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the narrow mouth of the hole, takes a final four feet deep; in others they covered the sura departure from the place of its birth.

face like a black cloth; the trees were seen The larves having thus left their egg state, bending beneath their weight, and the damage and acquired the use of their limbs, the two which the inhabitants sustained was beyond anterior of which are formed for digging the computation. ground, soon apply them to that purpose, and In Barbary their numbers are also formidaexcarate for themselves a subterraneous retreat ble, and their visits more frequent: during the among the roots of plants, which they gnaw, year 1724, a traveller from Britain, remarkand support themselves upon the juices that able for the accuracy of his observations (Dr. thence exude. In this state they remain till Shaw), witnessed the havoc they committed they are ready to undergo another transforma- in that ill-fated country. Towards the end of tion, which introduces them into the open air March they began to appear with a southerly in the form of winged insects.

wind: through the succeeding months, their 6. G. migratorius. Travelling locust. Tho- numbers continued to increase so prodigiously, rax subcarinate, of a single segment; mandi- that during the heat of the day they rose in bles blue : bodies brownish, varied with darker swarms so large as to darken the sun. In the spots; legs blue; hind-thighs and shanks yel- middle of May they began to retire, for the lowish. Inhabits Tartary, and migrates in in- purpose of depositing their eggs in ihe drier credible swarms into various parts of Europe. plains of the interior country. The mischief these voracious creatures do, About the middle of summer the young, when they appear in vast legions, far exceeds already ripe for devastation, made another in the calamities occasioned by any other tribes cursion, in several bodies of a vast extent; alof animals. By suddenly destroying all vege- though then in the form of worms they crawle' tation they change the most fertile provinces ed forward, climbed the trees, walls and houses, into barren deserts, leaving behind them deso- devouring every plant in their way: it was in lation and famine, and diseases of various kinds. vain that the inhabitants dug trenches through They have occasionally appeared in small their fields and filled them with water, in vain Aights in England, but have perished by the they collected large rows of heath, stubble, and cold in a short time. This is probably the other combustible matter to set them on fire on species which is related to have constituted one the approach of the locusts. The trenches of the plagues of Egypt, Numbers chap. x. were soon filled, and the fires extinguished by

When the locusts take the field, they have, the immense swarms that succeeded each as it is said, a leader at their head, whose flight other. they observe, and pay a strict attention to all The locusts which are thus active in their his motions. They appear at a distance as a 'larva state, remain only about a month in that black cloud, which, as it approaches, gathers forin ; after having completed their growth, upon the horizon, and almost hides the light they cast that skin which gives them their of day. It often happens that the husband- vermicular shape; and, in order to prepare man sees this imminent calamity pass away themselves for this transformation, they attach without doing him any mischief, and the their hind legs to some twig, where, after whole swarm press forward, to settle upon the some laborious efforts, and several undulating labours of some less fortunate cultivator : but motions, they at last burst the skin; at first, wretched is the district upon which they alight. the head only appears, but soon after the rest They ravage the meadow and the pasture of the body is disengaged, the whole operation ground, strip the trees of their leaves, and the occupying only seven or eight minutes. After gardens of every vegetable. It is said that casting their covering they remain for a little in their mere bite also, even when they do not a languishing state, till the air hardens their devour a plant, so contaminates it, that it is wings, and the heat of the sun again invigosure to wither away; which adds largely to the rates them, when they resume their former vodevastation which would otherwise be pro- racious habits, with an increase both of strength duced by them.

and agility. Yet when dead they prove still more noxious, In some parts of the world the inhabitants hy infecting the air with a most intolerable convert what so generally is considered as a stench. Orosius tells us that in the year of plague to an advantage, by making the locusts the world 3800, an incredible number of these an article of diet. It is for this purpose, that insects infested Africa; which after having in many parts of the east they are caught in eaten up every thing that was green, flew off small nets, which are constructed for entanand were drowned in the Red Sea, where gling them. When a sufficient quantity is they caused a more pestilential effluvium than thus procured, they are roasted over the fire in would have proceeded from the putrescent an earthen pan till the wings and legs drop bodies of many thousands of mankind. off: when thus prepared they are reckoned to

The eastern borders of the Russian empire lerable food, and are said to taste like crayare subjected sometimes to the awful visita- fish. See Nat. Hist. Pl. CXXI. tions of this insect. That which happened in GRYNÆUS (Simon), sou to a peasant of 1690, which extended from Russia over a Saabia, born in 1493, was Greek professor at great part of Poland and Lithuania, was singu- Heidelberg in 1523. He took a tour into larly destructive. In some places the locusts England, and received great civility from the were seen lying dead, heaped upon each other lord chancellor Sir Thomas More, to whom VOL. V.



Erasmus had recommended him. He was a 2. G. sanctum. Leaflets many pairs, acutelearned and laborious man, and did great A native of the West Indies. service to the commonwealth of letters. He 3. G. officinale. Lignum vitæ. Leaflets two was the first who published the Almagest of or three pairs, obtuse. A native of the West Ptolemy in Greek. He also published a Greek Indies. The wood, gum, bark, fruit, and Euclid, and Plato's works, with some com- even the flowers, have been found to possess mentaries of Proclus.

medicinal qualities. The wood is brought GRYPHOSIS. (gryphosis, ypupw5us; from principally from Jamaica, in large pieces of YFUmow, to incurvate.) A disease of the four or five hundred weight each, and from its nails, which turn inwards, and irritate the hardness and beauty is used for various articles soft parts below.

of turnery ware. It scarcely discovers any GUADAGNOLO (Philip), a learned smell, unless heated, or while rasping, in orientalist of Italy, was born about 1596, at which circumstance it yields a light aromatic Magliano; and died at Rome in 1656. He one: chewed, it impresses a slight acrimony, translated the Bible into Arabic, for the biting the palate and fauces. The gum, or eastern churches; and addressed Christina, rather resin, is obtained by wounding the bark queen of Sweden, in an oration in the same in different parts of the body of the tree, or by language. He wrote an excellent grammar of what has been called jagging. It exudes cothe Arabic in Latin; and compiled an Arabic piously from the wounds, though gradually; dictionary, the manuscript of which is pre- and when a quantity is found accumulated served in the convent of San Lorenzo, in Lu- upon the several wounded trees, hardened by sina.

exposure to the sun, it is gathered and packed GUADALAJARA, or GUADALAXARA, a up in small kegs for exportation: it is of a town of New Castile, in Spain, 30 miles N.E. friable texture, of a deep greenish colour, and of Madrid. Lat. 40. 36 N. Lon. 2. 47 W. sometimes of a reddish hue; it has a pungent

GUADALAJARA, the capital of a province acrid taste, but little or no smell, unless healof the saine name, in North Ainerica. It is ed. The bark contains less resinous matter the see of a bishop. Lat. 20. 50 N. Lon. than the wood, and is consequently a less 104. 49 W.

powerful medicine, though in a recent state GUADALOUPE, a town of Estremadura, it is strongly cathartic. The flowers or blosin Spain. Lat. 39. 12 N. Lon. 5.3 E. soms are laxative, and in Jamaica are conGUADALOUPE,

of the Leeward monly given to children in the form of syrup. Islands in the W. Indies, lying between An- It is only the wood and resin of guaiacum tigua and Dominica. It is divided into two which are now in general medicinal use in parts by a narrow strait, called the Salt River. Europe; and as the efficacy of the former is At this place the land on each side is not above supposed to be derived merely from the quanfour miles broad, and by this strait the sea on tity of resinous matter which it contains, they the N.W. communicates with that on the may be considered indiscriminately as the S.E. The N.W. part is 60 miles in length, same medicine. Guaiacum was first introand 24 in breadth. The S.E. part, in extent, duced into the materia medica soon after the is much the same. The French began to discovery of America ; and previous to the use settle this island in 1632. It was taken by of mercury in the lues venerea, it was the printhe English in 1759, but restored in 1763. It cipal remedy employed in the cure of thai disis said to be the best of all the Caribbee Islands, ease; its great success brought it into such the soil being exceedingly, good, and well repute, that it is said to have been sold for watered near the sea, by rivulets which fall

seven gold crowns a pound: yet notwithstandfrom the mountains. On this island is a vol- ing this, its failure was such that it soon becano called the Mountain of Sulphur. came quite superseded by mercury; and though

GUADALQUIVER, one of the most fa- it be still occasionally employed in siphilis, mous rivers of Spain, which rises in Andalu- yet it is rather with a view io correct other sia, and falls into the gulf of Cadiz.

diseases in the habit, than for its effects as an GUADIANA, a river of Spain, which rises antivenereal. It is now more generally emin New Castile, separates Algarve fram Anda- ployed for its virtues in curing gouty and rheulusia, and falls into the bay of Cadiz, between inatic pains, and some cutaneous diseases. Castro Marino and Agramonte.

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1806, GUADIX, a town of Spain, in the king, we have a very complete analysis of this subdom of Granada, with a bishop's see. Lat. stance: by distillation 100 paris yielded 37, 4 N. Lon. 2. 47 W.

Acidulous water

5.5 GUAIACUM. (guaiacum, from the Spa

Thick brown oil

24.5 pish guayacan, which is formied from the In

29.0 dian hoaxacan.) In botany, a genus of the

Thin empyreumatic oil

30.5 class decandria, order monogynia. Calyx

Gases consisting of carbonic acid and five-cleft, unequal ; petals five, inserted into

carbureted hydrogen

10.5 the calyx; capsule angular, three or fivecelled. Three species, as follow:

100.0 1. G. dubium. One pair of leaflets, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. A native of Tonga- Hence it is inferred that guaiacum agrees in tabu,

many respects with the resins, but it differs from them, 1. in the quantity of charcoal it small quantities of sulphate and muriate of leares when distilled in close vessels; 2. in potash and ammonia; a small portion of fat the action that nitric acid has upon it; and, matter; and sand, partly quartzose, partly fer3. in the changes of colour that it undergoes ruginous. (Brit. Ency.). when its solutions are treated with nitric and GUANUGO, the capital of a district of oxymuriated acids. Its properties may be the same name in S. America. Lat. 9. 55 S. thus enumerated : it is a solid substance resem. Lon. 74. 55 W'. bling a resin; its colour varies, but is general- GUANZAVELCA, a town of Peru, in ly greenish; it is readily dissolved in alcohol; S. America. Its neighbourhood abounds in alkaline solutions dissolve it with ease: most mines of quicksilver. Lat. 12. 36 S. Lon. of the acids act upon it with considerable ener- 79. 39 W. gy; if digested in water, a portion is dissolved, GUARANTEE, or WARRANTEE, in the water acquiring a greenish-brown colour: law, a term relative to warrant or warranter, the liquid being evaporated, leaves a brown properly signifying him whoin the warranter substance which possesses the properties of an undertakes to indemnify or secure from daextract, being soluble in hot water and alco- mage. Guarantee, however, is · more frehol, but scarcely at all in sulphuric ether, and quently used for a warranter, or a person who forming precipitates with the muriates of alu- undertakes and obliges himself to see a second mina, tin, and silver.

person perform what he has stipulated to the GUALDO, a town of. Italy, in Aucona, third. See WARRANTRY. eight miles N.W. of Nocera. Lat. 43. 6 N. T. GUARANTY. v. a. (guarantir, Fr.) Lon. 12. 43 E.

To undertake to secure the performance of any GUALEOR, GUAlior, or Gowalier, articles. a large town of Hindustan in Asia, and capital To GUARD. v. a. (garder, French; from of a province of the same name, with an an- our word ward.) 1. To watch by way of decient and celebrated fortress of great strength. fence and security. 2. To protect; to defend It is situated in the very heart of Hindustan (Waller). 3. To preserve by caution (AddiProper, being about 80 miles to the south of son). 4. To provide against objections (Br.), Agra, the ancient capital of the empire, and 5. To adorn with lists, laces, or ornamental 130 from the nearest part of the Ganges. From borders: obsolete (Shakspeare). Calcutta it is, by the nearest route, upwards of To GUARD. v. n. To be in a state of caus 800 miles, and 910 by the ordinary one; and tion or defence (Collier). about 280 from the British frontiers. Its la. GUARD. s. (garde, Fr. wurd, Teut.) 1. A titude is 26. 14, and longitude 78. 26 from man, or hody of men whose business is to Greenwich.

watch by way of defence (Milton). 2. A state GUALTHEʻRIA. In botany, a genus of of caution, or vigilance (Smalridge); 3. Lithe class decandria, order monogynia. Calyx mitation ; anticipation of objection (Atter.). 4. double; the outer iwo-leaved, inner five-cleft; An ornamental hem, lace, or border. 5. Part corol ovate; nectary ten erect points; capsule of the hilt of a sword. five-celled, covered by the inner berried calyx. Guard, in the military art, is a duty perTwo species: natives of Canada and New formed by a body of men, to secure an army or Zealand.

place from being surprised by an enemy. In GUAM, the principal of the Ladrone garrison the guards are relieved every day; Islands, in the South Sea. Lat. 13. 5 N. hence it comes that every soldier mounts guard Lon. 145. 15 E.

once every three or four days in time of

peace, GUANA, in amphibiology. See Lacer- and much oftener in time of war. See HoTA.

NOURS. GUANAHARIA, or ST. SALVADORE, GUARD (Advanced), called also VAN now called Car ISLAND, one of the Bahama GUARD, is a party of either horse or foot that Islands, in America. li was discovered by marches before a more considerable body, to Christopher Columbus on the day that the give notice of any approaching danger. These ship's crew designed to have murdered him, in guards are either made stronger or weaker, ac1492. Lat. 24. 25 N. Lon. 75. 5 W. cording to situation, the danger to be appre

GUANO, a substance found on many of hended from the enemy, or the nature of the the small islands in the South Sea, which are cou try. the resort of numerous flocks of birds, particu- GUARD (Artillery), is a detachment from Jarly of the ardea and phænicopterus genus. the army to secure the artillery when in the It is dug from beds fifty or sixty feet thick, field. Their corps de garde is in the front of and used as a valuable manure in Peru, chiefly the artillery park, and iheie sentries dispersed for Indian corn. It is of a dirty yellow colour, round the same. This is generally a fortynearly insipid to the taste, but has a powerful eight-hours guard; and upon a march, this smell, partaking of castor and valerian. Ac- guard marches in the front and rear of ine arcording to the analysis of Fourcroy and Van- tillery, and must be sure to leave nothing bequelin, about one-fourth of it is uric acid, hind: if a gun or waggon breaks down, the partly saturated with ammonia and lime. It officer that commands the guırd is to leave a contains likewise oxalic acid, partly saturated sufficient number of inen to assist the gunners with ammonia and potash; phosphoric acid in getting it up again. Artillery Quarter, combined with the same bases and with lime; Guard, is frequently a non-commissioned


officer's guard from the royal regiment of artil- GUARDS (Horse), in England, were gentlelery, whose corps de garde is always in the men chosen for their bravery, to be entrusted front of their incampment. Artillery Rear with the guard of the king's person; and were Guard, consists of a corporal and six men, divided into four troops, called the first, seposted in the rear of the park.

cond, third, and fourth troops of horse guards. GUARD (Grand), three or four squadrons The first troop was raised in the year 1660, of horse, commanded by a field officer, posted: and the command given to lord Gerard; the at about a mile or a mile and a half from the second in 1661, and the command given to camp, on the right and left wings, towards the sir Philip Howard; the third in 1693, and enemy, for the better security of the cainp. the command given to earl Feversham; the

GUARD (Forage), a detachment seni out fourth in 1792, and the command given to to secure the foragers, and who are posted at earl Newburgh. all places, where either the enemy's party may

GUARDS (Horse-Grenadier), are divided come to disturb the furagers, or where they into two troops, called the first and second may be spread too near the enemy, so as to be troops of horse-grenadier guards. The first in danger of being taken. This guard consists troop was raised in 1693, and the command both of horse and foot, and must remain on given to lieutenant-general Cholmondeley; the their posts till the foragers are all come off the second in 1702, and the command given to ground.

lord Forbes. GUARD (Main), is that from which all GUARDS (Foot), are regiments of foot apother guards are detached.

pointed for the guard of his majesty and his GUARD (Picquet), a good number of horse palace. There are three regiments of them, and foot, always in readiness in case of an called the first, second, and third regiments of alarm: the horses are generally saddled all the foot-guards. They were raised in the year time, and the riders booted. The foot draw 1660; and the command of the first given to up at the head of the battalions frequently at colonel Russel, that of the second to general the beating of the tat-too; but afterwards' re- Monk, and the third to the earl of Linlithgow. turn to their tents, where they hold themselves GUARD-BOAT, a boat appointed to row in readiness to march upon any sudden alarm. the rounds amongst the ships of war which are This guard is to make resistance in case of an laid up in any harbour, &c. to observe that attack, until the army can get ready.

their officers keep a good look-out, calling to GUARD (Baggage), is usually an officer's the guard-boat as she passes, and not suffering guard, who has the care of the baggage on a her crew to come on board, without having march.

previously communicated the watch-word of GUARD (Quarter), is a small guard com- the night. manded by a subaltern officer, posted in the GUARD-SHIP, a vessel of war-appointed to front of each battalion, at 222 feet before the superintend the marine affairs in a harbour or front of the regiment.

river, and to see that the ships which are not GUARD (Rear), that part of the army which coinmissioned have their proper watch-word brings up the rear on a march, generally com- kept duly, by sending her guard-boats around posed of all the old grand guards of the camp. them every night. She is also to receive seaThe rear-guard of a party is frequently eight men who are impressed in the time of war. or ten horse, about 500 paces behind the GUARDAFU, a cape of Abyssinia in party.

Africa, at the entrance of the strait of Babel GUARD. (Yeomen of the), first raised by Mandel. Lat. 11. 46 N. Lon. 52. 5 E. Henry VII. in the year 1485. They are a kind GUA'RDAGE. s. (from guard.) State of of pompous foot-guards to the king's person, and wardship: obsolete (Shakspeare). are generally called by a nickname the Beef GUA'RDER. s. One who guards. Eaters. They were anciently 250 men of the GUARDIA, or Guardi, an episcopal first rank under gentry, and of larger stature town of Beira, in Portugal. Lat. 40. 22 N. than ordinary, each being required to be six Lon. 6. 37 W: feet high. At present there are but 100 in GUARDIA ALFEREZ, an episcopal town constant duty, and 70 more not on duty; and of Naples, in Italy. Lat. 41.39 N. 'Lon. 14. when any one of the 100 dies, his place is 56 E. supplied out of the 70. They go dressed after GUARDIAN, one appointed by the wisdom the manner of king Henry VIII's time. Their and policy of the law, to take care of a person first commander or captain was the earl of Oxe and his affairs, who by reason of his imbecility ford, and their pay is 25. 6d. per day.

and want of understanding is incapable of actGUARD, in fencing, implies a posture proper ing for his own interest; and it seems by our to defend the body from the sword of an anta- law, that his office originally was to instruct gonist.

the ward in the arts of war, as well as those of GUARD$, also imply the troops kept to husbandry and tillage, that when he came of guard the king's person, and consist both of age he might be the better able to perform horse and foot.

those services to his lord, whereby he held his GUARDS, in astronomy, a name sometimes own land. 2 Bac. Abr. 672. applied to the two stars in Ursa Minor, nearest There are several kinds of guardians, as, the north pole, one of which is called the pole- guardian by nature, guardian by the common star.

law, guardian by statute, guardian by custom, guardian in chivalry, guardian in socage, and father, under or of full age, may by deed or guardian by appointment of the lord chancel- will, attested by two witnesses, appoint, dislor.

pose of the custody of his child born or unborn Guardian by nature is the father or mother; io any person except a popish recusant convict, and by the common law every father hath á either in possession or reversion till such child right of guardianship of the body of his son attain twenty-one. This guardian supersedes and heir until he atiains to the age of twenty- ' the guardian in socage, and has all actions one years. This guardianship extends no fur- which that guardian might have had. Bether than the custody of the infant's person. sides which he has the care of the estate, real The father may disappoint the mother, and and personal. A father cannot under this other ancestors, of the guardianship by nature, statute appoint one to his natural child, and by appointing a testamentary guardian under a case has been decided upon the marriage act, the statutes 4 and 5 Phil. and Mary, and 12 in which a marriage with consent of a guarChar. II. A guardian by nature hath only dian applied to a natural child was held void. the care of the person and education of the The chancellor, however, will upon applicainfant, and hath nothing to do with his lands, tion appoint the same person guardian. merely in virtue of his office; for such guar- Guardians by custom, are appointed in dian may be, though the infant have no lapds the city of London, in the county of Kent, at all, which a guardian in socage cannot. and with respect to copyhold lands in some

Guardian by the common law, or Guar- manors. dian in Socage. If a tenant in socage die, Guardians by appointment of the ecclehis heir being under fourteen, whether he be siastical court, were appointed to take care his issue or cousin, male or female, the next of the infant's personal estate, till fourteen of blood to the heir, to whom the inheritance in males, and twelve in females; but their cannot descend, shall be guardian of his body authority over the person is now denied, and land till fourteen; and although the nature and they are only confined to guardianship of socage tenure is in some measure changed for the purpose of a suit in an ecclesiastical from what it originally was, yet it is still called court. socage tenure, and the guardian in socage is Guardian in chivalry, is obsolete, but still only where lands of that kind, as most of extended to twenty-one years. the lands in England now are, descend to the Guardian, by appointment of the lord heir within age; and though the heir after chancellor. It is not easy to state how this fourteen may choose his own guardian, who jurisdiction was acquired; for it is certainly of shall continue till he is twenty-one, yet as well no very ancient date, though now indisputable: the guardian before fourteen, as he whoin the for it is clearly agreed, that the king, as pater infant shall think fit to choose after fourteen, patriæ, is universal guardian of all infants, are both of the same nature, and have the idiots, and lunatics, who cannot take care of same office, without any intervention or direc- themselves; and as this care cannot be exertion of the infant himself; they are to transact cised otherwise than by appointing them proall affairs in their own name, and not in per curarors or commiitees, it seems also the name of the infant, which they would he agreed, that the king may, as he has done, obliged to do if their authority were derived delegate the authority lo his chancellor; and from him.

that therefore at this day, the court of chanThis guardianship is so little resorted to, al- cery is the only proper court that has jurisdicthough all lands are now of socage tenure, that tion in appointing and removing guardians, it is needless to enquire further into it here. and in preventing them and others from abus

Guardian by statute, or Testamentary ing their persons or estates. 2 Inst. 14. And Guardian. By the common law, no pero as the court of chancery is now vested with son could appoint a guardian, because the this authority, hence in every day's practice law had appointed one, whether the fa- we find that court determining, as to the right ther were tenant by knight service, or in of guardianship, who is the next of kin, and socage.

who the most proper guardian; as also orders The first statute that gave the father a power are made by that court on petition or motion, of appointing, was the 4 and 5 Philip and for the provision of infants during any dispute Mary, c. 8, which provides, under severe pe. therein; as likewise guardians removed or comnalties, such as fine and imprisonment for pelled to give security; they and others punish, years, against taking any maid, or woman ed for abuses committed on infants, &c. child unmarried, being within the age of six- Guardian of the spiritualities, the person teen years, out of or from the possession, cus- to whom the spiritual jurisdiction of any tody, or governance, and against the will of the diocese is committed during the time the father of such maid, or woman child, or of see is vacant. A guardian of the spirituasuch person or persons, to whom the father of lities may likewise be either such in law, as such 'maid, or woman child, by his last will the archbishop is of any diocese within his and testament, or by any other act in his life- province: or by delegation, as he whom the time, shall grant the education and governance archbishop or vicar-general for the time apof such child.

points. Any such guardian has power to hold But the principal guardianship is now by courts, grant licences, dispensations, probates the statute 12 Car. Il. c. 24, by which any of wills, &c.

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