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&c. but by mere inspiration and direction of single pieces of ice, but of many little spherules the Spirit.
agrlurinated together; neither are these spheHAGUE, a town of Holland, situated rules all of the same consistence; some of about half a league from the sea, neretofore them being hard and solid, like perfect ice; the residence of the stadthokler, the states- others soft, and mostly like snow hardened by general, and the states of the province. In a severe frost. Ilailstone has a kind of core the year 1768, it was supposed to contain of this soft matter; but more frequently the 40,000 souls. It was little known till William core is solid and hard, while the ontside is II. king of the Romans, and comte of Hol- formed of a softer matter. Hailstones assume land, removed his court thither from Grave- various figures, being sometimes round, at sande, in the year 1250; from wbich time it other times pyramidal, crenated, angular, has always been the seat of government, and thin, and fiat, and sometimes stellated with since the establishment of the republic, it six radii, like the small crystals of snow. might be reckoned the capital of the seven Their cause is probably electrical. Natural provinces. It stands in a dry soil, something historians furnish us, with various accounts of higher than the rest of the country; the air is surprising showers of hail, in which the hailpure, and the environs delightful. The houses stones were of extraordinary magnitude. Of are good, and the streets large and long; these we mention one or two, said to have several of them adorned with rows of trees. happened in our own country, There are several squares, and many magni- “ Dr. Halley, and others also, relate, that ficent public buildings, the court, the prince's in Cheshire, Lancashire, &c. April 2014, palace, the town-house, &c. In the prince's 1697, a thick, black cond, coning from palace was a very valuable cabinet of natural Carnarvonshire, disposed the vapours to conhistory,f coins, inedals, &c. and excellent geal in such a manner, that, for about the pictures in all. It is governed by its own breadth of two miles, which was the limit of inagistrates, which are a baily, whose office the cloud, in its progress for the space of sixty is for life; three burgomasters, changed every miles, it did inconceivable damage; not only year; seven echevins, and twelve common killing all sorts of fowls and other small anicouncil; a pensioner, a secretary, and a trea- mals, but splitting trees, knocking down surer: thirty-two miles S.W.Amsterdam, and horses and me!', and even ploughing up the twelve N.V. Rotterdam. Lat. 52. 4 N. Lon. earth; so that the hailstones buried themselves 4. 83 E.
under ground an inch or an inch and a half HAGUENAU, a town of France, and deep. The hailstones, many ot which weighed principal place of a district, in the department five ounces, and some half a pound, and of the Lower Rbine, situated on the Motter, being five or six inches about, were of various in the middle of a forest, which bears its name, figures; some round, others half round; some fortified by Frederick the First, who made it an smooti, others embossed and crenated; the Imperial town, and called it the Chamber of icy substance of them was very transparent and the Empire, because in it were preserved the hard, but there was a snowy kernel in the Imperial ornaments, under the house of middle of them. Suabia. Here was a palace, in which the “ In Hertfordshire, May 4, the same year, empeross sometimes resided, but, in conse- after a severe storin of thunder and lighining, quence of the frequent wars, it is now almost a shower of hail succeeded, which far exceeded destroyed. The number of intiabitants is the former: some persons were killed by it, about 3400. The surrounding land is sandy and their bodies beaten all black and blue; and unproductive, and the commerce is incon- vast oaks were split, and fields of rye cut down siderable; the principal articles are madder as with a scythe. The stones measured from and tobacco. Lat. 48. 47 N. Lon. 7. 53 E ten to thirteen or fourteen inches about. Their
HAGEUIA. In botany, a genus of the figures were various, some ovai, others picked, class octandria, order monogynia. Calyx two- and some fat.” Phil. Trans. Number 229. leaved; corol five-petalled, fiat; neciary five Sec METEOROLOGY. leaflets, four times as short as the petals; TO HALL. v.n. To pour down hail (Isaiah). capsule : a tree of Abyssinia described by Mr. Hall interj. (hæl, health, Saxon ) A terin Bruce in his travels ; leaves crowded at the of salutation; health (Milton). top of the branches, interruptedly pinnate To Hail. v. n. (fron the noun.) To salute; with an odd one ; leaflets ovate lanceolate, to call to (Dryden). sharply serrate; panicle nodding, flexuous. HA'ILSHOT. s.(hail and shot.) Small shot
Hall, interj. An expression of sudden scattered like huil (Hayward). effort.
HA'ILSTONE. s. (hail and stone.) A parHA-HA, or Aha, a wall and sloping ticle or single ball of hail (Shakspeare). bank, serving as a fence about parks, pleasure- HAILBRON, a free imperial town of grounds, &c. The name is probably derived Suabia, in the duchy of Wirtemburg; It is from the expression of surprise, aha! some- seated on the Neckar. Lat. 49. 9 N. Lon. 9. times uttered on arriving at the declivity and 15 E. finding a fence where none was expected. HAILING, in naral language, the salo
HAIL, in natural history, a meteor zene- tation or accosting a ship at a distance, which rally defined frozen rain, but differing is usually perforined with a speaking-irumpet: from it, in that the hailstones are not formed of the first exclamation is, “hoa, the ship, .
hoay," to which she replies “holloa ;" then hair, till they came to be 49 years old; but it follow the requisi'e questions and replies. was not allowed to be done above that age,
HAILY. a. (from hail.) Consisting of hail says Pliny. Scipio Africanus had himself
HAINAN, à considerable island of Asia, shaved all his days, and Augustus did the same belonging to China, to the N. of the gulf of in initation of him. Cochin-China, and to the S. of the province The young men did not begin to shave of Canton, from which it is 12 miles distant. themselves till they were twenty or twentyIt is 400 miles in circumference. The soil of one years of age, as did Nero and Caligula; but the N. part is level; but in the S. and E. are Augustus did not do it till he was twenty-five myuntains, among which are valleys that pro- years old. duce two crops of rice every year. The inha- The day wherein they were shaved the first bitunts are mostly a wild sort of people, and time was a day of rejoicing, and they were great cowards, for 50 Chinese will put a thou- careful to put the hair of their beard into a sand of them to fliqni. In general, they are a silier or gold box, and make an oflering of it short and deformed people, and the colour of to some yod, particularly to Jupiter Capitulinus, their skins is recidish.
as Nero did, according to the iestimony of HAINAULT, a province of the Nether- Suetonius. lands; bounded on the N. by Brabant, on the Ouly the philosophers let their beards grow, N. W. by Flanders, on the W. by Artois, on and wore thein very long, without cutting, or the S. by Cambresis, Picardy, and Cham- sharing pague, and on the E. by the territory of Liege, Hair as an ornament, or as an ensign of and the county of Naiur. It is divided into dignity or of religion. By the Jews hair was Austrian Hainault, of which the capital is worn naturally long, just as it grew; but the Alons; and French Hainault, which is in- priests had theirs cut every fortnight, while cluded in the departmeat of the North. they were in waiting at the temple; they made
HAINAULT, a forest of Essex, lying to the use of no razvrs, however, but scissars only. S. E. of Epping Forest, and supposed to be so The Nazarites, while their vow continued, cailer from some of the deer, with which it were forbidden to touch their heads with a was stockal, having been brought from the
See NAZARITE. province of the sarne name in the Netherlands. The tailing of the hair, or a change of its In this forest is a celebrated oak, known through colour, was regarded amongst the Hebrews as mary centuries by the name of Fairlop. Be. a sign of the leprosy. Black hair was esteemed neath its shade, which overspreals an area of by them as the most beautiful. Absalom's 300 feet in circuit, an annual fair has been hair was cut once a year, and is said to have long held on the 22d of July.
weighed 200 (shekels, by the king's weight, HIIR. Pili, Capilli ''The hairs of the which is about 31 ounces. The law of God human body are thin, elastic, dry filaments, hath left no particular ordinances with regard arising from the skin. They consist of the to the hair. Tulli, situated under the skin, which is a vas- The hair of both Jewish and Grecian cular and nervous vesicle; and a trunk, which women engaged a principal share of their atperforates the skin and cuticle, and is covered tention, and the Ronan ladies seem to have with a peculiar vagina. The colour of hair been no less curious with respect to theirs. varies; its seat, however, is in the medullary They generally wore it long, and dressed it in juice. The hair, according to its situation, is a variety of ways, ornamenting it with gold, diferently named; thus, on the head it is called silver, pearls, &c. On the contrary, the inen capilli; over the eves, supercilia; cilia, on the amongst the Greeks and Romans, and amongst margin of the eyelids; rilrissæ, in the fora- the later Jews, wore their hair short, as may mina of the nostrils; pili auriculares, in the be collected from books, melals, statues, &c. external auditory passage, mystar, on the This formed a principal distinction in dress upper lip; and barla, on the lower jaw. betwixt the sexes. This observation illustrates
As for the hair of the beard, the Romans a passage in I Cor. xi. 14, 15. St. Paul forfor a long time wore it without shaving or bids the Corinthian women, when praying cutting, and the time is not exactly known by divine inspiration, to have their hair when they began to do it. Titus Livius seems disherelied; probably because this made them to tell us, that this custom was in use from the resemble the heathen priestesses, when acyear369; for, speaking of Manlius Capitolinus tuated by the pretended influence of their gods. who was taken prisoner, he relates that “the It was esteemed a notable honour among the greatest part of the people being troubled at ancient Gauls to have long hair, and hence his imprisonment, changed their clothes, came the appellation Gallia comata. For this and let their beards and hair grow.” If reason Julius Cæsar, upon subduing the this were so, then we may infer that out of Gauls, made them cut off their hair as a token times of mourning they had their hair cut and of submission. It was with a view to this, their beards shared.
that such as afterwards quitted the world to Nevertheless Varro speaks clearly, that the go and live in cloisters procured their hair to first barbers came out of Sicily to Rome in be shaven off; to show that they bid adieu to the year 454, and that a man called Ticinius all carthly ornaments, and made a vow of Menas brought them. From that time the perpetual subjection to their superiors. young men began to have their beards cui, and The French historians and antiquaries have been very exact in recording particulars of the was black ; but it appears from similar ex. hair of their several kings. Charlemagne wore periments that red hair differs from black only it very short, his son shorter; Charles the in containing a red oil, instead of a dark-coBald had none at all. Under Hugh Capet it loured one; and that white bair differs from began to appear again; this the ecclesiastics both these only in the oil being nearly colourtook in dudgeon, anii excommunicateu all less, and in containing phosphat of magnesia, who let their hair grow. Peter Lombard which the others do not. Carroty and faxen expostulatexi the matter so warnly with Charles hair will be occasioned by a red or yellow oil, the Young, that he cut off bis hair; and his which, when deepest, and mixed with a successors for some generations wore it very small quantity of brown oil, produces the short. A professor of Utrechi, in 1650, wroie dark reil hair. And so for other colours and expressly on the question, Whether it be laws shades, which vary with the colour of the ful for men to wear long hair? and concluded contained oil. To this oily matter Vauquelin for the negative. Another divine, named properly auributes the supple.ess, elasticity, Reves, who had written for the affirmative, and other properties of the hair, especially replied to him.
those which occasion it to burn so rapidiy, The ancieni Britons were extremely proud and to form soap with alkalies. The anual of the length and beauty of their hair, and matter first mentioned in the above enumcrawere at nuuch pains in dressing and adorning tion appears to bear a very exact resemblance their heads. Some of them carried their to that which physiologists have designated by fondness for and adiniration of their bair to an the name of mucus. extravagant he ght. It is said to have been the Hair, in cominerce, constitutes a very cone last and most earnest request of a young war. siderable article, especially since the fashion rior, who was taken prisoner and condemned of wearing wigs has prevailed among all ranks, to be beheaded, that no slave might be per- and has lately been extended to both sexes. mitted to touch his hair, which was remark. The hair of this and other porthern countries ably long and beautiful, and that it might not is preferred to that of the southern climates of be stained with his blood. We hardly ever lily, France, &c. The chief quality of hair meet with a description of a fine wonian or consists in iis being well fed, as it is termed beautiful man, in the poems of Ossian, but by hair.dressers, so that it be peither two coarse their hair is mentioned as one of their greatest nor too slender. Hence thick hair is less sus, beauties. Not contented with the natural ceptible of the artificial curl, and is disposed colour of their hair, which was commonly to frizzle; but, if it be too delicate, ii will fair or yellow, they made use of certain washes retain the curl only for a short time. The to render it still brighter. One of these washes length of good hair is usually estimated at 25 was a composition of lime, the ashes of cer- inches; and, in proportion as it is shorter, it tain vegetables, and tallow. They made use becomes less valuable. There appears to be of various arts also to make the pair of their no slated price for this article; as, according heads grow thick and long; which last was to its quality, it is sold at from 5s. to si. per not only esteemed a great beauy, but was Ounce: it pays, when impo.tes, a duty of considered as a mark of dignity and noble birth. 25.42?. per lb.-With respect to the various Boadicea queen of the Iceni is described by operations wilich hair undergoes previou is to Dio with very long hair, Aowing over ber being manufactured into wigs, we trus! the shoulders, and reaching down below the reader will excuse our silence. middle of her back. The Britons shaved all The hair of beavers, hares, and other their beards, except their upper lips; the hair animals, is used in various manufactures
, of which they, as well as the Gauls, allowed especially that of hits, of which they conto grow to a very inconvenient length.
stilute the principal material. The Greeks and Romans often wore false If the refuse of the short hair of hides be hair.
scattered on arable land, and left ihere to puHair has not escaped the researches of trify, it proves one of the most fertilizing and modern chemistry; it has been examined by durable manures. Hatchett, Berthollet, and others: from the HAIR (Llorse), likewise forms a considerable analysis of it by Vauquelin it appears to be article of trade; it pays on importation a duty formed of nine different substances, riz. of about 11d. per 16. and is partly employed
1. An animal matter, which constitutes the for weaving thie covers of the seats of chairs, greater part.
sofas, &c. but principally for the stufling of 2. A white concrete oil in small quantity. bolsters and inattrasses. For the last mentioned
3. Another oil, of a darkish green colour, purposes, the hair is previously baked, and, more abundant than the former.
in that state, forms one of the most elastic 4. Iron, the state of which in the hair is couches, which is incomparably superior to uncertain.
the softest, but enerrating, feather-beds. 5. A few particles of oxyd of manganese. HAIR, in the manage, and among farriers, 6. Phosphat of lime.
is popularly called the coat, and makes an 7. Very small quantity of carbonat of lime. object of principal consideration in respect of 8. Silex in a conspicuous quantity.
horses, &c. 9. A considerable quantity of sulphur. The If the hair of a horse, especially that about hair from which these results were obtained the neck, and parts uncovered, be sleek and smooth, and close, it is an indication of his HAIRINESS. s. The state of being cobeing in health, and good case: if rough and vered with hair, or abounding with hair. staring, or any way discoloured, it denotes a HAIRLA'CE. s. The fillet with which the coluness, poverty, or some in ward defect. To women tie up their hair (Suisi). make the hair smooth, sleek, and soft, he HAIRLESS. a. Wanting hair (Shakmust be kept warm, sweated oíten, and when speare). sweated, the coat inust be well scraped, and HAIRY. a. (from hair.) 1. Overgrown tuhbed down.
will inair (Shakspeare). 2. Consisting of HAIR-CLOTHS, in military affairs, are large hair (Dryden). pieces of cloth made with horse hair. They HAKĖ, in ichthyology. See Gadus and are used for covering the powder in waggons, BLENNIUS. or upon batteries; as also for covering charged HAKLLYT (Richard), an English writer, bonibs or hand grenades, and many other uses born in Herefordshire, about 1553, and eduin magazines.
Cated at lestminster school, from whence he HATR-Powder is generally prepared from was removed in Christ-church college, Oxford. starch, which, afier being thoroughly dried, He distingnished himself by his skili in cosmois ground and passed through the finest sieres. graply, and published a curious collection of In its pure state, it should be perfectly white, Voyages, in 3 vols. folio. He was in orders, and possess no s:nell. But in order to conceal and in 1005 was made a prebendary of Westbase adulterations, or to please the votaries of minster, which, with the living of Wetheringthe toilette, perfuniers study the art of com- set in Sufiolk, was all the church preferment municatir.g to it various artificial olours from he ever obtained. lle died in 1614. His swect-scented Aowers, such as violets, jessa- faithful countryinen, out of respect to his lamines, &c.
bours, named a promontory, lying in 80 deDr. Darwin observes, that alum is some- grees of N. latitude, on the coast of Greenland, times used in the manufacture of hair-powder; Hakluyi's headland. (Walkins). and we understand from creditable persons, that HAL, in local names, is derived like al from even lime is frequenily mixed with fine flour: the Saxon healie, i. e. a hall (Gilson). it is therefore not surprising that so many
HALBERDIER. s. One who is armed persons who employ hair-dressers display bald with a halberd. heads, and are under the necessity of wearing HALBERSTADT, a handsome town of wigs ; but, if the latter were aware of the Germany, in the circle of Lower Saxony, and injury they inflict on themselves by inhaling capital of a principality of the same name. It such pernicious substances, in consequence of was formeriy capital of the bishopric of Halwhich rany who exercise that wade pine berstadt, now secularized. The cathedral is a away of pulmonary complaints, they would superb structure, with a fine peal of bells; and never use any other but yenuine powder. And there are two regular abbeys within the town, though common four is not in itself pernicious, and one without. There are also two nunnewhen used as a substitute for hair-powder, yet ries. The Jews arc tolerated here, and carry by the mucilage it contains the hair is apt to on a great trade. Lat. 52. 6 N. Lon. 11. be caked 10 ether when the head is sensibly 24 E. perspiring, or is acciden'ally weited by a HALBERT, or HALBARD, in the art of shower of rain ; an effect which may be fre- war, a well-known weapon, carried by the quen ly noticed in a whole regiment of soldiers. sergeants of marching regiments. It is a sort Hair-powder pays, on importation, the pro- of spear, the shaft of which is about five feet hibitory duty of 51. 16s. 24d. per cwt. long, and made of ash or other wood. Its head
Those persons who cannot be dissuaded is armed with a steel point, not unlike the from the use of artificial means to strengthen point of a two-edged sword. But, besides this hair injured by the above or other causes, may sharp point which is in a line with the shaft, with safety employ a mixture consisting of there is a cross piece of steel, flat and pointed equal parts of olive oil and spirits of rosemary, at both ends ; but generally with a cutting to which may be added a feiv drops of oil of edge at one extremity, and a bent sharp point nutmeg. If the hair be rubbed every night at the other; so that it serves equally to cut with a little of this liniment, and the pro- down or to push withal. It is also useful in portion be very gradually increased, it will determining the ground between the ranks, and answer every purpose to be attained by those adjusting the files of a battalion. The word is boasted preparations which are sold by em- formed of the German hul, hall, and lard, an pirics.
hatchet. Vossius derives it from the German HAIR-SALT, in oryctology. See ALUMEN. halleluert, of hel, clarus, splendens, and l'eart, HAIR-WORM, in helminthology.
The halbert was anciently a common Gordius.
weapon in the army, where there were comHA'IRBRAINED. a. (rather harebrained.) panies of halberdiers. Wild, irregular (Shakspeare).
HALBERT-SHAPED, in botany. See Hasa HA'IRBREADTH. s. A very small dis. TATE. tance ; the diameter of a hair (Judges). HALCYON, a name given by the ancients
HAIRCLOTH. s. Stuff made of hair, very to the alcerlo, or kingfisher. See Alcedo. sough and prickly, worn sometimes in morti- HALCYON DAYS, in antiquity, a name given fication (Grew).
to seven days before and as many after the
winter solstice; by reason the halcyon, inrited such causes but in open court, where both parby the calınness of the weather, laid its eggs in ties were to be heard alike." Upon which his nests built in the rocks, close by the brink of grace (for it was a duke) went anas not a little the sea, at this season. Hence the term is now dissatisfied, and complamed of it to the king as frequently used for days of peace and tranquil. a rudeness that was not to te endured: bui huis lily; and the word haleyon is often used as an majesty bid him content himself that he was aderive, signifying placid, quict, still, or used no worse; and said, " That he verily bepluielil.
lieved he would have used him no better if he HALDENSTEIN, a free and independent had gone to solicit him in any of his owa barony of the country of the Grisons. 'Ti con
Another remarkable incident hapsists of a small semicircular plain, which lies pened in one of his circuits. A gentleman between the Rbine and the foot of Mount Ca- who had a trial at the assizis had sent him a lendar, about five miles in length, and scarcely buck for his table. When judge Hale thereone in breath. It occupies also part of the fore heard his name, he asked if he was not mountain, which is so steep as not to be inha- the same person who had sent him the venibited. Ti contains only two villages, Halden- son?" and inding that he was the same, told stein and Sewils; and the whole number of him, that “ he could not sutier the trial to go the baron's subjects does not exceed 400. on till he had paid him for his buck.” The
HALE (Sir Mathew), an excellent English gentleman answered, that “ he never sold his judge, was born at Aldersley in Gloucester- venison; and that he had done nothing to him shire, in 16co, and educated at Magdalen-hall, which he did not do to every judge who had Oxford, froin whence he removed to Lincoln's- gone that circuit:" which was confirmed by inn, where he followed the study of the law several gentlemen present. The lord chief with great application, and though he had baron, however, would not suffer the trial to been before of a gay turn, he now became as proceed will he had paid for the present: upon grave and religious. He was one of arch- which the gentleman withdrew'the record. bishop Land's counsel, and acted in the same HALE. a. Healthy; sound; hearty (Spens.). capacity to several other illustrious sufferers in To Hale. v. a. (halen, Dutcb.) To drag by the great rebellion, and even for the king him- force; to pull violently and rudely (Brown). self. However he took the covenant and en- HA'LER. s. (from hale.) He who pulis and gagement, and accepted of a judge's place in hales. the common-bench froin Cromwell. On the HALES (John), commonly called the death of Oliver, he refused to act under his son “ ever memorable," was born at Bath in 1584, Richard, and even refused the mourning which and educated at Corpus Christi colle?", Oxford, was sent to him on the occasion. In the par. from whence he removed to Merion on being liament which recalled the king, he sat as elected to a fellowship. In 1613 he was ad knight of the shire for his native county; and mitted a fellow of Eron college, and in 1618 soon after the restoration, which he had great- he attended sir Dudley Carleton, au bassador ly promoted, he was made chief baron of the to Holland, as his chaplain. While there he exchequer, in which place he continued eleven was present at the synod of Dordt, an account years, and was then advanced to the chief jus, of which he wrote to his patron in a series of ticeship of the king's-bench. In 1675 he re- letters, which are printed in his Remains. In signed his office, and died a few months after. 1638 archbishop Laud appointed him his wards. His remains were interred in the chaplain, and procured for him a carunty of church-yard of Aldersley. Ile was twice mar- Windsor. He suffered great hardships in the ried, and had by his first wife ten children. great rebellion, and was almost reduced to the Sir Matthew was a very learned man, a sound want of bread. He died in 1656. He w?a lawyer, an upright judge, and an exemplary man of great learning and skill in argument, christian. His writing, are numerous on theo- as appears from his works, which have been logical, philosophical, and legal subjects. The several times printed. best known of his works are; 1. The primitive Hales (Sieplen), an eminent divine and Origination of Mankind considered and ex- philosopher, was born in Kent in 1677, ard plained according to the Light of Nature, &c. broughi up at Benedict-college, Cambridge, folio. 2. The llistory of the Pleas of the where he was elected fellow in 1703. Iletouk Crown, folio. 3. The original Institution, great pains in the study of botany and experie Power, and Jurisdiction of Parliaments. 4. mental philosophy, which by his means les Contemplations, Moral and Divine, three vols. came fashionable pursuits at Cambridge. He 8vo. The inflexible integrity with which this also invented a machine for demonstrating the great man acted as a judge, will be seen from motions of the planets, which was r.early simithe following. A noted peer went once to his lar to what was afterwards called the orrers. chamber and told him, “ That having a suit In March 1718, he was elected a fellow of in law to be tried before him, he was then to the Royal Society, and soon after received the acquaint him with it, that he might the better thanks of the society for his exertions in the understand it when it should come to be tried cause of science : indeed he was one of the in court.” Upon which the lord chief baron most active members that celebrated society interrupted him, and said, “ He did not deal ever had. In 1741 he published his invention fairly to come to his chambers about such af- of ventilators; which he afterwards greatly fairs; for he never received information of improved, and applied to many useful purposes.