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flexuous or straight, parallel or scattered; beneath : thorax and shells margined, the colour white, grey, yellowish, red, or honey- latter shorter than the body; legs forned for huel, with the colours sometimes meeting swimming. Eleven species, scattered over the in stripes.
four quarters of the globe. They are found on 4. G. usuale. Lamellated gypsum. For the surface of waters, on which they run and liated gypsum.
Meagre and dry, lamellar, describe circles with great celerity; when atwith the foliations generally spherical; break- tempted to be taken they plunge io the bottom, ing into indeterminate fragınents.
drawing after them
bubble resembling a 6. Another variety glitiering internally. globule of quicksilver.
A third, without internal lustre, The only species found in our own country Found in Britain and various other parts of is G. natator, which is oval, faintiy striate, Europe in vast masses, and sometimes in len- black. It inhabits the surface of our stagnant ticular crystals : colour yellowish, or blackish- pools. It is extremely active even in its larva grey, cinereous, ochraceous, flesh-colour, state, in which it evinces six leg, and a lengın. Tarelv honey-colour.
ened body; it preys on the smaller and weaker 5. G. selenites. Selenite. Selenitic spar. water-insects, minute worins, &c. On the Sulphat of lime. Pellucid, shiving, rhombic, approach of its farther metamorphosis it forms lamellar, with straight parallel foliations, for itself a smalı oval cell or case on a sedgoleaf breaking into rhomboidal fragments. Found or other water-plant, and casting its skin bein most places in whicin the two preceding comes a chrysalis : this change usually takes species exist, with the crystals generally in six- place in the nionth of August, and the avrelia sirait prisms, terminated by iwo-sided or four- is completely entomized in September. These siced unmits; it commonly produces double insects, when largely assembled together on refracirca ; colour white or grey.
the surface of the water in hot weather, ijave GYR-FALCON, in ornithology. See Face been observed to diffuse a strong or disagrerable
smell to a considerable distance. Like the GYRATION. s. (gyro, Lat.) The act of hydrophil and dytiscus, they fly only by night. turning any thing about.
Their eggs are small, whiie, and cylindric; Gyration. (Centre of.) See CentRE. and are deposited on the leaves of water-plants :
GYRE. s. (gyrus, Latin.) A circle de- the heat of the sun hatches them in the space scribed by any thing moving in an orbit of about eight days, when the young larva in(Sandys).
stantly begins to swim about in pursuit of its GYRED. a. Falling in rings (Shakspeare). prey;
GYÖRINUS. Water flea. In zoology, a GYVES. s. (gevyn, Welsh.) Fetters; chains genus of the class insectæ, order coleoptera. for the legs (Ben Jonson). Antennas cylindric; jaws horny, one-toothed,
To Gyve. v. Q. To fetter; to shackle sharp.pointed; eyes four, two above and two (Shakspeare).
HAB H, THE ciglith letter and sisth consonant lord, from the Latin herus, or the German
in our alphabet ; though some gram- herr. Much as the D, which the Spaniards marians will have it to be only an aspiration, prefix to their proper names, as D. Phelipe, for or breathing. But nothing can be more ridi- Don Philip. Bui as it is likewise found beculous than to dispute its being a distinct sound, fore the names of several cities, it is more proand formed in a particular manner by the or- bable the letter was there used to denote the gans of speech, at least in our language: wito rough, harsh pronunciation of the ancient ness the words eat and heat, arm and harm, Franks. ear and hear, then and ten, &c. as pronounced In reality, the most ancient way of writing with or without the h. It is pronounced by a the names of these French kings, was not by strong exspiration of the breath between the h, but by ch ; where the c seems to have stood lips, closing, as it were, by a gentle motion of for koning, king, and the h was inserted to give the lower jaw to the upper, and the tongue the c a giittural sound. nearly approaching the palate.
The ħ is sometimes also found prelixed to The Latins have taken their H from the the c; as Hcarolus, hcalende, &c. for CaroGieck“Ate, as the Greeks had it of the Phæni- lus, calendæ, &c. cians, and the Phænicians of the Syrians, who H, when it begins the first syllable of a word, pronounced formerly Hetha instead of Heth: is generaily sounded with a full breath ; the which plainly shews, that we ought to pro- exceptions are heir, herb, hostler, honour, nounce Eta in Greek and not lia.
humble, honest, and their derivatives. It is But in the beginning iliis A was only used now customary
with many of our best speakers for an aspiration, wherefore they wrote HEPOAO to pronounce several words beginning with instead of meadow, HOA ' instead of sci, Henazon hu, as though they were spelt yu, as human, instead of ixtov centum: froin whence it comes, humility, humour, and their derivatives. The that the H formerly devoted one hundred in English anciently aspirated less than at present, number.
as is manifest from the directions given by the H was also joined with weak consonants grainmarians of the seventh century to use insteal of an aspiration; for the aspirated con- an universally before H. sonants were found out since by Palainedes, H, used as a numeral, denotes 200; and they using to write Theos instead of @cos, and with a dash over it, ñ, 200,000. the like.
As an abbreviation, H was used by the an. The F is often written instead of the II, as cients to denote homo, hæres, hor a, &c. Thus fædum instead of hædum, fircum insiead of H.B. stood for hæres bonorum; and H.S.corrupta hircum, fariolum instead of hariolum, fostem ly for LLS. sesterce ; and H. A. for Hadrianus. instead of hostem, heminas instead of feminus, HA. interjection. (ha, Latin.) 1. An expreshebris instead of febris.
sion of wonder, surprise, sudden question, or Anciently the h was put for ch; thus Chlo-. sudden exertion (Shakspeare). 2. An expres. douceus was forined Hluidoricus, as it is read on sion of laughter (Dryden). all the coins of the ninth aud teuih centuries ; HABAKKCK, one of the twelve lesser and it was on this account that they wrote propiets, whose prophecies are taken into the Illudovicus with an h. In course of time, the canon of the Old Testament. The name is sound of the h being much weakened, or en- written in the Hebrew with the n hhetr, and tirely suppressed, the h was dropt, and the signifies“ a wrestler.” There is no precie word was written Ludovicus. In like manner time mentioned in Scripture when this Habakwe read Islotaire, Illocis, &c. F. Lobineau kuk lived; but from his predicting the ruin of will have this difference to have risen from the the Jews by the Chaldeans, it may be condifferences in the pronunciation. Such, says cluded that he prophesied before Zedekiah, or he, as could not pronounce the guttural, about the time of Manasseh. He is reported wherewith these two words begin, substituted to have been the author of several prophesies a c for it; and they who pronounced it so, which are not extant: but those that are inwrote it after the saine nanner ; but such as disputably his are contained in three chapters. were accustomed to pronounce the guttural, His style is very grand and beautiful. wrote it likewise. He might have added, that HABAT, a province of Africa, in Barbary, such as could not pronounce it at length ab- and in the kingdom of Fez. It is bounded by solutely rejected it, and both wrote and spoke the Mediterranean, the Straits of Gibraltar, conjectured that the h should have been de- HABDALA, a ceremony of the Jews, obtached from the name; and that it signified served on the evening of the sabbath, and by which is intended that the sabbath is over, not indicted, and tried in the second term or and the day of labour begun.
session, shall be discharged; but no person HABEAS CORPUS, a writ, of various after the commencement of assizes for the uses, and of different imporiance. It was county where he is detained, shall be reipoved originally a writ, which a man indicted of a by habeas corpus till they are ended. trespass before justices of the peace, or in a 7thly. That a prisoner can obtain his hacourt of franenise, and being apprehended for beus corpus out of the chancery, and excheit, may have out of the King's Bench, to re- quer,as well as out of the king's bench and commove hinselí tbiiner at his own cosin, and to mon pleas: and if the chancellor and judges answer the cause there. In its more visual shall refuse the same on sight of the warrant sense it is the most celebrated writ in the En. or oath that it is denied, shall forfeit severally glish law. This writ formed part of tlie an- 5001. to the party grieved. cient common law, but was much more re- 8thly. That ihis writ of habeas corpus shall strained in its operation and effects : for the run into the counties palatine, and all other juiges arr gated to themselves the power of privileged places, and the islands of Guernsey granting on denvina it: and ihr gaolers did not and Jersey. pay a proper attention to it, often putting the gihly. That no inhabitants of England (unşallerer to the expeace of an alias and plaries less at their desire, or having committed some habeas corpus before they obeyed. These in- capital offence in the place to which they are conveniences produced the famous statute 31 sent), sha!! be sent prisoners to Ireland, ScotCar. II. c. 2.
land, Guernsey, and Jersey, or any places beThis great bulwark of English liberty, which yond the seas, within or without his majesty's may fairly be put upon a level with the cele- dominions, on pain that the person comunitbraied Manna Charta, was occasioned by the ting, and his advisers and abeitors, shall forunjust oppression of an insignificant individual teit to the injured party a suin not less than in the reign of Charles the Second. The sta- 5001. to be recovered with ireble costs, shall be inte enacis,
disabled from holding any office, shall incur Ist. That the lord chancellor, or any of the the penalties of præmunire, and be incapable judges in vacation, on complaint or written re- of the king's pardon. quest of any person committed for any crime The writs in use under this act are various. (except felony, or treason, or as accessary, or Many kinds are used for removing prisoners suspected of being accessary before the fact, 10 from one court to another. Such are the any petty treason, or felony, or charged in ese- habeas corpus and respondiendum, when a man cution by legal proces), upon seeing a copy has cause of action against one who is conof the warrant, or affidavit that copy is iepied, fined by process of an inferior couri, in order shall award a habeas corpus for such pri-oner, to remore the prisoner, and charge him with returnable immediately before himself, or any this new action in the court above. Ad satisother of the judges (unless the party has suf- faciendum is when judgment has, in an action, fered two terms to elapse before applying to the been given against a prisoner; and the plaintiff court for his liberation), airl shali discharge brings him up to a superior court to charge the party, if bailable, on bis giving proper se- him with proc'ss of execution. Also the writs curity to appear.
ad prosequendum, testificandum, deliberandus, 2dly. That the writ shall be i::dorsed, as which issue when it is necessaryto remove a prigranied in pursuance of this act, and signed by soner, in order to prosecute, or bear testimony, the nerson awarding it.
or to be tried in the proper jurisdiction w 3dly. That the writ shall be returned, and the fact was committed. And, lastly, the comthe prisoner brought up in a limited time, mon writ au faciendum ut recipiendum, nhich according to the distance, never exceeding 20 issues out of any of the couris above, when a days.
person is sued in some interior jurisdictin, 4thly. That officers and keepers not mak- and desires to remove the action into the supe ing due returus, or not delivering to the party rior court, commanding the inferior judges to or his agent, within six hours after demand, á produce the body of the defendant, with the copy of the warrant of commitment, or shift. day and cause of his detainer, to do and receive ing the custody of a prisoner without proper what the king's court shall determine. This authority (as mentioned in the act), shall for- writ is grantable of common right, without feit 1001. for the first offence, and 2001. for moving the court, and supersedes all inferior the second, to the sufferer, and be disabled proceedings. But to prevent the surreptitinus from holding such office.
discharge of prisoners, the statute i and ! 5thly.. That any one detaining a person P. and M. c. i3, enacts, that no habeas corpus once delivered by habeas corpus for the same shall issue to remove any prisoner out of gaol
, offence, shall forfeit 500l.
unless signed by some judge of the court out of 6thly. That every person committed for which it is awarded. "And by a statute of the treason or felony shall, if he desires it, the first present reign it is enacted, that no cause under week of the next terın, or the first day of the the value of 10). shall be removed into a super next session of oyer and terminer, be indicted rior court, unless the defendant, on remoring in that term or session, or else admitted to the same, gives security for payment of debt bail, unless the witnesses for the crown cannot and costs. be produced at that time; and if acquitted, or But the writ which forms so great a part of
the liberty of the subject in all manner of ille, little iron rings or plates, linked into each gal confinement, is the habeas corpus ad sub- other. jiciendum, commanding the person detaining a
HABI'LIMENT. s. (habilement, French.) prisoner to produce him, with the day and Dress; clothes ; garment (Surf). cause of his detention, to subinit to whatever TO HABILITATE. v. n. (aliliter, Fr.). the judge or court awarding such writ shall To qualify; to entitle: not in use (Bacon). determine. This is a high prerogative writ,
H'ABILITATION. s. (from habilitate.) and therefore, by the common law, issuing out Qualification (Bacon). of the court of king's bench, not only in term HABILITY. $. (habilité, French.) Facultime, but vacation, by a fiat from any of the ty; power: now ability. judges, and running into all the king's domi- HABIT. s. (habitus, Latin.) 1. State of nions. And a man has now the benefit of any thing: as, hot'it of body. 2. Dress ; acthe common law writ, either in the king's coutrement (Dryden). 3. Habit is a power in bench or common pleas, as he chooses ; and man of doing any thing, when it has been acin both those courts it is necessary to apply for quired by frequent doing the same thing it by motion, as it does not issue of course, (Locke). 4. Custom ; inveterate use (South). without shewing some reason for the granting ToʻH Abit. v. a. (from the noun.) To dress ; it. But if good grounds be shewn ihat the to accoutre; to array (Clarendon). party is imprisoned without just cause, it be. HABIT, may be defined an aptitude or discomes a writ of common right, and must not position either of mind or body, acq'sired by a be denied, even though a man is detained by frequent repetition of the same act. the highest authority.
Similar to the customs (see Custom) This celebrated act has been subject to tem- which persade large bodies of men, is the porary suspensions, by authoriiy oi parliament, power of habit over individuals. The mind in umes of riot or rebellion ; and the late mi- frequently acquires a strong and invincible atnister subjected himself to considerable un- tachment to whatever has been fan iliar to it popularity by that measure during the last for any length of time. Hat 116 primarily inwar.
troduced by accident or necessity, will inspire HABENDUM, in a deed, that formal part an affection for peculiarities which have the of it which is to determine what estate or in- reverse of intrinsic merit to recommend their.. terest is granted by it, the certainty thereof, for These become, as it were, assimulated to our what time, and to what use. It is expressed natures; we contempiale them as belonging to by the words 10 dave and to hold for such a ourselves so intimately, that we feel an irksome term,” &c. It sometimes qualifies the estate, vacuity in their absence, and enjoy a great so that the general extent which, by construc- degree of satisfaction in their bung replaced; tion of law, passes by the words used in the merely because we have ! een habituated to premises, may by the habendum be controlled. them. How frequently does it happen that The habendum may, therefore, lessen or en- the most triAing circumstances in early life large the estate previously granted, but it can- will decide the lot of our future years; creating not totally contradict or be repugnant to it. affections and aversions which have the most As if a grant be to one, and the heirs of his lasting influence! It is this cause which so body, habendum, to have to him and his heirs frequently inspires a preserence for one trade, for ever, here he has an estate tail by the grant; pursuit, or proiession, rather than another. and by the habendum a fee-simple expectant Thus we percerie that childr-o sometimes thereon. But if it had been in the premises to make choice of the emplovinents of their pa. him and his heirs to have for life, the haben- rents or their neighbours, because it had agreedum would he utterly void ; for an estule of in- ably engaged the attention of their juvenile heritance is rested in him before the habendum hours. They love to imitate and plav the comes, and shall not afterwards be taken away, mari, till an affection is acquired for the occuor divested by it. The habendum cannot pass pation iiseif. This is generally the case where any thing that is not expressly mentioned, or the occupation is of an active nature, and most contained by implication, in ihe premises of adapted to the vivacity of youth. If, on the the deed : because the premises being part of the other hand, their minds are strongly impressdeed by which the thing is granted, and con- ed with the confinement, slavery, or any other sequently that makes the gift; it follows, that disagreeable circumstance attending the emthe liabendum, which only limits the certainty ployment to which they are daily witnesses, and extent of the estate in the shing given, can- they are inclined to the contrary extreme, connot increase or multiply the gilt, because it tract an aversion, and give the preference to were absurd to say, that the grantee shall hold any other pursuit, the inconveniences of which a thing which was never given him. See are unknown to them. DEED.
It is needless to enlarge farther upon these HABERDASHER, in commerce, a seller particulars; as every individ:sal must be conof hats, and other small wares. This word is scious of their truth. There is no one who probably derived from BERDASH.
does not feel the force of nabit, both as the HABERGEON, HAUBERGEON, or Ha- source of pleasure and of displeasure. It is BERGETUM, a coat of mail. An ancient experienced in every station and connection in piece of armour, in form of a coat, descending life; it is experienced in what we eat, or drink, Tiom the neck to the middle, and formed of or wherewith we are clothed; in our habita
tions and their furniture; and in our otvn cha- then given as a fief to the lords of Wildeck, racteristic peculiarities. (Cogan on the Pas- and after them to the lords of Wholen. When sions, p. 237.)
the Bernois conquered the Argow, in 1415, HABIT OF PLANTS, their air, port, or this castle came under their dominion. An general external appearance. Linnéus defines ollicer is stationed here to give the alarm, in it to be, a certain conformity which kindred or case a fire should break out in the neighbourcongenerous vegetables have in their placen- hood: five miles N. Lenzburg. tation, rooting, branching, intorsion, budding, HACHA, the capital of Rio-de-la-Hacha, leating, stipulation, pubescence, glandulation, a small province of Terra Firma. It is seated laciescence, florescence, &c.
at the mouth of a river of the same name. Lat. Hence such characters are called characteres 11.30 N. Lon.72. 34 W. habituales. And these, though not sufficient T. HACK. v. a. (haccan, Saxon.) 1. To of themselves to distinguish vegetables, yet cut into small pieces; to chop (Sidney). ?. frequently make them knows at first sight. To speak unreadily, or with hesitation (Shake Many of the natural classes are directly appa- speare); rent from this general similitude, as the cary- To Hack. v. n. To turn hackney or prostiophylleæ, verticillatæ, asperifoliæ, umbella- tute (Shakspeare). tæ, leguminosä, siliquosæ, columniferæ, Hack, applied to horses, means a horse filices. In forming ihe characters of the appropriated to every kind of drudgery, and genus these have been neglected, since the upon which no great estimation or value is fructification has been thought amply suffi- placed. The term also implies a hired horse; cient for the purpose.
the property of a hackney-man, job or postHA'BITABLE. a. (habitable, Fr.) Capa- master, who lets out horses by the day, week, ble of being dwelt in (Donne).
or month, and who is obliged to take out an HABITABLENESS. s. (from habitable.) annual licence for permission so to do, paying Capacity of being dwelt in (More).
five shillings for the same; withont which HA'BITANCE. (habitatio, Latin.) licence he is liable to a penalty of tea Dwelling; abode (Spenser).
pounds. HABITANT. s. (habitant, Fr.) Dweller; Hack-horses, whether for riding or drawing one that lives in any place (Pope).
post, are chargeable with a duty of one penny HABITATION.' s. (habitation, French.) halfpenny per mile, for as many miles as such 1. The state of a place receiving dwellers (Mil- horse shall be engaged to travel within a day, ton). 2. Act of inhabiting; state of dwelling. or any less time; but where the distance can3. Place of abode; dwelling (Milton). not be ascertained, one shilling and nine-pence HABITATION OF PLANTS. In botany. is charged in the gross. This
duty is demandLocus ubi sponte prognascuntur. Their na- ed by the person letting the horse or horses in tive place of growth. Called by some, barba- hire, who, upon receiving such payment, is rously and vulgarly, their habitat,
compellable to deliver to the person so hiring HÁBITATOR. s. (Latin.) Dweller ; inha- one or more stamp-office tickets, under a pebitant (Broome)
nalty of ten pounds. HABITUAL, a. (habituel, French.) Cus- HACKLE. s. Raw silk; any flimsy subtomary; accustomed; inveterate (South). stance unspun (Walton).
HABITUALLY. ad. (from hubiiual.) To HA'CKLE. v. a. To dress flax. Customarily; by habit (Arbuthnol).
HACKNEY, a parish in Middlesex, on the To HABITUATE, » a. (habiteur, Fr.). N.E. side of London, containing no less than To accustom; to use one's self by frequent re- 12 hamlets. The old church was built, we petition Tillotson).
believe, in the reign of Edward II. Near it HA'BITUDE. s. (halitudo, Latin.) 1. there has been a large church lately erected. Relation; respect; state with regard to some. That part of Hackney next London is called thing else (Ilale). 2. Familiarity; converse; Mare-street, the middle church-street, and frequent intercourse (Dryden). 3. Long cus- the north part Clapton. Dorleston and tom; habit (Prior); 4. The power of doing Shacklewell are on the west, and Hommerton, any thing acquired by frequent repetition which leads to the marsh, on the east. Hack(Dryden).
ney coaches first obtained their name from this HA'BNAB. ad. (hap ne hap.) At random; place: for in the beginning of the seventeenth at the mercy of chance (Hudibras).
century, Londoners who went on visits to their HABSBURG, or HAPSBURG, a castle of friends at Hackney often hired horses or car. Swisserland, in the canton of Berne, advan- riages, so that in time it became a common tageously situated on the right bank of the name for such horses, chaises, and coaches, Aar, about a league above the town of Bruck, as were let to the people of London; and the built by count Vernor, bishop of Strasburg, name is now general. in the eleventh century, and by him given to HACKNEY, among sportsmen, a road-horse his brother Radbad. The son of Radbad, sir- superior to all others upon the score of utility, named Veruer, after his uncle, was the first of and employed to save the drudgery and labour the house who took the title of the count of of the more pampered racer, the hunter, and Habsburg, which his descendants always bore the charger. It is the peculiar province of the till the elevation of Rodolph I. to the einpire hackney to carry his master twelve or fifteen of Germany, and archduchy of Austria. It was miles in an hour to covert, when the hunter