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the end of four syllables; and Alexandrine at the end of sis.
Leonine verses rhythm both at the end and for four or five days, according to the kineness at the hemistich. See LEONINE.
of the weather. The next operation is that of HEMITONE, in music, a semi-lone. reeding, namely, the separation of the bark HEMLOCK, in botany. See Cicuta. from the reed, or woody part, which is
HEMORRHAGE. HE'MORRHAGY. s. effected either by pulling out the reed with the (aquapaya.) A violent Aux of blood. See hand, or by drying, and breaking it by maHÆMORRHAGIA.
chinery, like flis. The hemp is ihen cleared HEMORRHOIDAL. a. (from hemorr- of its mucilaginous matter, by pouring water hoids.) Belonging to the veins in the through it, and squeezing out the liquid after fundament (Ray).
every affusion, till it be completely divested of HE'MORRHOIDS. s. (attuopparèns.) The those particles. piles ; the emrods (Swift).
The next operation is that of breaking it, HEMP, in botany. See CANABIS. wbich, in the county of Suffolk, is performed HEMP (Agrimony). See EUPATORIUM. with the aid of certain machinery worked by
The canabis sativa, or hemp-plant, is cul- the hand; when the hemp is beaten in mills; tivated ou account of its external filaments, combed or dressed by drawing it through which constitute the hemp used for cordage, heckles, sitnilar to the combs of wool manua canvas, cloth, &c. and the seeds abound with facturers; and spun into thread, whence it is oil. The plant is annual; it rises quick into made into twine, cordage, cloth, netting, &c. a tall slender sort of shrub; its leaves growing Beside the strong cloth, and other articles by fives or sixes from the saine pedicle, are a made from it, hemp is of considerable utility little jagged, and yield a strong smell, which for other purposes. The refuse, called hempaffects the head. The culture and manage- sheaves, affords an excellent fuel; and the ment of hemp makes a considerable article in seeds yield by expression a pure oil, which is agriculture ; requiring divers operations, as peculiarly adapted for burning in chambers, as pulling, watering, beating, and swingling. it is perfectly limpid, and possesses no smell. It is sown in May, in a warm, sandy, rich Another valuable property of hemp is, that it soil; and is of itself sufficient to destroy weeds eflectually expels verinin froin plantations of on any ground. The first season for pulling cabbages; for, if it be sown on the borders hemp is usually about the middle of August, of fields, &c. planted with that vegetable, no when they begin 10 pull the male plants, called caterpillars will infest it. fimble hemp. But the safer method is to puil When fresh, hemp has a strong, narcotic it a fortnight or three weeks later, when the smell: the water in which it has been soaked male plants have fully shed their farina, with-' is said to be in a high degree poisonous, and to ont which the seeds will prove only enpty produce fatal effects immediately after drinkhusks. At the second pulling, a little after ing it. The seeds have an unctuous, sweetish Michaelmas, the female plants, called karle taste; they may be triturated with water, or hemp, are taken out of the ground. This boiled in milk as an emulsion, which is ockarle hemp is laid in the sun to dry, and then casionally taken as a domestic remedy in housed, for the seed to be thrashed out. The coughs, 'heat of urine, and similar comfemale hemp alone produces seed to perpetuate plaints. the kind. 'The operations of harling, water- In the eastern climates hemp-leaves are ing, breaking, swingling, and heckling hemp, used like opium, and possess similar intoxicatare very much like those practised in the dress- ing properties. The Russians and Poles, ing of fax. The hemp imported into this even of the higher classes, bruise or roast the country chiefly comes from Russia. Amongst seeds, mix them with salt, and eat them on it the Riga hemp deserves the preference, bread. - Birds, kept in cages, are likewise which, according to the quality, is divided in fond of this oily seed; but they should not be rhyne, outshot, pass, and codilla hemp. The indulged in its constant use, which is apt to Italian, known in this country by the name render them prematurely old, blind, and at of Bologna hemp, is of very príme quality, length consumptive. Hemp being an article but comes too dear for the consumption of of extensive utility, rarious vegetables have the nothern parts of Europe.
been discovered, which may serve as subAmong us, after the seed is beaten out, the stitutes. Among these are the Canada goldenhemp is prepared for the manufacturer, either rod, or solidago Canadensis, a perennial by grassing; that is, lying on stubble or pas- plant, that might be easily cultivated in Briture ground, in order to be gradually dew. tain: its stalks are numerous, straight, and ripened; or, hy water rotting, for which grow above five feet in height'; they afford process clay-pits are preferred to running water. very strong fibres, if treated in the same In these the hemp is immersed in bundles, manner as hemp. The sun-flower, or helianlaid both directly, and across, thus,
thus, L. also affords single filaments or fibres, which are said to be as thick and in all respects as strong as small pack-thread.
HEMPEN. a. (from hemp.) Made of hemp.
HEMSKIRK or HEEMSKIRK (Martin), a celebrated Dutch painter, was born in 1498, cess. Mr. Horace Walpole, in 1768, beggert and studied his art' at Rome, after which he it of the author, and printed it at Strawberry seturned to his own country, and settled at Hill. In 1706 he was admitted a counsellor Haerlem, where he died in 1574, aged 76. of parliament, and in 1710 president of the His invention was fruitful, which enabled him first chainber of inquests, and these occuto paint all kinds of subjects with success ; but pations led him to the study of politics and his figures are generally bad, and he was ig- history. In 1744 he published his chronolonorant of the chiaro-scuro.
gical abridgment of the History of France, HEMSKIRK (Egbert), called Hemskirk the which work has been translated into many old, was an excellent painter of droll subjects languages, and even into the Chinese. He and conversations.
also wrote some very pleasant coinedies, HEMSKIRK (Egbert), called the young, Henault died greatly respected in 1771. was probably the son and disciple of the above. HENCE. ad. or interj. (heopan, Sax. He had abundance of humour, and a wbim- hennes, old English). 1. From this place to sical imagination, many of his pieces being another (Roscommon). 2. Away; to a disTepresentations of the nocturnal' meetings of tance (Milton). 3. At a distance; in another witches and devils. He died in 1704, aged 59. place (Shakspeare). 4. From this time; in
HEMPSTED, or Hemel Hempsted, a the future (Arbuthnot). 5. For this reason; borough town in Herts, with a market on in consequence of this (Tillotson). 6. From
Thursdays. It is seated among hills, on a this cause; from this ground (Arb.). 7. From branch of the Coln. Lat.51. 47 N. Lon. 12. this source; from this original; from this 14 E.
store (Suckling). 8. From hence is a vitious HEMSTERHUIS (Tiberius), or Hem- expression. STERHUSIUS, a learned critic, was born at To Hence, v. a. (from the adverb.) To Groningen in 1685, and at the age of 19 was send off; to dispatch to a distance: obsolete appointed professor of mathematics and phi- (Sidney). losophy at Amsterdam. In 1717 he removed HENCEFOʻRTH. ad. (henonfops, Sax.)
. , to Franeker, where he was appointed Greek From this time forward (Milton). professor, to which was afterwards added the HENCEFOʻRWARD. ad. (hence and professorship of history. In 1740 he went to forward.) From this time to futurity (Dryd.). Leyden, where he occupied the same stations HENCHMAN. s. (hync, a servant, and as he had done at Franeker. He died in 1766. man.) A page ; an attendant: obsolela He published, 1. the three last books of Julius (Shakspeare). Pollux's Onomasticon, in 1706, which To HEND. v. a. (hendan, Saxon.) 1. To brought him acquainted with the learned seize; to lay hold of (Fairfax). Bentley. 2. Select Colloquies of Lucian. 3. crowd; to surround (Shakspeare). The Plutus of Aristophanes. 4. Part of an HE'NDECAGON. S. (svõime and yuuin.) A edition of Lucian and various other learned figure of eleven sides or angles. works.
HENED-PENNY, in our old writers, a HEN, in ornitholegy. See PHASIANUS. customary payment of money instead of hens Hen (Guinea). Sec NUMIDIA.
at Christmas. HEN-HARRIER. See Falco.
HENIOCHAS, in astronomy. See Au. HEN-WEED (Guinea), in botany. See PE- RICA.
HENLEY, a town in Oxfordshire, with HEN-BANE. See HYOSCIAMUS.
markets on Wednesdays, Fridays, and SaturHen, significs the female of domestic days. It is seated on the Thames, over which fowls, and such as often come near habita- is a handsome bridge, and sends malt, corn, tions: as hen-sparrow, &c.
&c. to London by barges. Lat. 51. 35 N. HEN-HEARTED. a. (hen and heart.) Das- Lon. 0.46 W. tardly; cowardly.
HENLEY, a town in Warwickshire, with HeN-PECKED. a. (hen and pecked.) Go- a market on Tuesdays. It is seated on the rerued by the wife (Arbuthnot).
Alne. Lat. 52. 03 N. Lon. 1. 50 W. HEN-ROOST. s. (hen and roost.) The place HENLEY (John), well known by the name where the poultry rest (Addison).
of orator Henley, was born at Melton Mowe HENAULT (John d'), a French poet, bray in Leicestershire, in 1692, and brought was the son of a baker at Paris. He was pa- up at Cambridge, after which he entered into tronized by the superintendant Fouquet, who orders, and became a popular preacher in gave him the place of receiver of the taxes at London; but disgraced himself and bis gown Fores. He wrote a satirical poem on Colbert, by setting up a lecture on Sunday erenings
, and several pieces of merit. His conduct was near Lincoln's-inn fields, admission to which irregular, and his principles libertine, but his was one shilling each person. He had also death was very penitent. This happened in another lecture on Wednesdays, on all kinds 1689.
of subjects, but generally of a political or HENAULT (Charles John Francis), a satirical nature. Henley was a man of some French writer, was born at Paris in 1685. abilities, and published a translation of Pliny's In 1707 he gained the prize of eloquence at Epistles, and some other works. He died in the French academy, and in 1715 he produced 1756. a tragedy on the stage, which had a bad suc- This extraordinary person struck medals,
which he dispersed as tickets to his subscribers : bert being in Palestine when William Rusus a star rising to the meridian, with this motto, was killed, in 1100, Henry took advantage of
Ad summa; and below, Inveniam viam, aut his absence, and caused himself to be crowned faciam. He was author of a weekly paper king of England, on August 5, 1100; but called the Hyp Doctor, for which he had 1001. Robert, at his return, was acknowledged a year given him. Henley used every Satur- duke of Normandy, and landed at Portsmouth day to print an advertisement in the Daily to make good his right to the crown of England. Advertiser, containing an account of the However, Henry came to an agreement with subjects he intended to discourseon the ensuing him, by consenting to pay him an annual evening at his Oratory, with a sort of motto tribute of three thousand marks. This tribute before it, which was generally a sneer at some however being but ill paid, they rekindled the public transaction of the preceding, week. Dr. war a short time after; when Henry landing Cobden, one of Geo. II.'s chaplains, having, in Normandy, rendered himself master of in 1748, preached a sermon at St. James's that duchy, after the battle of Tinchebray, from these words, “ Take away the wicked fought on the 27th of September, 1106, in from before the king, and his throne shall be which Robert was defeated and taken prisoner. established in righteousness ; " it gave so much After which Henry had the cruelty to cause displeasure that the doctor was struck out of his eyes to be put out, and confined him twenty the list of chaplains ; and the next Saturday years in Cardiff castle, in Glamorganshire. the following parody of his text appeared as a He died the 1st of December, 1135, aged motto to Henley's advertisement :
sixty-eight, leaving his crown to Maud, or “ Away with the wicked before the king, Matilda, his daughter, but was succeeded by And away with the wicked behind him; Stephen his nephew. His throne it will bless
Henry II. king of England, son of With righteousness,
Geoffrey Plantagenet, and the empress Maud, And we shall know where to find him." or Matilda, the daughter of Henry I. sucHENNEBERG, a county of Germany, in ceeded Stephen the 20th of December, 1154, the circle of Franconia. Mainungen is the in the twenty-third year of his age. As the capital.
son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, he inherited the HENNEBERG, a town of Germany, in French provinces of Anjou, Tourain, and the county of the same name. Lat. 50. 40 N. Maine, and afterwards by his marriage with Lon. 10.38 E.
Eleanor,obtained Poictou, Saintogne, Guienne, HENOTICUM, 'HYOTIxor, q. d. reconci- and Gascony. In his person the Norman and liative; of irow, I unite, in church history, Saxon blood were united, and in him began a famous edict of the emperor Zeno, pub- the race of the Plantagenets, which ended lished A. D. 482, and intended to reconcile with Richard III. and re-unite the Eutychians with the Ca. In 172 Henry sailed with a numerous flect tholics.
to Ireland, and landing at Waterford, all the It was procured of the emperor by means Irish princes voluntarily swore allegiance to of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, with him, so that he became master of that king. the assistance of the friends of Peter Mongus dom without bloodshed, and divided great and Peter Trullo.
part of the country among the English nobles, The sting of this edict lies here ; that it &c. who attended him in this expedition, and repeats and confirms all that had been enacted from them sprung, some of the principal fain the councils of Nice, Constantinople, milies now in Ireland. The king had for Ephesus, and Chalcedon, against the Arians, some years before inet with continual disturbNestorians, and Eutychians, without making ance from the arrogance of Thomas Becket, any particular mention of the council of whom he had raised from a mean station to Chalcedon. It is in form of a letter, addressed the see of Canterbury; but at last four knights, by Zeno to the bishops, priests, inonks, and thinking to please his majesty, murdered that people of Egypt and Libya. It was opposed insolent prelate. But what is more extraby the Catholics, and condemned in forin by ordinary, the pope's legate prevailed on the pope Felix II.
king to do penance, by going bare-foot three HENRICHEMONT, a town of France, miles to Becket's shrine : and to be scourged in the department of Cher. It was the capital there by the Augustine monks, who gave him of a district which Henry IV. gave to his fourscore lashes on his naked back. minister the duke of Sully. Its original name Henry was brave, learned, polite, generous, was Bois Belle; but Sully gave it its present and of a mild disposition, but these virtues Dame, in gratitude for the privileges 'which could not secure him from sufiering the the king had annexed to it. "It is seated on greatest rexations, even in his own family. the Saudre, 15 miles NNE from Bourges. Lust was his preciominant passion; and Eleanor
HENRY I. king of England, and duke of his queen being jealous of Rosamond, the Normandy, surnamed Beauclerc, on account lord Clifford's daughter, who was his inistress, of his great learning, was the son of William and whom he kept at Woodstock, in a labve the Conqueror, and the youngest brother of rinth, built to secure her from the queeri's William Rufus and Robert. His engaging sage, is said to have found means to despatch person and address, his courage, learning, and her by poison ; and the young princes, his eloquence, have been highly celebrated. Ro- sons, being joined by several of the nobility, VOL. V.
and assisted by the kings of France and Scot- last they came to an open war, when a clecisive land, raised a great rebellion. King Henry battle was fought near Lewes, in Sussex, in however took the king of Scotland prisoner, which the king's army was defeated, and himand afterwards not only restored the young self, prince Edward, and the king of the princes to favour, but pardoned all the re. Romans, taken prisoners; but afterwards the volters; however, he obliged the king of earls of Leicester and Gloucester quarrelling, Scotland to pay bim homage for his kingdom. the latter joined prince Edward, who had Henry was so mortified at the disobedience of escaped from his keepers, and uniting their his sons, that through grief he fell sick at forces, marched against the earl of Leicester, Chinon, in Touraine, and perceiving his end whom they deseated and slew : the king was draw near, gave orders for his being carried then set at liberty; but peace was not restored into the church, where he expired before the till some time after ; when prince Edward enaltar, on the 6th of July, 1189, in the fifty- gaged in a crusade, and went to the Holy seventh year of his age, and the thiriy-fifth of Land. Henry died at London, on the 20th his reign. After which he was stripped by his of November, 1272, aged sixty-five, in the ungrateful attendants, and left naked in the fifty-sixth of his reign, and was buried in church; but was afterwards interred at Fon- Westminster-abbey. He was succeeded by his tevraud, in Anjou. He was succeeded by his son Edward Longshanks. son Richard I.
HENRY IV. king of England, was born Henry III. king of England, commonly in 1367, and proclaiıned king after the depoHenry of Winchester, from his being born sition of Richard II. on the 30th of December, in that citr, was born October 1, 1207, and 1399. He was the son of John of Gaunt, succeeded his father king John, the 28th of duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III. October, 1216, when not ten years of age. He had not a just claim to the crown, which Lewis, the dauphin of France, afterwards of right belonged to Edmund of Mortimer, king Lewis VIII, who was called in by the earl of March, theu duke of York, the debarons against king John, was then in Eng- scendant of Lionel, duke of Clarence, the land; but having received a large sum of second son of Edward III, which occasioned money, returned into France. When Henry the wars between the houses of York and was of age, he began with exacting large sums Lancaster, under the device of the white rose of money, and annulling the iwo sacred and red. The next year, the dukes of Exeter, charters granted by his father. He landed in Surry, and Albemarle, the earls of Salisbury Brittany with a numerous army, in order to and Gloucester, the bishop of Carlisle, and recover the British dominions in France; but sir Thomas Blount, the friends of Richard, spending his time in diversions, shamefully formed a conspiracy, in order to assassinate returned, after having spent all his treasure: Henry, and restore Richard to the throne: but afterwards renewing the war, he lost all being discovered, and their whole scheme Poictou, and then concluded a peace with frustrated, they assembled an army of forty Lewis for five years, to purchase which thousand men, and set up Maudlin, a priest, Henry agreed to pay him five thousand pounds whose person resembled Richard, to pretend annually.
that he was Richard himself; but in this they The king, who paid no regard to the con- also failed: most of the leaders were taken and stitution of England, met with many mortific beheaded ; Maudlin was hanged at London, cations from his parliament and people, who and this conspiracy hastened the death of the at length obliged him to renew the two char- unhappy king Richard, who was soon after ters; which was done in Westminster-hall, basely murdered at Pontefract. In 1402, in the following manner, viz. the peers being Henry caused Roger Clarendon, the natural assembled in the presence of the king, each son of Edward the Black Prince, and several holding a lighied' taper, the archbishop of others, to be put to death, for maintaining Canterbury denounced a terrible curse against that Richard was alive. The same year he those who should violate the laws, or alter married Joanna of Navarre, widow of the the constitutions of the kingdom, then the duke of Brittany. charters were read aloud, and confirmed by About this time the Scots invaded England, the king, who all this time kept his hand upon under the earl of Douglas, but were defeated his breast; after which every one threw his at Halidown-hill, by the earl of Northumbertaper on the ground to raise a great smoke, and land, and his son Henry Hotspur, with the wished that those who violated the charters loss of above ten thousand men; and in this might smoke in hell. After which, the par- victory several earls, and many other persons liainent granted him a subsidy for suppressing of consequence, were made prisoners; but an insurrection in Guienne. He soon reduced the king ordering Northumberland to deliver that province, and returned to England, where up the prisoners into his hands, the earl was he renewed his exactions. In short, the so exasperated, that he, with Henry Piercy, people being still oppressed, and the barons surnamed Hotspur, his son, and other lords, finding that Henry could not be bound by the agreed to crown Edmund Mortimer, earl of most soleinn oaths, undertook to reform the March, whom Glendower kept prisoner in government; accordingly commissioners were Wales. The rebel army were encamped near chosen by the king and the barons, and articles Shrewsbury, headed by Henry Hotspur, the agreed on; which the king again broke. At earl of Worcester, and the Scotch carl of Douglas ; and the king marched directly thi- army. The loss of the English was only fout iber, with fourteen thousand choice troops, hundred men. In 1417 the king, to enable headed by himself, the prince of Wales, and himself to carry on the war, pledged his crown the earl of March ; and on the 22d of July, at for one hundred thousand marks, and part of a place afterwards called Battle-field, the king his jewels for ten thousand pounds; then landobtained so complete a victory, that about ten ing at Beville, in Normandy, he reduced Caen, thousand of the rebels were killed, among and the next year subdued all Normandy. In whom was the brave Hotspur, who fell by May 1420, a treaty was concluded at Troyes, the hands of the prince of Wales. In 1405 which was ratified by the states of France. another conspiracy was raised, at the head of By this treaty, the dauphin was disinherited; which was the archbishop of York, the earl of and Henry V. married Catharine of France; Nori humberland, Thomas Mowbray earl mar- and was declared regent of that kingdom till shal, and other noblemen, who assembled a the death of Charles VI. when he was to take large body of troops at York, and published a possession of that crown. But notwithstandmanifesto, declaring the king a traitor, and ing this treaty, the war was continued by the that they were resolved to place Mortimer, the dauphin, and the next year Henry advanced lawful heir, on the throne. But this rebellion into France with thirty thousand nien; but was soon suppressed by the policy of Ralph while he was marching towards the river Nevill, earl of Westmoreland.
Loire, he was seized with a pleuretic fever, and Henry died in the Jerusalem-chamber at was carried to Vincennes, where he expired Westminster, on the 20th of March, 1413, in the 31st of August, 1422, in the thirty-fourth the forty-sixth year of his age, and the four- year of his age, and the tenth of his reign. teenth of his reign, and was interred in the ca- His body was conveyed to England, and inthedral at Canterbury. He was succeedled on terred in Westminster abbey. the throne by his son Henry V.
The queen dowager some time after married HENRY V. the eldest son of king Henry Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, by whoin IV, was born at Monmouth, in 1388, and she had Edmund, the father of Henry, earl succeeded his father in 1413. Though wild of Richmond, who became king of England and unruly in his youth, he no sooner obtained under the name of Henry VII. the crown, than he proved himself a wise and HENRY VI. was born at Windsor, Decema warlike prince. He chose a council of state ber 6, 1421, and succeeded his father Henry composed of men of distinguished wisdom, V. in 1422, when but fourteen months old, and commanded those who had been the con- and reigned in England under the tutelage of panions of his irregularities, either to change his uncle Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, and their manners, or never to approach his person. in France under that of his uncle the duke of He revived the English title to the crown of Bedford. This unhappy prince was unsucFrance, and in 1415 embarked his army, cessful both at home and abroad. His misamounting to fifteen thousand men, and hav- fortunes began in France by the death of his ing landed at Havre de Grace, laid siege to grandfather Charles VI. not quite two months Harfleur, which surrendered in five weeks. after the death of his father king Henry, which Soon after, the French king having assembled gare great advantage to the dauphin, who was an army six times as numerous as that of called Charles VII. and being crowned at Henry's, challenged him to fight, and Henry Poictiers, disputed with Henry the crown of consented, though the French army consisted France, yel for some time the English conof one hundred and fifty thousand men, and tinued to have great success in that kingdom, the English were reduced by sickness to nine and gained the famous battles of Crevant, thousand. The French therefore made rejoic- Verneuil, and Rouvroi; and every thing seemings in their camp as if the English were al- ed to promise the entire possession of France, ready defeated, and even sent to Henry to when it was prevented by an unforeseen blow. know what he would give for his ransom; to A girl, known by the name of Joan of Arc, or which he replied, “a few hours would shew the Maid of Orleans, suddenly appeared at the whose care it would be to make that provi- head of the French army, anil, in 1429, made sion.” The English, though fatigued with the English raise the seige of Orleans. From their march, sick of a flux, and almost starved that moment Henry's interest in France defor want of food, were inspired by the ex- clined. However, he was carried to Paris, ample of their brave king, and resolved to con- and crowned there with a double crown in the quer or die.. On the 25th of October, 1415, cathedral church, on the 27th of November, the king, being encamped near Agincourt, 1431. In 1444 a truce of eighteen months drew up his small army into two lines, the first was concluded between the two crowns; after commanded by the duke of York, and the which king Henry married Margaret of Anjou, second by himself; he disposed his few men to the daughter of Renatus, king of Naples; this such advantage, and behaved with such ex- was the source of many of his misfortunes ; traordinary conduct and courage, that he gain for the king being of a mild and easy teri per, ed a complete victory, after having been several and the queen a high-spirited woman, she untimes knocked down, and in the most im- dertook with her favourites to govern the kingminent danger of losing his life. The English dom. The English were now every where killed upwards of ten thousand men, and took defeated, and in 1541 we had no places left more pr pers than they had men in the in France but Calais, and the earldom of