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(Clarendon). 4. Viruous; good (Shakspeare). GRADATION, in general, the ascending 5. Excellent: obsolete (Hooker). 6. 'Grace- step by step, or in a regular and uniform manful; becoming: obsolete (Camden).
ner. "Thus it denotes in logic a form of reaGRACIOUSLY. ad. 1. Kindly; with soning, otherwise called Sorites; in painting, a kind condescension (Dryden). 2. In a pleas- gradual and insensible change of colour, by ing manner.
the diminution of the tints and shades. In GRACIOUSNESS. s. 1. Kind condescen- rhetoric, it denoies the same with Cliinax. sion (Clarendon). 2. Pleasing manner. GRADATORY. s. (gradus, Latin.) Steps
GRACULA. Grakle. In zoology, a ge- from the cloister into the church (Ainsw). nus of the class aves, order picæ. Bill convex, GR'ADIENT. «. (gradiens, Lat.). Walksharp-edged, nakedish at the base ; tongue en- ing; moving by steps (Wilkins). tire, sharpish, fleshy; feet ambulatory. Thir- GRADISCA, a town of Sclavonia, on the teen species, natives of India and South Ame- frontiers of Croatia, seated on the Save. Lat. rica ; some of them of Europe : have a thick 45.21 N. Lon. 18.39 E. bill compressed at the sides, with small nostrils GRADISCA, a strong town of Germany, at the base, and sharp hooked claws; the mid- in the county of Goritz. Lat. 46.6 N. Lon. dle toe of the fore-feet connected at the base to 13. 14 E. the outer. The following are the chief species: GRADO, in music, signifies degree. Thus,
1. G. religiosa. Minor grakle. Violet di grado is used to denote music, the notes of black; spot on the wings white; hind-head which rise or fall gradually from a space to its with a yellow naked band. There is another contiguous line, or from a line to its nearest variety much larger. Both inhabit Asia : the 'space. first is ten and a half inches long; feeds on GRADUAL, GRADUALE, was anciently cherries, grapes, and other fruits ; when tamed a church-book, containing divers prayers, reis exceedingly loquacious. See Nat. Hist. Pl. hearsed, or sung, after the epistle. After readCXX.
ing the epistle, the chantor ascended the ambo 2. G. barita. Boat-tailed grakle. Greyish; with his gradual, and rehearsed the prayers, shoulders blue; quill-feathers outside green. &c. therein ; being answered by the choir : Bill shortish, blackish, beneath paler, naked at whence the name gradual, on account of the the base; tail rounded and concare when fold- steps or degrees of the ambo. ed, which it always is when on the wing; but In the Romish church, the word gradual is flat when spread open. Inhabits America and still frequently used in the same sense. the Antilles : thirteen inches long; feeds on in- GraduaL, GRADUALIS, is also applied sects and fruits.
to the fifteen psalms sung among the Hebrews 3. G. cristellata. Crested grakle. Black; on the fifteen steps of the altar. the first quill-feathers at the base, and tail- GRA'DUAL. a. (graduel, French.). Profeathers at the tip white; bill yellow : plu- ceeding by degrees ; advancing step by step mage inclining to blue; irids orange; feathers (Milton). of the front long, and erected at pleasure into GRA'DUAL. s. (gradus, Latin.) An order of a crest; greater quill-feathers, from the base to steps (Dryden). the middle, white, the other part deep. blue; GRADUAʼLITY.s. (from gradual.) Regulegs yellow. Inhabits China ; eight and a half lar progression (Brown) inches long; is very loquacious, and makes a GRADUALLY. ad. (from gradual.) By hissing noise ; feeds ou rice, worms, and insects. degrees; in regular progression (Newton).
4. G. quiscala. Purple grakle. Violet- T. GRADUATE. v. a. (graduer, French.) black; lail rounded. Another variety with J. To dignify with a degree in the university the body white and black; head white; quill- (Carew). 2. To mark with degrees (Derham), feathers and tail black; wings and tail purple, 3. To raise to a higher place in the scale of the latter long, and wedged. Inhabits Mexico, metals : a chymical term (Bacon). 4. To the warm parts of America and Jamaica. heighten ; to improve (Brown), Male thirteen and a half, female eleven and a GRA'duate. s. (gradué, French.) One half inches long; sings finely; and builds in dignified with an academical degree, as a trees in unfrequented places ; lays five or six bachelor of arts, bachelor of laws, bachelor of blueish eggs with black stripes and spois ; when divivity, master of arts, doctor, &c. domesticated feeds on all kinds of grain; and GRADUATION. s. (graduation, French.) though very destructive to plantations, clears 1. Regular progression by succession of dethem in a considerable degree from noxious in- grecs (Grew). 2. Exaltation of qualities sects, on which account the breed has of late (Brown). 3. The act of conferring academical years been encouraged in the West Indies. degrees.
5. G. sturvina. Hoary; black on the crown GRADUATION OF MATHEMATICAL INand back ; between the wings violet-black; STRUMENTS, is the process by which the tail and wings with a shade of green; the late arches of quadrants, theodolitęs, circular inter with a double white stripe. Female dirty struinents, &c. are divided into degrees, and ash; back brown; wings and tail deep-black. the mininter subdivisions. This is a branch Inhabits the ozier banks of Dauria; in its of practical mechanics, which has been culnest and eggs resembles the thrush.
tivated by the ingenious with great assidui. GRACULUS, in ornithology. See Cor. ty for more than a century; Hooke, Sharpe, TUS.
Graham, Bird, Ramsden, Smeaton, Hindley,
aud Troughton, being among the artists who though the graft be not so far loosened as fe have most distinguished themselves in pro- drop off, the connection between itself and the ducing the successive improvements. To trace original stock seems to be so considerably af. the progression of their various methods with fected as to render its branches incapable of such minuteness and perspicuity as would be farther fructification. In the choice of grafts, of real utility to the practical mechanic would the following observations are well worth allead us far beyond our narrow limits : we can tending to. We should be careful, Ist. That only, therefore, refer the reader to Mr. Smea- they are shoots of the former year. 2dly. That ton's paper in the Philosophical Transactions, they are taken froin healthy fruitful trees, vol. lxxvi. (New Abridgement, vol. xvi. p. And, 3dly. from the lateral or horizontal 30~76), and to Mr. l'roughton's, in the branches, and not from the perpendicular Phil. Transac. for 1809, Part I. for the most shoots. These grafts should be cut off from ample information on this curious subject the trees before the buds begin to swell, which which has yet been published; and which, is generally three weeks or a month before the indeed, comprise together as well a history of season for grafting; and hence, when cut off, all that has been done, as a clear description of they should be laid in the ground with the cut the best methods.
downwards, burying them half their length, GRAFF. 9. A ditch; a moat (Clarendon). and covering their tops with dry litter, to pre
Graff. GRAFT. s. (greffe, French.) A vent their diying: if a small joint of the fore small branch inserted into the stock of another mer year's wood be cut off with the scion, it tree, and nourished by its sap, but bearing its will preserve it the better; and when it is own fruit; a young cion (Pope).
grafted this may be removed; for the grafts To GRAFF. TO GRAFT. v. a. (greffer, must be cut to a proper length before they are French.) 1. To insert a cion or branch of one inserted into the stocks ; but till then, the tree into the stock of another (Dryden). 2. shoots should remain their full length, as they To propagate by insertion or inoculation. 3. were taken from the tree, which will preserve To insert into a place or body to which it did them better from striking. If these grafts be not originally belong (Romans). 4. To fill to be carried to a considerable distance, it will with an adscititious branch (Shaks.). 5. To be proper to put their cut ends into a lump of join one thing so as to receive support from clay, and to wrap them up in moss, which will another (Swift):
preserve them fresh for a month at least : but GRAFFIÓ, in our old writers, a landgrave these should be cut off earlier from the trees or earl.
than those which are not to be carried to a GRAFIGNY (Frances), á French lady, distance. author of the Peruvian Letters, which have The use of grafting is to propagate any cubeen translated into every European language, rious sort of fruit, so as to be certain of the was the wife of a chamberlain of the duke of kind; which cannot be done by any other Lorrain. After the death of her husband she method : for as all our good fruits have been went to Paris with mademoiselle de Guise, actually obtained from seeds, the seeds of these, where she was greatly admired and caressed when sown, will often degenerate, and profor her talents, and where she died in 1758, at duce such fruits as are not worth cultivating : the age of 65.
but when shoots are taken from such trees as GRAʼFTER. s. (from graff or graft.) One produce good fruit, these will never alter from who propagates fruit by grafting (Evelyn). iheir kind, whatever be the stock or tree on
GRAFTING, or ENGRAFTING, in gars which they are grafted; for, though the grafts dening, is the insertion of a shout or scion of receive their nourishment from the stocks, one plant into the stock or stem of another, so they are never varied by them, but coutinue to that both may unite and become one tree. produce the same kind of fruit as the tree from The same process has been occasionally re- which they were taken. sorted to in zoology, sometimes for mere sport General directions for Grafting.--All such or curiosity, and sometimes for purposes of trees as are of the same genus, i. e. which agree real utility. Thus the spur of a cock has been in their flower and fruit, will take upon each sometimes cut off and inserted into the liga- other; for instance, all nut-bearing trees may ments upon his head : and thus a sound tooth be safely grafted on each other; as may also from one person has been extracted and in. the plum-bearing trees, under which head may serted into the gum and socket of another upon be reckoned not only the several sorts of plums, the removal of a diseased tooth. The formative but also the almond, peach, nectarine, apricot, principle of the blood in both animals and &c. which agree exactly in their general chavegetables produces new vessels, and the ad- racters, by which they are distinguished from ventitious substance becomes a part of the all other trees : but many of these are very subgeneral system : but it is never so completely ject to emit large quantities of gum from such assimilated to its general system as its innate parts of them as are deeply cut and wounded, members; and hence, in animal life, in a which, in the tender trees of this kind, viz. variety of diseases in which the general crasis peaches and nectarines, being extremely hurtof the fluids is attenuated, as in sea-scurvy for ful, it is the best method in such cases to bud cxa!ple, the new connection is often destroy, cr inoculate them. See INOCULATION. ed, and the adventitious part drops off. In All such trees as bear cones will do well some, and perhaps similar diseases of trees, upon each other, though they may differ in
me being ever-green, and the other shedding There are several ways of grafting, the prinits leaves in winter; as is observable in the cipal of which are the following: cedar of Lebanus and the larch tree, which Grafting in the rind, called also crownare found to succeed upon each other very grafting, and shoulder-grafting, is only proper well : but these must be grafied by approach; for large trees, where either the head or ihe for they abound with a great quantity of rosin, large branches are cut off horizontally, and which is apt to evaporate from the graft, if two or four scions are put in, according to the separated from the tree before it be joined by size of the branch or stem: in doing ihis the the stock, whereby they are often destroyed; scions are cut fat on one side, with a shoulder 80 also should we act with the laurel on the to rest upon the crown of the stock; then the cherry, or the cherry on the laurel. Again, rind of the stock must be raised up, to admit all the mast-bearing trees will take upon each the scion to enter about two inches between other, and those which have a tender soft the wood and the bark of the stock, so that wood will do well if grafted in the common the shoulder of the scion may meet, and closely way; but those of a more firm contexture, and unite with the crown of the stock; and after that are slow growers, should be grafted by the number of scions are inserted, the whole approach.
crown of the stock should be well clayed over, By strictly observing this rule we shall sel leaving two eyes of the scions uncovered. This doin miscarry, provided the operation be rightly method of grafting was formerly much more performed and at a proper season, unless the in' practice than at present: its discontinuance weather should prove very unfavourable. It is was occasioned by the ill success with which by this method that many exotics are not only it has been attended, from the scions being propagated, but also rendered hardy enough to frequently blown out by strong, winds, after endure the cold of our own climate in the they had made large shoots, which has some open air ; for being grafted upon stocks of the times happened after they have had five or six same sort that are hardy, the grafts are ren- years growth; so that whenever this method is dered more capable of enduring the cold; as practised, there should be stakes fastened to has been experienced in most of our valuable support the scions till they have almost coverfruits now in England, which were formerly ed the stock. The latter end of March, or transplanted hither from more southerly cli- the beginningof April, is the best time for this mates. Prior to grafting we should be provided process. with a small hand-saw, to cut off the heads of
Cleft-Grafting, termed also stock or slitlarge stocks, a good strong knife with a thick grafting, is practised upon stocks or trees of a back, to make clefts in the stocks; a sharp pen- smaller size, from an inch to two inches or knife to cut the grafts; a grafting chisel, and a more in diameter, and may be used with sucsmall mallet: bass strings, or woollen yarn; and cess where the rind of the stock is not too a quantity of clay, which should be prepared a thick. This method of grafting is to be permonth before it is used, in the following man- formed in the months of February and March; ner. Get some strong, fat loam ; then take and in doing it, the head of the stock or branch some new horse-dung, and break it in amongst must be cut off with a slope, and a slit made
the loam; if you cut a little straw or hay very the contrary way in the top of the slope, deep small, and mix amongst it, the loam will hold enough to receive the scion, which should be Logether the better; and if there be a quantity cut sloping like a wedge, so as to fit the slit of salt added, it will prevent the clay from di- made in the stock, being careful to leave that riding in dry weather ; this compost should side of the wedge which is to be placed outbe well intermixed like mortar, with a suffi- ward much thicker than the other; and in ciency of water added to it; after which it putting the scion into the slit of the stock, care should be moistened afresh, and stirred every must also be taken to join the rind of the scion other day; but it should not be exposed to the to that of the stock; for if these do not unite, frosts, or to drying winds. Of late years, the grafts will not succeed: when this mode some have made use of another eomposition of grafting is applied to stocks which are not for grafting, which they have found to answer strong, it will be proper to make a ligature of the intention of keeping out the air better brass to prevent the slít of the stock from open-, than the clay just prescribed : this is composed ing: then the whole should be clayed over, to of turpentine, bees-wax, and rosin, melted prevent the air from penetrating the slit, so as together ; which, when of a proper consist- to destroy the grafts; only leaving,
of ence, may be put on the stock round the graft, the scious above the clay for shooting. in the same manner as the clay is usually ap- Whip-Grafting, called also tongue-graftplied, and though it be not above a quarter of ing, is more commonly practised ihan any an inch thick, it will resist the air more effect- other by the nurserymen near London, espeually than the clay; and as the cold will cially for sınall stocks, because the scions much harden it, there is no danger of its being hurt sooner cover the stocks in this method than by frost, which is very apt to make the clay in any other. This is performed by cutting off separate and sometimes fall of; and when the the heads of the stocks sloping; there must heat of summer returns, this mixture will melt then be a notch made in the slope toward the away without any trouble; but be careful not upper part downwards, a little niore than half to apply it too hot, lest you injure the graft. an inch deep, to receive the scion, which must
be cut with a slope upward, and a part left in with a grain of corn (Holder). 6. Any thing this slope like a 'tongue; which tongue must proverbially small (Wisdom). 7. GRAIN of be inserted into the slit made in the slope of allowance. Something indulged or remitted the stock, so as that the two rinds of both scion (Watts). 8. The direction of the fibres of and stock may be equal and join together wood, or other fibrous matter (Shakspeare). 9. exactly; there should then be a ligature of bass The body of the wood as modified by the to fasien the scion, so as that it may not be fibres (Dryden). 10. The body considered with easily displaced ; and afterwards it should be respect to the form or direction of the consticlayed over, as in the former methods.
tuent particles (Brown). 11. Died or stained Rool-Grafling, consists in grafting a fine substance (Spenser). 12. Temper; disposifruitful branch upon a root. The manner of tion; inclination (Hudibras). 13. The heart; perforining it is to take a graft of the tree de. the bottom (Hayward). 14. The form of signed to be propagated, and a small piece of the surface with regard to roughness and smooththe root of another tree of the same kind, or ness (Newton). very near it, or pieces of roots cut from the GRAIN (Jean Baptist le), a French histotree transplanted, and whip-graft them, bind- rian, counsellor, and master of the requests to ing them well together. This tree may be Mary de Medicis queen of France, was born planted where it is to stand, for the piece of in 1565, and died in 1643. By a clause in his root will draw sap and feed the grast, as the will he directed that none of his descendents stock does in the other methods.
should entrust the education of their children GRAFTING by approach. See INARCHING. to the jesuits. His Decades contain the His.
GRAFTING (Escutcheon). See Inocu- tory of Henry IV. and the History of Lewis LATION.
XII. to the death of the marshal d'Ancre. GRAHAM (George), clock and watch GRAIN Coast, or MALAGUETTA, or maker, the most ingenious and accurate artist Pepper COAST, a country of Guinea, boundof his time, was born in 1675. After his apo ed by the Sierra Leona country, which lies to prenticeship Mr. Tompion received him into the west, and the Ivory Coast, on the southhis family, purely on account of his merit; and east, extending along the Atlantic, about 100 treated him with a kind of parental affection leagues. The climate is said to be unwholeas long as he lived. Beside his universally ac- some, especially to Europeans. The producknowledged skill in his profession, he was a tions are peas, beans, gourds, lemons, oranges, complete mechanic and astronomer; the great and a kind of nut, with an exceedingly, thick mural arch in the observatory at Greenwich shell, a niost delicious fruit, for which neiwas made for Dr. Halley under his imme- ther Europeans or natives have a name. The diate inspection, and divided by his own hand: palm wine and dates of this country are in and from this incomparable original the best the greatest esteem. Cows, hogs, sheep, and foreign instruments of the kind are copies made goats, are also in great plenty; but what conby English artists. The sector by which Dr. stitutes the chief wealth of the Grain Coast is Bradley first discovered two new motions in the abundance of Guinea pepper, or grains of the fixed stars was of his invention and fabric: Paradise, it produces, called Malaguetta by and when the French academicians were sent the Portuguese, which draws a great trade, to the north to ascertain the figure of the earth, not only with all the neighbouring interior Mr. Graham was thought the fittest person in nations but with the Europeans also. The Europe to supply them with instruments; natives of this division are guilty of no excesses those who went to the south were not so well in eating or drinking, or indeed of intemperfurnished. He was for many years a member ance in any kind of luxury. of the Royal Society, to which he communi- GRAIN (Scarlet), in botany. See QUERcated several ingenious and important discoreries, and regarded the advancement of science GRAINS OF PARADISE. See AMOMUM more than the accumulation of wealth. He and CARDAMOMUM. died in 1751.
GRAINING, in ichthyology. See Cy. GRAHAM (Catherine Macaulay), an En- PRINUS. glish authoress of some note, who wrote a his- GRAINED. a. (from grain.) Rough; made tory of England from James I. to the Bruns- less smooth (Shakspeare). wick line: a treatise on the Immutability of GRAINS. s. (without a singular.) The Truth; Letters on Education; and other works. husks of malt exhausted in brewing (B. Jon.). She died in 1791.
GRAI'NY. a. (from grain.). 1. Full of GRAIL. s. (from grele, French.) Small 2. Full of grains or kernels. particles of any kind (Spenser).
GRAKLE, in ornithology. See GRACUGRAIN s. (grain, French ; granum, Lat.) LA. 1. A single seed of corn (Shakspeare). 2. Corn GRAMAT, a town of France, in the de. (Dryden). 3. The seed of any fruit. 4. Any partment of Lot. Lat. 44. 47 N. Lon. 1. minute particle; any single body (Shaks.). 37 E. 5. The smallest weight, of which in physic GRAMEN CANINUM. Dog's grass. twenty make a scruple, and in Troy weight Couch grass. Triticum repens of Lintwenty-four make a pennyweight; and so riéus. The roots are agreeably sweet, and samed because it is supposed of equal weight possess aperient properties. The expressed