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solumns: in the first he gave the Hebrew text tained some other preferments, of all which he in Hebrew characters; in the second, the same was deprived by the parliament, and was betext in Greek characters; the rest were filled sides voted a delinquent, by which his goods with the several versions above mentioned; all were confiscated, and his person endangered. the columns answering verse for verse, and He kept removing about incognito for some phrase for phrase; and in the Psalms there was years, still, however, employing his pen against a ninih column for the seventh version. the prevailing party. At the Restoration he
This celebrated work peristied with the was restorer to his prebend, and died in 1662. library at Cesarea, in the year 053.
He was a man of vast abilities, and a smart HEXAPOD. s. (if and Acdes.) An animal and intelligent writer; but it must be confessed with six feet (Ray).
he was not always impartial, and sometimes HEXASTICH. s. (iş and soxos:) A poem he carried his notions to an unwarrantable of six lines.
pitch. His works are too numerous to be HEXASTYLE, in ancient architecture, a inentioned in this place. building with six columns in front.
HEYTESBURY, a borough in Wiltshire, HEXHAM, a town in Northumberland, that sends two members to parliainent, but has with a market on Tuesdays. It was formerly now no market. Lat. 51. 12 N. Lon. 2.8 W. famous for its abbey, built in the beginning HEYWOOD (John), an English poet and of the twelfih century. Hexham was erected wit, was born at London, and bred at Oxford. into a bis opric in 675, but in 874 the see He is one of the first who wrote plays in oor was united to Lindisfarn, and afterwards to language, and is said also to bave been well that of York. Near this place, in 1463, was skilled in music. He was a great favourite fought a battle, between the houses of York with Henry. VIII, and was equally so with and Lancaster, in which the latter was de- queen Mary, on account of his extréine livelifeated. Hexham contains about 2000 inha- ness and humour. On the accession of Elizabitants. Lat. 55.3 N. Lon. 2. 1 W.
beth he went to Mechlin in Brabant, and died HEXIS. (ofis, from xxw, to have.) in medi- there in 1565. He wrote several plays; but cine, habit or constitution. It is a frequent one of his principal performances is, The Spie termination in compound words; as cachexis der and Fly, a parable, in 4to. 1596, in which or cachexy, an ill-habit, &c.
his portrait very frequently occurs, cut in HEXODON. Iu entomology, a tribe of wood. the genus Scarabæus, upon the Fabrician HIATION. s. (from hio, Latin.) The act system. See SCARAB ÆUS.
of gaping (Brown). HEY, interj. (from high.) An expression of HIATUS, a Latin term, properly signifying joy, or mutual exhortation (Prior).
the aperture of the mouth, from the verb HE'YDAY. interj. (for high day.) An ex hiure, to gape. pression of frolick and exultation (Hudibrus), It is variously used, in works of literature,
HE'YDAY. s. A frolick; wildness (Siak- &c. to denoie a chasın or gap; particularly in speare).
verses, where there is a clashing of vowels, by HE'YDEGIVES. s. A wild frolick dance one word ending with a vowel, and the fola (Spensor).
lowing one beginning with another : as in, HEYDEN (John van der), an eminent landscape.painter, born at Gorcuin in 1637,
-Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire. and died in 1712. He was not only distin- This clashing of vowels, so disagreeable to guished in painting landscapes, but also re- the ear, is called a hiatus in prose as well as presentations of buildings, which he executed verse. according to the justest rules of perspective.
Hiatus is also used for a defect in a manuHEYDON, a borough in the E. riding of script copy, where something is lost or effaced Yorkshire, with a market on Thursdays. It by the injuries of time or otherwise. was formerly a considerable town, but is now HIBERNAL. a. (hilernus, Latin.) Be: much decayed. Lat. 53. 45 N. Lon. 0. 5 W. longing to the winter (Brown).
HEYLYN (Peter), a learned English di- HIBISCUS. Syrian mallow. In botany, vine, was born at Burford in Oxfordshire in a genus of the class monadelphia, orler poly1600, and educated at Hart-hall, Oxford, but andria. Calyx double; the outermo-t geneafterwards obtained a fellowship of Magdalen rally many-leared; stigmas five; capsule fivecollege, where he read cosmographical lectores, celled, many-seeded. Sixty-six species : chiefly then a novelty in that university,, In 1621 he of the East and West Indies, America, and published his Description of the World, which the Cape of Good Hope. The following are was so well received that he greatly enlarged it, principally worthy of notice. and gave it the name of Cosmography. In TH, elatus. Leaves hearted, roundish, 1628 he was appointed chaplain in ordinary to very entire, hoary, downy underneath with a the king, and in 1631 obtained a prebendal single pore; peduncle very short, bearing a sinstall in Westminster-abbey, which was follow- gle flower, large, of purplish-saffron hue; ed by the valuable living of Honghton in the with a ten-toothed outer calyx. A Jamaica diocese of Durham. In 1633 he took his de- tree from fifty to sixty feet high. gree of D.D. and in 1637 was chosen treasurer 2. H. rosa cinensis. Chinese rose. Leaves of thie church of Westminster. lle also ob- ovate, pointed, toothed, glabrous, very entire at the base; stem arboreous; outer calyx from confirmed to him by the university of Oxford five to eight-leaved. A native of the East in 1679. In 1683 he was made dean of WorIndies,
cester, of which he was deprived at the 3. H. Phænicus. Leaves ovate, pointed, Revolution for refusing the oaths. The des serrate ; the lower ones somewhat hearted, and prived bishops having consulted about pretricuspidate; peduncles jointed ; seeds woolly. serving the episcopal succession among the A small East Indian shrub, with beautifully non-jurors, recommended Dr. Hickes to king scarlet Aowers.
Jaines, and he accordingly waited on that 4. H. mutabilis. Leaves hearted, angular, monarch in France, who confirmed their profive-lobed, pointed, toothed ; outer calyx eight- ceedings, and the doctor was accordingly conleaved ; capsule villous. Siem arboreous, ris- secrated suffragan bishop of Thetford. Hickes ing to twelve or fourteen feet. The flowers was a inan of strong mind, great resolution, are large, white in the morning, pale flesh-co- and vast abilities. He died in 1715. He lour in the middle of the day, rosy in the eren- wrote several theological treatises, mostly ing; and fall off at sun-set. It is a native of polemical ; but his chief works are some India; but in our own climaic the flowers Latin books on the northern languages and neither change nor fall off so rapidly.
antiquities. His sermons are close and argu. 5. H. Syriacus. Althæa frutex. Leaves meniative, and full of excellent learning well wedge-ovaie, three-lobed, toothed ; outer calyx applied. from six to eight-leaved, as long as the inner HIDAGE, HIDAGIUM, was an extraorone; stem arboreous.
dinary tax payable to the kings of England for 6. H. Abelmoschus. Musk-mallow. Leaves every hide of land. somewhat peltate, and heartel, seven-angled, HIDALGO, in modern history, a title pointed, serrate; outer calyx about eight-leave given in Spain to all who are of a noble faed ; stem brisıly. A native of India, with inily, large seeds, and a very strong inusky odour. TO HIDE. v. a. preter. hid; part. pass.
7. H. liliaceus. Maho-tree. Leaves round- hid or hidden. (hidan, Sax.) To conceal; 10 ish, hearted, pointed, crenate ; stem arboreous; withhold or withdraw from sight or knowledge outer calyx ten-toothed: a native of India, (Shakspeare). with pale yellow flowers, terminal, in long To Hide. V. n. To lie hid; to be concealed spikes.
(Pope). 8. H. esculentus. Fatable hibiscus. Leaves HIDE AND SEEK. s. A play in which some heart-shaped, five-lobed, rather obtuse, tooth- hide themselves and another seeks them ed; petiolcs longer than the flower; outer (Swift). calyx ten or twelve-parted, deciduous; inner HIDE. s. (hýðe, Saxon, haude, Dutch.) oné bursting longitudinally, and discharging a 1. The skin of any animal, either raw or number of hearl-shaped seeds, which are cut dressed (Pope). 2. The human skin: in and dried when gathered green, and used as contempt (Dryden). spices in soups and other culinary preparations. HIDE OF LAND, such a quantity as might
Many of these are cominon to ourown gardens be ploughed in the compass of a year by one and green-houses ; and in general propagated plough; some call it 60, some 80, and others without much trouble.
100 acres. FICCIUS DOCCIUS. s. A cant word for HIDE-BOUND, in the manage, a disease a juggler; one that plays fast and loose (Huc among horses supposed to proceed from coarse diliras).
diet, or undue exertion. The horse in such HICCORY-NUT TREE. See JUGLANS. case has the appearance of being emaciated; HICCOUGH, or HICKUP. See Medi- his coat is of a dingy variegated hue, staring
different ways, with a scurvy dust undemeath; To Hicco'ugh. v. n. (from the noun.) his skin is of an unpliable rigidity, seeming To sob with convulsion of the stomach. to adhere closely to the internal parts, devoting
To HICKUP. v. n. (corrupted from hic- a deficiency of the Aluids, an 'obstruction of cough.) To sob with a convulsed stoinach the porous system, and a languor in the cir. (Thuidilras).
culation. HICKES (George), a learned divine, was Nothing will produce this disease sooner born in 1642, at Newshain in Yorkshire, and than hard work with bad keep, and a constant educated at the school of North Allerton, exposure to all weathers, in the severity of the from whence he removed to St. John's college, winter season. Musty oats, mouldy bay, and Oxford; but he afterwards became fellow of winter straw-yards, are also frequent causes : Lincoln, and took there his degree of M. A. good stable-discipline, however, in wisping He accompanied his pupil, sir George and dressing, regular daily exercise, a few Wheeler, on his travels; but proceeded no mashes vightly of ground inalt and bran in further than France, where he contracted an equal parts, followed by a cordial ball every intimacy with Mr. Henry Justel. In 1676 morning, or an antimonial alterative powder he became chaplain to the duke of Lau. nightly in the mash, will soon restore the derdale, whom he aitended to Scotland when horse to good condition. his grace was appointed high commissioner of By way of metaphor, we sometimes hear of that kingdom. While at St. Andrew's be was a hidebound pedant, or of a hidelound miser, honoured with the degree of D. D. which was HIDEGILD, in the laws of king Cauute,
the price paid by a servant to save his skin a holy beings (Fairfax). 2. Ecclesiastical gowhipping
vernment (South). HIDEOUS. a. (from hideur, French.) HIERATIC PAPER, in antiquity, the Horrible; dreadful; shocking (Woodward). finest paper, set apart for religious purposes.
HI'DEOUSLY. ad. Horribly; dreadfully; HIÈRES, a town of France, in the de. in a manner that shocks (Shakspeare). partment of Var, and late province of Pro
HIDEOUSNESS. s. (from hidevas.) Hor- vence. It was formerly a seaport town, where ribleness; dreadfulness; terrour.
pilgrims bound for the Holy Land used to HI’DER. s. (from the verb.) He that embark, but the sea is now retired 10 a conhides.
siderable distance from the town. It is situated HIDROGEN. See HYDROGEN.
in a delighiful country, and fine climate. Lat. HIDROA. (id with,
from idro, sweat.) 43. 5 N. Lon. 6. 20 E. Tnis town is the Pustules produced by sweating in hot weather. birth-place of Massillon.
T. HIE. v. r. (hiegan, Saxon.) To hasten; HIERES ISLANDS, a cluster of small islandi to go in haste (Dryden).
in the Mediterranean, near the coast of HIERACIUM.” Hawk-weed. In botany, France, which take their name froin the town a genus of the class syngenesia, order poly- of Hicres. They are particularly celebrated for gamia æqualis. Receptacle mostly naked, the great variety of inedicinal plants on them. dotted ; calyx imbricate, ovate; down simple, Lat. 43. 2 N. Lon. 6. 28 E. sessile. Sixty-nine species: mostly natives of HIERO I. king of Syracuse, succeeded his Europe, a few of America: ten indigenous to brother Gelon B. C. 478. He declared war the woods, shades, or mountains, of our own against Theron the tyrant of Agrigentum, and country. They may be thus subdivided : took Himera. He gained three crowns at the A. Scape with a single fower.
Olympic ganes (two in horse races, and one' B. Scape many-flowered.
in a chariot race,) for which he is celebrated C. Stem leafy
by Pindar. The conversation of that bard The two most common in our own country and othereminent men softened his disposition, are,
which was naturally impetuous, and rendered 1. H. pilosella, found in our pastures, and him humane and liberal. He died B.C. 467. known by the name of mouse-ear.
Hiero II. king of Syracuse, was a prince 2. H. aurantiacum, more frequently met of great virtues. Ile was a descendant of with in Scotland, and vulgarly denominated Gelon, and elected king B. C. 208. He care Grim the collier.
ried on a war against the Romans for some The most beautiful sorts of this genus, and time, in conjunction with the Carthaginians, those most worth cultivating in the gardens, but he was soon obliged to make peace, and have perennial roots, and may be propagated ever after continued a firm ally of that people. by seeils, sown in March upon a border with He was the relation and friend of Archimedes, an aspect to the east. The plants must be and greatly encouraged arts and commerce. kept clean from weeds; and, when strong He died regretted by all his subjects, B. C. enough to be removed, which they will be 225. about the beginning of June, should be trans- HIEROCLES. The inost remarkable of planted into a shady border of undunged this name were, 1. a great persecutor of the ground, at the distance of six inches asunder. Christians under Dioclesian; and, 2. a Platonic If the weather prove dry, let thein be watered philosopher, who taught at Alexandria, and till they have taken new root; after which, wrote a book on providence and fate, fray. is kepi clean from weeds, they will requirements of which are preserved by Photius; a no other culture. In the autumn they should commentary on the golden verses of Pythae be transplanted where they are designed to goras; and facetious moral verses. He fou. remain : the following summer they will rished A. D. 485. Aower, and produce ripe seeds; and the roots HIEROGLYPHICS, in antiquity, mystical will continue some years, if not planted in a characters, or symbols, in use among the sich or moist soil. They may be also propa- Egyptians, and that as well in their writings gated by offsets, or parting of the tools, in as inscriptions; being the figures of various autumn. See Pl. CXXXV.
animals, the parts of human bodies, and me. HIERAPOLIS, in ancient geography, a chanical instruments. The word is composed town of Phrygia, abonnding in bot springs, of the Greek «;«, sacer, holy, and yavorit, and having its name from the number of its sculpere, to engrave; it being the cusiom 'o temples. It is now called Pambouk; and is have the walls, doors, &c. of their temples, situated near the Scamander, on a portion of obelisks, &c. engraren with such figures. Mount Mesogis, distantsix miles from Laodicea. Hieroglyphics are properly emblems or signs Its situazion is very romantic.
of divine, sacred, or supernatural things, by HI'ERARCH. s. (ins@ and agxn.) The which they are distinguished from common chief of a sacred order (Milton).
symbols, which are signs of sensible and naHIERARCHICAL. a. (hierarchique, Fr.) tural things. Hermes Trismegistus is comBelonging to sacred or ecclesiastical govern- monly esteemed the inventor of hieroglyphics ment.
he first introduced them into the heathen HI'ERARCHY. s. (hierarchie, Fr.) 1. A theology, from whence they have been transsacred government; rank or subordination of planted into the Jewish and Christian. Sacred
things, says Hippocrates, should only be of divination which predicted future events communicated to sacred persons. Hence it from observing the various things offered in was that the ancient Egyptians communicated sacrifice. See Divination and SACRIFICE. to none but their bings and priests, and those HIEROMENIA, a nanie given to the who were to succeed to the priesthood and the month in which the Nemean gaines were crown, the secrets of nature, and the secrets celebrated. It answered to part of our August of their morality and history; and this they and September. did by a kind of cabbala, which, at the same HIEROMNOMON, in Grecian antiquity, time ihat it instructed them, orly amused the a delegate chosen by lot, and sent to the great sest of the people. Hence the use of hierogly- council of the Amphictyons, where he took phics, or mystic figures, to veil their morality, care of what concerned religion. The same politics, &c. froin profane eyes. This author, word denoted an officer of the Greek church, it may be observerl, and many others, do not who put the pontifical robes on the patriarch, keep to the precise character of a hieroglyphic, and shewed him the prayers, &c. he was to but apply it to profane as well as divine things. read. It also denoted a sionc used in divina,
Hieroglyphics are a kind of real characters, tjon. which do not only denote, but in some mea- HIEROPHANTES, or HIEROPHANTA, sure express, the things. Thus, according to (from 1995, holy, and pre svojerte, I appear,) in anClemens Alexandrinus, Strom. v. a lion is tiquity, a priest among ine Athenians. The the bieroglyphic of strength and fortitude; a Hierophantes instructed persons in the mysbullock, of agriculture; a horse, of liberty; a teries of their religion ; and it was a part of sphinx, of subtilty, &ic.
his office to dress and adorn the statues of the Such is the opinion that has generally been gods. embraced, both by ancient and modern writers, To HIGGLE. v. n. 1. To chaffer; to be of the origin and ose of hieroglyphics. It penurious in a bargain (Ilalr). 2. To go sellhas been almost uniformly maintained, that ing provisions from door to door. they were invented by the Egyptian priests in HIGGLEDY-PIGGLEDY. ad. A cant order to conceal their miscom from the know- word corrupted from iggle, which denotes ledge of the vulgar; but the late bishop War- any confused mass. burton hath, with much ingenuity and learn- HIGGLER, s. (from higgle.) One who ing, endeavoured to shew that this account is sells provisions by retail.
HIGH. a. (beah, Sax.) 1. Long upuard; According to this writer, the first kind of rising above from the surface, or from the hieroglyphics were mere pictures, because the centre (Burnet). 2. Elevated in place; raised most natiral way of communicating our con- aloft (Locke). 3. Exalted in nature (Basler), ceptions by marks or figures was by tracing ont 4. Elevated in rank or conditiou (Dryden). the images of things, and this is actually 5. Exalted in sentiment (Milton). 0. Dim. verified in the case of the Mexicans, whose cult; abstruse (Shakspeare). 7. Boariful; only method of writing their laws and history ostentations (Clarendun). 8. Arrogant; proud; was hy this picture-writing. But the hiero- lofty (Clarendon). 9. Severe; oppressive glyphics invented by the Egyptians were an (Bacon). 10. Noble; iilustrious (Shok. improvement on this rude and inconvenient speare). 11. Violent; tempestuous ; loud: essay towards writing, for they contrived to applied to the wind (Denham). 12, Tus make them both pictures and characters. multuous; turbulent; ungovernable (Druder).
HIEROGLYPHICAL, HIEROGLY'PHIC, 13. Full; complete: applied to time (Spenser). a. (hierogluphique, Fr.) Emblematical; ex- 14. Raised to any great degrec (Baker). 15. pressive of some meaning beyond what im- Advancing in latitude from the line (41.). 16. mediately appears (Sandys).
At the most perfect state ; in the meridian HIEROGLYPHICALLY.. ad. (from (Genesis). 17. Far advanced into antiquity hieroglupical.) Emblematically (Brown). (Brown). 18. Dear; exorbitant in price
HIEROGRAMJATISTS,' (Ilierograna (South). 19. Capital; great; opposed to matei), i. e, holy registers, were an order of little: as high treason, in opposition to petty, priests among the ancient Egyptians, who High, in inusic, is sometimes used in the presided over learning and religion. They same sense with loud, in opposition to low : had the care of the hieroglyphics, and were at others, it is used for acute, as opposed to the expositors of religious doctrines aud grave. opinions. They were looked upon as a kind High. s. High place; elevation ; superior of prophets; and it is pretended, that one of region (Dryden). them predicted to an Egyptian king, that an On High. ad. Aloft; above; into superior Israeliie (meaning Mose's), eminent for his regions (Dryden). qualifications and achievements, would lessen High-BLEST.'a. Supremely happy (Mila and depress the Egyptian monarchy. The ton). hierogrammatei were always near the king, HIGH-BLOWN. a. Swelled much with to a-sist hin with their information and wind; much in Hated (Shakspeare). counsels.
High-BORN. a. Qf noble ex:raction HERO:GRAPHY. s. (ispos and yça pw.) (Roue). Holy writing
HIGH-COLOURED. a. Having a deep or IIIEROMANCY, in antiquity, that species glaring colour (Floyer),
High-DESIGNING. Having great any country. in Britain it is appropriated to scheines (Dryden).
the people who inhabit the mountainous parts High-ped. a. Pampered (L'Estrange). of Scotland, to the north and north-west, in
High-FLIER. s. One that carries his opi- cluding those of the Hebrides or Western nion to extravagance (Swift).
Isles. They are a branch of the ancient IIIGH-FLOwn. a.1. Elevated; proud (Den- Celtæ; and undoubtedly the descendants of ham). 2. Turgid ; extravagant (L'Estrange). the first inhabitants of Britain, as appears
High-FLYING. a. Extravagant in claiins from the many monuments of their language or opinions (Dryden).
still retained in the most ancient names of HIGH-HEAPED. a. 1. Covered with high places in all parts of the island. The Highpiles (Pope). 2. Raised into high piles (Pope). Sanders, or, as they are often termed by ancient
HIGH-METTLED. a. Proud or ardent of authors, the Caledonians, were always a spirit (Garth).
brave, warlike, and hardy race of people; and HIGH-MINDED. a. Proud; arrogant (Shake in the reinotest times, seem to have possessed speare).
a degree of refinement in sentiment and manH:GH-PRIEST. See Pontifex and ners then unknown to the nations that PRIEST.
surrounded them. This appears not only HIGH-RED. a. Deeply red (Boyle). from their own traditions and poems, but also HIGH-SEASONED. a. Piquant io the palate from the testimony of many ancient authors. (Locke).
This civilization was probably owing in a great HIGH-SPIRITED, a. Bold; daring; inso- measure to the order of the bards, lent.
Druids, and some other institutions peculiar to HIGH-STOMACHED. a. Obstinate; lofty. this people. HIGH-TASTED. a. Gustful; piquant. The Highlanders always enjoyed a king
HIGH-VICED. Enormously wicked and government of their own, till Kenneth (Shakspeare).
M'Alpine (anno 845), after having subdved HIGH-way, a free passage for the king's the Pictish kingdom, transferred thither the subjects, on which account it is called the seat of royalty. This event proved very unking's high-way, though the freehold of the favourable to the virtues of the Highlanders, soil belong to the lord of the manor, or the which from this period began to decline. The owner of the land. Those ways that lead country, no longer awed by the presence of from one town to another, and such as are the sovereign, fell into anarchy and confusion. drift or cart-ways, and are for all travellers in The chieftains began to extend their authority, great roads, or ihat communicate with them, to form factions, and to foinent divisions and are highways only; and as to their reparation), feu is between contending clans. The law's are under the care of surveyors.
were cither 100 feeble to bind them, or 100 Every justice of the peace, by the statute, remote to take notice of them. Hence sprung upon his own view, or on oath made to him all those evils which long lisgraced the counby the surveyor, may make presentment of try, and disturbed the peace of its inhabitants. roads being out of repair; and, thereupon, Robbery or plunder, provided it was committed like process shall be issued as upon indictment. on any one of an adverse clan or tribe, was counFor the repairing of highways, there are certain tenanced and authorised; and their reprisals regulations, by statute; and every inhabitant on one another were perpetual. Thus quarrels of a parish is bound to perforın certain duties were handed down from one generation 10 for that purpose.
another, and the whole clan were bound in High-WAY-MAN, one who robs on the honour to espouse the cause of every individual king's high-way. It is common to distingnish that belonged to it. By this means the genius between a highwayman and a footpad; the of the people was greatly altered; and the former being on horseback, the latter on foot. Highlanders of a few ages back were almost as
HIGH-WATER, that state of the tides, when remarkable for their irregular and disorderly they have flowed to the greatest height, or have way of life as their predecessors were for their ceased to fluw. It is high-water several mi- civilization and virtue. It is from not attending nutes, as many as between 15 and 30, before to this distinction between the ancient Highit begins to ebb again.
landers and their posterity in later times, that High-WROUGHT. a. Accurately finished. many have doubted the existence of those
HIGHAM FERRERS, a borough of exalted virtues ascribed by their poets to the Northamptonshire, with a market on Saturn more ancient inhabitants of the country. But days. It sends one member to parliament. now that the power of the chieftains is agnin Lát. 52. 19 N. Lon. 0. 40 W.
abolished, law established, and properiy, ses HIGHGATE, a large village in Middlesex, cured, the genius of the people (where it is seated on a hill E. of that of Hampstead; on not hindered by some other extraneous cause) which account, these two hills have been begins again to shew itself in its genuine poetically called The Sister Hills. It is 4 colours; and many of their ancient virtues miles N. by W. of London.
bezin to shine with covspicuous lustre. JusHIGHLAND. s. (high and land.) Moun- tice, generosity, honesty, friendship, peace, tainous region (1ddison).
and love, are perhaps no where more cullia HIGHLANDERS, a general appellation rated than among this people. But one of for the inhabitants of the mountainous parts of the stronge features which arhed the chia