. (ludicrously formed from pletion of the foundation of Christ church col- gin.) A slighit or trivial mechanism (Prior). lege by Henry VIII. he was chosen one of its GI'MLET. s. (gibelet, guimbelel, French.) first masters.' In the reign of Edward VI. his A borer with a screw at its point (1.10.209). zeal for popery led him to hold a dispute with GI'MMAL. s. (gimellus, Latin.) Some litPeter Mariyr, the result of which was his own tle quaint devices of machinery (Hanmer). 'conversion to the protestant religion. Soon
GIMMER. 8. Movement; machinery after this he was presented to the living of (More). Nortoo in the diocese of Durham, and by the GIMP. s. A kind of silk twist or lace. advice of Toustal, bishop of that diocese, who GIN. s. (from engine.) 1. A trap; a snare was his uncle, he went 'abroad, that he might (Ben Jonson). 2. Any thing mored with consult foreign divines, taking with him a screws, as an engine of torture (Spenser). 3. MS. of that prelite on the eucharist to get A pump worked by rotatory sails (iVoodward). printed. After the accession of queen Mary, 4. (contracted from Geneva.) The spirit Tonstal being restored to his sec, he offered a drawn by distillation from juniper-berries. valuable living to Gilpin,
who declined it from Gin, in mechanics, an engine for driving scruples of conscience. Soon after he went to piles. See PILE-ENGINE. Paris, where the first thing he did was to print GINGEE, a town of Asia, in the peninsuta his uncle's book. In 1556 Gilpin returned to of Hindustan, and on the coast of Coroman, England, a little before the death of queen el. It is a large town, well peopled, and Mary. His uncle conferred on him the arch- strong both by art and nature, being seated on deaconry of Durham, with the rectory of Ea- a inountain, whose top is divided into three sington annexed. Although the persecution points, on each of which is a castle. The still raged against the protestants he preached Great Mogul in 1890 began a siege, which openly against vice of every kind, but more continued three years, to no purpose. It is 33 particularly in the clergy, and amongst other miles W. of Pondicherry.' Lat. 11. 49 N. Things, against pluralities and non-residence, Lon. 10.13 E. by which he brought such a persecution on GINGER, in botany. See AMOMUM. himself that he was twice formally accused be- GI'NGERBREAD. s. (ginger and bread.) fore his bishop, who, however, found means A kind of farinaceous sweetmeat made of to protect him. But he was so embarrassed dough, like that of bread or biscuit, sweetened with the malice of his enemies, that he resign- with treacle, and favoured with ginger and ed the archdeaconty and retired to Houghton. some aromatic seeds (Swift). le-spring, the living of which becoming vacant GI'NGERLY, ad. Cautiously; nicely was given to him by his uncle. Although he (Shakspeare). now forbore to attack the clergy, they could GINGERNESS,
tenderness. not forgive him, and he was accused before GINGIDIUM, in botany. See CHÆRÉBonner, bishop of London, who ordered him FOLIUM. to be apprehended. He began without delay GINGIRO, or ZINDERO, a small territory to prepare himself for martyrdom, and, having of Africa, to the south of Abyssinia; being desired his house steward to provide him with separated from it by the river Zebce, by which a long garment, in which he proposed to go to it is also alınost entirely surrounded. This the stuke, he set out for London. But the river is extremely large, having more water death of queen Mary, the news of which he than the Nile, and being inuch more rapid ; received on the road, saved him in this ex. so that during the rainy season it would be altremity. He returned to Houghton, where together impassable, were it not for the large his parishioners received him with every token rocks which are in its channel. The extreme of respect and satisfaction. When the popish difficulty which occurs in passing this river, bishops were deprived, a congé d'elire was sent however, is the means of preserving the kingto Carlisle to elect him bishop of that sce; but dom of Gingiro, which could otherwise be he declined the honour, and the following conquered in a single season by the Galla. year refused the provostship of Queen's college. In this kingdom every thing is conducted, He endeared himself to all by his munificence, or pretended io be conducted, by magic; and charity, and virtuous life. His death was hast- all those slaves, which in other African councned by an accident. He was thrown down tries are sold to Europeans, are here sacrificed in the market-place at Durham by au os, and to the devil, human blood being a necessary extremely hurt; and though he got abroad part in all their accursed solemniiies.
Howy again after a long confinement, he never per- far (says Mr. Bruce) this reaches to the southfecily recovered. He died in 1583, in the 66th ward, I do not know; but I look upon this to year of his age. (Watkins).
be the geographical bounds of the reign of the GILT. s. (from gild.) Golden show; cold desil on the north side of the equator in the laid on the surface of any matter (Shakspeare). peninsula of Africa." GILT. The participle of gild.
.GINGIVIE. (gingivæ, from gigno, to beGILTHEAD, in ichthyology. Sse Spa- get, because the teeth are, as it were, born in RUS.
ihem.) The gums. See Gums. GIM. a. (An old word.) Neat; spruce. GINGI'VAL. a. (gingira, Latin.) Belongs GIMBOLS, are the brass rings by which a ing to the gums (Holder).
TO GI'NGLE. v. n. 1. To utter a sharp careful in copying the life, that he excelled clattering noise (Pope). 2. To make an affecio Giorgione in discovering the delicacies of naed sound in periods or cadence.
ture, by tempering the boldness of his colouré To GI'NGLE. v. a. To shake so that a ing. The most valuable piece of Giorgione in sharp shrill clattering noise should be made oil is that of Christ carrying his cross, now in (Pope).
the church of San Rovo in Venice ; where it To Gi'sGLE. s. (from the verb.) 1. is held in great veneration. He died young of shrill resounding noise. 2. Affectation in the the plague in 1511. sound of periods.
GIOTTO, an eminent painter, sculptor, GI’NGLYMOID. a. (Yogyaypos, a hinge, and architect, was born near Florence in 1'276, and ed.) Resembling a ginglymus; approach- and was a disciple of Cimabue, whom he greating to a ginglymus.
ly excelled. He was chiefly admired for his GINGLYMUS.(ginglymus, from yoyyaupas, works in mosaic, the best of which is a ship a hinge.). The hinge-like joint. A species of over the grand entrance of St. Peter's church diartbrosis or moveable connexion of bones, at Rome. At Florence is the famous mosaic which admits of flexion and extension, as the of the death of the Virgin, which was wonderknee-joint, &c.
fully admired by Michael Angelo. He died in GINKSO, in botany. See MAURITIA. 1330.
GI'NNET. s. (yervos.) A nag; a mule; a de- GIOVENAZZO, a town of Naples, in generated breed.
Terra di Bari, with a castle. It is seated on a GINONIA. In botany, a genus of the mountain near the sea. Lat. 41. 26 N. Lon. class dodecandria, order monogynia. Calyx 16.50 E. six-cleft; petals six : capsule one-celled, four- To GIP. v. a. To take out the guts of here valved, many seeded. One species; a myrtle- rings. form shrub of Cuba, with leaves opposite, GIPSY. s. (corrupted from Egyptian.) 1. lanceolate, entire, glabrous; peduncles axil- A vagabond who pretends to foretell futurity, lary and terminal, one-flowered!
commonly by palmestry or physiognomy. (See GINSENG. (ginseng, Indian.) The plant Gypsy.) 2. A reproachful name for a dark from which this root is obtained is the panax complexion (Shakspeare). 3. Name of slight quinquefolium ; foliis ternis quinatis, of Lin- reproach to a woman. neus. A genus of the class polygamia, order GIRALDI (Lilio Gregorio), an eminent dioecia. It is imported into this country writer, was born at Ferrara in 1479. He rescarcely of the thickness of the little finger, sided some time at Rome in favour with some about three or four inches long, frequently eininent men at that court, but after losing his forked, transversely wrinkled, of a horny tex- patrons he fell into porerty, and returned to his ture, and both internally and externally of a native place, where he died in 1552. The yellowish white colour. To the taste it disco- most esteemed of his works is, Historia de vers a mucilaginous sweetness, approaching to Diis Gentiuın, and it is anong the last he that of liquorice, accompanied with some de- wrote. gree of bitterness, and a slight aromatic GIRALDI (John Baptist Cintio), an Italian warmth. The Chinese ascribe extraordinary poet, was born at Ferrara in 1504. After gois virtues to the root of gingseng, and have no ing through a course of classical and pbilosoconfidence in any medicine unless in combina- phical study, he applied to physic, in which tion with it. In Europe, however, it is very he took his doctor's degree. He was for some seldom employed. See Panax.
time secretary to the duke of Ferrara, but afa GIOIA (Flario), of Amalf in the kingdom terwards accepted the professorship of rhetoric of Naples, the celebrated mathematician; at Pavia. Being greatly afflicted with the who, from his knowledge of the magnetic gout be quitted the chair, and retired to his napowers, invented the mariner's compass, by tive place, where he died in 1573. His works which the navigation of the Europeans was are chiefly tragedies, an edition of which was extender to the most distant regions of the published at Venice, in 1683, in 8vo. globe: before this invention, navigation was GIRARD (Gabriel), author of the celeconfined 10 coasting. The king of Naples be. brated work, intitled, Synonymes François, ing a younger branch of the royal family of &c. was almoner to the duchess de Berry, and France, he inarked the north point wiih a the king's interpreter for the Russian and Selafleur de lis, in compliment to that country. vonian languages. He also wrote a work, inIt is said the Chinese know the compass long titled Principes de la Langue Françoise ; but before ; be this as it may, the Europeans are this is inferior to the former, which indeed indebted to Gioia for this invaluable discovery. exhibits great subtlety of understanding and He Aourished A.D. 1300.
refinement of taste. The abbé Girard died in GIORGIONE, so called from his comely 1748, at the age of 70. aspect, was an illustrious Venetian painter, GIRARDON (Francois), a French sculpborn in 1478. He received his first instruc- tor and architect, was born at Troyes in 1628. tions from Giovauni Bellino; brit studying ar- After studying under Maziere and Anguier, he terwards the works of Leonardo da Vinci, he was sent to Roine hy Louis XIV. to perfect soon surpassed them both, being the first himself in his art, and succeeded le Brun as among the Lombards who found out the ad- inspector-general of sculpture. The chief mirable effects of strong lights and shadows. works of this artist are the Mausolcum of cars Titian became liis rival in this art, and vias so dinal de Richelieu, in the church of the SofBonne; the equestrian statue of Louis XIV.; to the girders. The size of girders and suma and the rape of Proserpine, in the gardens of mers, upon the rebuilding of London, were Versailles." He died at Paris in 1715. ordained by act of Paaliament, to be in length
GIRASSE, in mastiology. See CAMELO« from ten to twenty-six feet, in breadth froin PARDALIS.
eleven to seventeen inches, and in depth from TOGIRD. v.a. pret. girded or girt. (sýndan, eight to fourteen inches. It was also ordained Saxon.) 1. To bind round (Maccabees). 2. by the same statute, that no girder or summer To put on so as to surround or bind (Swift). should be less than ten inches in the wall, and 3. To fasten by binding (Milton). 4. To in- that their ends should be laid in loain ; as also rest (Shakspeare). 5. To dress; to habit; to that they be of good hearty oak, as free from clothe (Ezekiel). 6. To cover round as a gar- knots as may be, because that will be the least ment (Milton). 7. To furnish; to equip subject to breaking, and may with more safe(Milton). 8. 'To enclose; to encircle (Mil- ty be relied on in this cross and transverse tom). 9. To reproach; to gibe (Shakspeare). work.
To Gird. v.'n. To break a scornful jest ; to A scantling of fir 10 feet in length, 8 inches gibe; to sneer (Shakspeare).
in breadth, and 10 high, is found to be suffiGIRD. S. (from the verb.) A twitch; a pang ciently strong for all practical purposes ; the (Tillotson. Goodman).
following tables contain the dimensions of GIRDERS, in architecture, some of the other girders, of very nearly equal strength, allargest pieces of timber in a floor. Their ends lowing the relative strength of oak and for to are usually fastened into summers and breast be as stated under the article Beam, suinmers, and joists are framed in at one end
GIRDLE. $. (sýnde, Saxon.) 1. Any
GIRE. s. (gyrus, Latin.) A circle described thing drawn round the waist, and tied or by any thing in motion. buckled (Brown). 2. Enclosure; circunfer- GIRGASHITES, or GERGESENEs, an ence (Shakspeare). 3. The zodiack (Bacon). ancient people of the land of Canaan, whose
GIRDLE (Maidens' or Virgins')." It was habitation was beyond the sea of Tiberias, the custom among the Grecks and Romans where we find some footsteps of their name in for the husband to untie his bride's girdle. the city of Gergesa, upon the lake of Tiberias. Horner, lib. xi. of his Odyssey, calls the girdle GIRGE, a town of Egypt, the capital of tazherine Sumy, maid's girdle. Festus relates the Said, situate near the left bank of the Nile. that it was made of sheep's wool, and that the It is about three miles in circumference. Lat. husband untied it in bed. The poets attribute 26. 30 N. Lon. 31. 22 E. to Venus a particular kind of girdle called GIRGENTI, a town of Sicily, which occesius, to which they annexed a faculty of in. cupies part of the site of the ancient Agrigenspiring the passion of love.
tum. It has only one street fit for carriages. T. GIRDLE. v. n. (from the noun.) 1 It is inhabited by 15,000 persons, but has To gird; to bind as with a girdle (Śhak- no remarkable buildings or works of art that speare). 2. To inclose; to shut in; to en- deserve mention; the only antiquities to be virop (Shakspeare).
seen were a Latin inscription of the time of the GIRDLE (Order of the). The order of Antonincs, as is pretended, relative to some Cordeliers.
association between Agrigentum and LilyGIRDLEBELT. s. (girdle and lelt.) The bæum; and a piece of ancient masonry in the belt that encircles the waist (Dryden). foundations of a church pretended to be the
GI'RDLER. s. (from girdle.) A maker of remains of a temple of Jupiter. At some disGirdles
tance, on the old ground in the vale, stands