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two largest are separated by a strait, about 400 red and black; under the tail the feathers fathoms wide, and each surrounded by a num- are white, marked with a few spots of black ber of small ones, as it were chained together and orange. These birds never pair; but in by rocks under water, and placed in all sorts of spring the males assemble at their accustomed directions ; they are all covered with cocoa- resorts, when they crow and clap their wings; trecs. The inhabitants are well proportioned, the females, at this signal, resort to them. almost naked, and painted brown, with black They will fight like game-cocks; and at that hair, tied in a kind of net-work. These time are so careless of their safety, that two or islands were probably discovered by Roggewin. three have been killed at a shot; and have Lon. 142. 45. to 142.' 54. W. Greenwich. sometimes even been knocked down with a Lat. 17. 58.10 18. 6. S.

stick. The food of the red grous is nearly GROUSE, or RED GAME: a species of similiar to that of the black. The male weighs the genus Tetrao (which see,) forming a nineteen ounces, and is in length fifteen frequent object of the sportsman's attention, inches; the bill is black; nostrils covered and peculiarly protected by the laws of this with small red and black feathers : the throat is country.

red; each eye is arched with a spot of a bright It is enacted by the 13th George III. c. Iv. scarlet ; the plumage on the head and neck is s. 2, That no person shall kill, destroy, carry, of a light tawny red; cach feather is marked sell, buy, or have in his possession any grouse, with transverse bars of black ; the back and cominonly called red game, between the tenth scapula feathers are of a deeper red, and on day of December and the twelfth day of Au- the middle of each feather is a large black gust in any year, upon pain of forfeiting, for speck, breast and belly dull purplish brown, the first offence, a sum not exceeding 201. nor crossed with numerous raven dusky lines; tail less than 101. and for the second, and every even, consisting of sixteen feathers; the four subsequent offence, a sum not exceeding 301. middle ones barred, all the others black ; the nor less than 201. one moiety thereof to go to thighs are of a pale red, barred obscurely with the informer, and the other noiety to the poor black ; the legs and feet clotted to the very of the parish : and in case the penalty be not claws, with thick, soft, white feathers. The paid, and there be no distress to be had, the female only weighs fifteen ounces ; the colours offender be committed to prison, to be kept to are less bright, and the naked red part over the hard labour for any time not exceeding 'six, eye is less conspicuous, and the edges of it not nor less than three months.

so deeply fringed as that of the male. And for the further preservation of both The Hesh of both species soon taints, and black game and grouse, or red game, it is they should be drawn as soon as killed; but enacted, That any person who shall, between that of the black grous is most liable to corthe second day of February and the twenty- rupt. Though the red game is not found in fourth day of June, in any year, burn any grig, any part of England, south of the river Trent, ling, heath, furze, goss, or lern, on any moun- the mail coaches will convey it, in good pretains, hills, heaths, moors, forests, chases, or servation, to London, if put up carefully; but other wastes, shall be committed to the house it was with great difficulty the late earl Deof correction for any time not exceeding one lawar could send the black game in a state fit month, nor less than ten days; there to be to be eaten, by a special messenger, from the whipped, and kept to hard labour.

New Forest to their majesties, at Windsor. The black grous are fond of woody and The flesh of it, even if dressed as soon as killed, mountainous situations, and perch like the is hardly of a firmer texture than potted pheasant. Their food is various; the bilberry, meat. and in winter the tops of heath, and in sum- GROUT. s. (Grut, Saxon.) 1. Coarse mer they sometimes feed on corn. The length meal; pollard (King). 2. That which purges of the male is from one foot ten inches to two off (Dryden). 3. A kind of wild apple. feet nine. It weighs nearly four pounds; the 4. A thin coarse inortar used in building. bill is dusky black, the eyes dark-blue: below T. GROW. v. n. pret. grew ; part. pass. each eye is a spot of a dirty white, and above, a grown (gnuşan, Saxon.) 1. To vegetate; to larger one, of a bright scarlet. The plumage have vegetable motion ; to increase by vegeof the body black, glossed over the neck and tation (Wisdom). 2. To be produced by verump, with a shining blue: the covers of the getation (Allot). 3. To shoot in any parwings are of a dusky brown ; the tail consists ticular form (Dryden). 4. To increase in of sixteen black feathers, and is much forked; stature (Samuel). 5. To come to manhood the feathers under the tail, and inner covers of from infancy (Wake.). 6. To issue, as plants the wings, are of a pure white. The female from a soil (Dryden). 7. Toincrease in bulk ; is only one foot six inches long, breadth two to become greater. 8. To improve; to make feet six ; the eye has the dusky white spot un- progress (Pope). 9. To advance to any state der it like the male, the head and neck are (Shakspeare). io. To come by degrees (Rog.). marked, alternately, with bars of dull red and 11. To come forward; to gather ground black; the breast with dusky black and white; (Spenser). 12. To be changed from one step the back covers of the wings and tail are si-. 1o another; to become either better or worse milar in colour to the neck, except the red (Dryden). 13. To proceed as from a cause being deeper; the tail is slightly forked, and (Hooker). 14. To accrue ; forthcoming cousists of eighteen feathers, variegated with (Shakspeare). 15. To adhere; to stick to

nearly square;

gether (Walton). 16. To swell: a sea term Unwillingly; malignantly; reluctantly (Dry (Raleigh).

den). GROWER. S. (from grow.) An in- GRU'EL. s. (gruelle, French.) Food made creaser.

by boiling oatmeal in water (Arbuthnol). TO GROWL. v. n. (grollen, Flemish.) 1. GRUFF. a. (groff, Dutch.) Sour of as. To snarl like an angry cur (Ellis). 2. To pect; harsh of manners (Addison). murmur ; to grumble (Gay).

GRU'FFLY. ad. Harshly; ruggedly (Dr.). GROWN. The participle passive of grow,

GRU'FFNESS. s. (from gruff:) Rugged1. Advanced in growth. 2. Covered or filled ness of mien; harshness of look or voice. by the growth of any thing (Proverbs). 3. GRUINALES, in botany, the name of the Arrived at full growth or stature (Locke). fourteenth order of Lineus's Fragments. This

GROWTH. . (from grow.) 1. Vegeta- order furnishes both herbaceous and woody tion; vegetable life (Atterbury). 2. Product; plants. The roots are sometimes fibrous, and thing produced (Milton). 3. Increased num- sometimes tuberous. In some species of the ber, bulk, or frequency. 4. Increase of sta- oxalis, wood-sorrel, they are jointed; the stems ture; advance to maturity. 5. Improvement; are cylindric, and the young branches in some advancement (Hooker).

the buds are of a conic form, coGROWTÀEAD. GRO'WTNOL. s. (from vered with scales; the leaves in some genera gross or great head.) 1. A kind of fish (Ains.). are simple, in others compound; the fowers 2. An idle lazy fellow: obsolete (Tusser). are hermaphrodite; the calyx consists either of

GROYNE, a river of Spain, in Galicia, five distinct leaves, or of one leaf divided alwhich euters the Bay of Biscay, at Corunna. most to the bottom into five parts; it generally Hence our sailors frequently call the town by accompanies the seed-bud to its maturity: the the name of the river--the Groyne.

petals are tive, spreading, and are frequently GRUAJIRES, a town of Swisserland, in funnel-shaped ; there are generally ten stamens, the canton of Friburg, with a castle where the anthers oblong, and frequently attached to the bailiff resides. Lat. 40.35 N. Lon. 6. 43 E. the filaments by the middle; the seed-vessel

GRUARII, in our old writers, the princi- is commouly a five-cornered capsule, with one, pal officers of the forest in general.

three, five, or ten cells, with one seed in each GRUB, the name of worms produced from cell. In this order are the geranium, crane’sthe eggs of beetles, which are at length trans- bill; linum, flax; oxalis, wood-sorrel ; guiaformed into winged insects of the same species cum, lignum-vitæ. with their parents. See LARNA.

GRUM. a. (contracted from grumble.) To GRUB. v. a. (graban, preterit grol, 10 Sour; surly; severe (Arbuthnot). dig, Gothic.) To dig up; to destroy by dig

TO GRUMBLE.v.n. (grummelen, Dutch.) ging; to root out of the ground (Dryden). 1. To murmur with discontent (Prior). 2. GRUB. s.

A short thick man; a dwarf To growl; to gnarl (Dryden). 3. To make a (Curen).

hoarse rattle (Rowe). GRUBBIA, in botany, a genus of the class GRU‘MBLER, S. (from grumble.) One octandria, order monogynia. Involucre two- that grumbles; a murmurer (Swift). valved, three-flowered; corol four-petalled, GRUMBLING. s. (from grumble.) A superior; berry one-celled; stigma noiched. murmuring through discontent (Skakspeare). One species : an. African shrub, with opposite GRUME. s. (grumeau, Fr. grumus, Latin.) ovate-linear leaves, and lateral flowers. A thick viseid consistence of a Auid (Quincy). To GRUBBLE. v. n. (grubelen, German.)

GRU'MLY. ad. (from grum.) Sullenly; To fecl in the dark (Dryden).

morosely. GRUBENHAGEN, a town and castle of GRU'MOUS. a. (from grume.) Thick; Lower Saxony, and the chief place of a prin- clotted (Arbuthnot). cipality of the same name, belonging to the GRU'MOUSNESS. s. (from grumous.) house of Hanover, Lat. 51. 31°N. Lon. Thickness of a coagulated liquor (Wiseman). 10. 3 E.

· GRUNERDE, in mineralogy. See GREEN To GRUDGE. v. a. (grwgnach, Welsh.) 1. EARTH. To envy; to see any advantage of another with GRUNINGEN,

a town of Lower Saxony, discontent (Sidney). 2. To give or take un- in the principality of Halberstadt. Lat. 52. 4 willingly (Addison).

N. Lon. 11. 41 E. To GRUDGE. v, n. 1. To murmur; to re- GRUNINGEN, a town of Swisserland, in pine (Hooker). 2. To be unwilling; to be the canton of Zuric, capital of a bailiwic of reluctant (Raleigh). 3. To be envious (James). the same name. Lat. 47.14 N. Lon. 8. 43 E. 4. To wish in secret (Dryden). 5. To give or GRUNSEL, in architecture. See GROUNDhave any uneasy remains Dryden).

SEL. GRUDGE. s: (from the verb.) 1. Old quar- GRUNSTEIN, in mineralogy, a particular rel ; inveterate malevolence (Shaks.). 2. An. kind of trap, coloured green or greenish, in ger; ill will (Swift). 3. Unwillingness 10 consequence of its containing olivin. See benefit (Ben Johnson). 4. Envy; odium; BASAITES TRAPEZUM. invidious censure. 5. Remorse of conscience T. GRUNT. T. GRU'NTLE. v. n.(gru(Ainsworth). 6. Some little commotion, or nio, Latin.) To murmur like a hog (Gay). forerunner of a disease (Ainsworth).

GRUNT. s. (from the verb.) The noise of GRUDGINGLY. ad. (from grudge.) a hog (Dryden).

GRUNTER. s. (from grunt.) 1. He that with a sword-like projection : denominato grunts. 2. A kind of fish.

ed locusta. GRU’NTLING. s. (from grunt.) A young

E. Antennas filiform ; tentacles simple; tail hog. GRUPPO, in music, a shake: it consists

simple; throat with a horn-like protuber.

ance. The gryllus of Fabricius. in the alternate reiteration of two notes in The insects of this family feed on plants and juxta-position to cach other, with a close on herbs; except those of the section truzalis, ibe note immediately beneath the lower, or which prey on other insects. The larves and above the upper of them.

pupes resemble the perfect insects, reside GRUS, in ornithology. See ARDEA. chiefly under ground, and are six-footed, vora

Grus, in astronomy, the Crane, a new cious and active: they were the only animals southern constellation not visible in our latitude. of this class of which Moses permitted the It consists of 14 stars of the first six magnitudes, Israelites to eat; and are at present used as an siz. 0. 2. 1. 2. 9. 0. The Arabians give the article of food by the natives of Africa and name of Grus to the constellation which we India. call Ophiuchus.

We shall instance a few of the chief species, Grus, in antiquity, a dance performed 1. G. grylotalpa. Mole-cricket. Wings yearly by the young Athenians around the terminating in slender tails longer than the iemple of Apollo, on the day of the Delia. abdomen ; fore-feet palmate, Body dark ches

T. GRUTCH. v. n. (corrupted from put-brown, hairy; wing-cases shorier than the grudge). To envy; to repine ; not used body, veined; antennas shorter than the body, (Ben Jonson).

Inhabits gardens and cultivated places of LaGRUTCH, s. (from the verb.) Malice; illa rope and America, where it burrows below will (Hudibras).

the surtace of the earth, and is very destructive, GRUTERUS (Janus), an illustrious phi• eating and consuining the roots of trees. lologist, was born in 1560 at Antwerp. His 2. G, domesticus, House-cricket. Wings father, who was a burgomaster of Antwerp, tailed, longer than ihe wing-cases: body glaurook refuge in England on account of his reli- cous. An inhabitant of almost every house, gion, he being a protestant, when Gruterus about orens and kitchen-chimneys; wanders was but an infant. He received his education about during the whole night, maintaining a under the eye of his mother, who was a very continual chirping, especially before rain: is accomplished woman; after which he was said to forsake houses infected with the cocks sent first to Cambridge, and then to Leyden, roach, and is destroyed by pills of arsenic, and where he took the degree of doctor in civil law, the fresh root of the daucus mixt with four, He was professor of history in the university or the root of the nymphæa boiled in milk. of Wirtemberg, and afterwards filled the pro- 3. G. campestris. 'Field cricket. Wings fessor's chair at Heidelberg. He published shorter than the wing-cases; body blackist; various useful works; the most important of style linear. Inhabits Europe: chirps from which is bis collection of Inscriptions. He the beginning of May till the equinox, and is died in 1627.

said, when domesticated, to drive out the house, GRUTUM. (grutun, i. n,). Milium. A cricket. hard white tubercle of the skin, resembling in 4. G. verrucivorus. Wings green, spotted with size and appearance a millet-seed.

brown; antennas as long as the body. InhaGRY, a measure of length, being 1000th bits England, and most parts of Europe ; and is

collected tby the common people of Sweden for Hence, any very little thing, or one of small the purpose of destroying warts on the hands, yalue, is often called a gry.

which it is said to perform by biting off the GRYLLUS. Locusi. Cricket.

Grasse excrescence, and discharging on the wound a hopper. Ju zoology, a genus of the class in- corrosive liquor, secta, order hemiptera. Head inflated, armed 5. G. viridissimus. Head, thorax, and with jaws ; feelers filiform ; antennas setaceous, wing-cases green, inımaculate: antennas very or filiform; wings four, deflected, convolute; long; legs yellowish; a lancet or swordlike the lower ones plaited; hindless ; forined for process straight and serrate terminal to the leaping; claws double on all the feet. This is body. an extensive genus, consisting of not less than This sword-like process is larger and more two hundred and one species which contain powerful in the female than in the malc. With sections of Fabricius.

this she excarales a number of holes in the A. Antennas ensiform; head conic, longer dried branch of a tree ; into each of these

than the thorax ; denominated truxalis. boles eight or ten of her eggs are dropped; B. Thorax carinate: antennas filiform, there they are surrounded with the kind of

shorter than the thorax ; feelers equal : food which is most suitable for them in their denominated acrydium.

larve state. The disposition of the eggs is in c. Antennas setaceous ; feelers unequal; rows, and placed in the middle of the trees;

thorax rounded ; tail with two bristles: the soft substance of which is the first food of denominated achele.

the insect after it leaves the ovun. The ipD. Antennas setaceous; feelers unequal ; sect that proceeds from each of these eggs, male with an ovellate

spot at the base of after it has grown for some time, and before each wing-case; tail of the female armed reaching a size incompatible with escaping by

part of a foot.


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