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GOT. The pret. and part. pass, of get. But many subtell compassings GOTHA, a lown of Upper Saxony, capi- As habenries and pinnacles, tal of a duchy of the same name, in Thurin- Imageries and tabernacles, gia. Near it is the ducal observatory of See- I saw, and full eke of windowes," berge, the tnost beautiful and useful in Germa. And in an old poem called Pierce the Plowny, on which the duke has expended upwards man's Creede, written perhaps before Chaucer's, of 83001. The superintendance of this obser- the author, in describing an abbey-church, has vatory is entrusted io baron von Zach. Here, the following lines : in 1798, a congress of astronomers was held; among the various objects discussed, they
“ Than I munte me forth the minstre for agreed to form some new constellations, as the
to knowen. Aronaut, &c. Gotha has a considerable
And awayted a woon, wonderly well ybild ; trade in woollen manufactures, as also in wood
With arches on everich half, and bellyche and beer. Lat. 51. N. Long. 10.52 E.
ycorven Gotha, a river of Sweden, which issues
With crotchetes on corneres, with knottes of from Lake Wenner, and falls into the North
gold. Sea at Gotheborg.
Wyd windowes ywrought, ywritten full GOTHARD, one of the bighest moun
thicke. tains in Switzerland; and from the top, where there is an hospital for monks, is one of the Tombes upon tabernacles, tyld upon loft, finest prospects in the world. It is eight Housed in hornes, harde seti abouten miles from Aldorf.
Of armed alabaustre." GOTHEBORG, OF GOTTENBURG, a Aourishing town of Sweden, in W. Gothland, These innovations, at length were most seated at the mouth of the Gotha, which beautifully displayed in the roof of the divinity forms an excellent harbour, the best situated school at Oxford, which began to be built in for foreign trade of any in the kingdom, as it 1497. The university, in their letters to Kempe, lies without the Sound. The inhabitants are bishop of London, quoted by Wood, speak of computed to be 20,000. Here is a considerable this edifice as one of the miracles of the age. herring fishery. Lat. 57.42 N. Lon. 11.44 E. They mention particularly, “Ornamenta ad
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, the term naturalis cæli imaginem variis picturis, subapplied to that architecture so much used in tilique artificio, cælata; valvaruin singularissi. Europe from the thirteenth to the sixteenth ma opera : turricularum apparatum,” &c. century, and which deviated very much from Yet, even here there is nothing of that ininute the proportions and characteristics of the Greek finishing, which afterwards appeared; there and 'Roman architecture. Under the article is still a massiness, though great intricacy and ARCHITECTURE we have suggested the pro- variety. The ornamental Go:hic, at length, priety of giving up the appellation Gothic, and received its confirınation about 1441, in the adopting those of Saxon and Norman. Still very noble chapel of King's college, at Camhowever, we suppose the authority of custom bridge. This was the last Goihic building in will cause the term Gothic to be retained ; we England, in which strength united with or shall, therefore, here speak of the Norman nament, or substance with elegance, formed under that term.
an admirable whole. After this what Mr. The absolute Gothic, says Mr. Warton, or
Warton calls the florid Gothic arose; the first that which is free from all Saxon mixture, considerable appearance of which was in the began with ramified windows, of an enlarged chapel of St. George, at Windsor ; and the dimension, divided into several lights, and last in the superb chapel of Henry. VII, at branched out at the top into a multiplicity of Westminster. The florid Gothic is distinwhimsical shapes and compartments, after the guished by an exuberance of decoration, by year 1300. The crusades had before dictated roofs, where the most delicate network is ex. ihe pointed arch, wbich was here still preserv. pressed in stone, and by a certain lightness of ed; but besides the alterations in the windows finishing, as in the roof of the choir at Gloufrom the circular form of the Saxon, apparent- çester, where it is thrown like a web of emly fantastic capitals to the columns, and more broidery over the old Saxon vaulting. Many ornament in the vaulting and other parts, monumental shrines, so well calculated, on were introduced. Of this fashion the body account of the smallness of their plan, to admit of Winchester cathedral, built by that muni. a multiplicity of delicate ornaments highly ficent encourager of all public works, William finished, afford exquisite specimens of this of Wykeham,
about the year 1390, will afford style. See Essays on Gothic Architecture. the justest idea. But certain refinements in
'In almost every specimen of Gothic architecthis kind of architecture grew fashionable in ture we observe tokens of a masterly acquaintor before the reign of Edward III. as is pret
ance with the practice, if not the theory of ty evident from Chaucer's description of the building; Some particulars are noticed under structure of his House of Fame :
the article ARCHITECTURE: this is a proper
place for a few additional remarks. The prin• And eke the hall and everie boure, ciples of masonry, and not of carpentry, should Without peeces or joynings,
be seen in our architecture, if we would have it according to the rules of just taste. Now we woods of oaks and pines, good pastures, and affirm that this is the characteristic feature of profitable fisheries on the island ; large quar. what is called the Gothic architecture. In iies of stone, particularly the famous Gottland this no dependence is had on the transverse stone, and a soft grey sandy stone, which are strength of stone. No lintels are to be seen; exported to Stockholm and other places. Here no extravagant projections. Every stone is are also found some curious species of stones, pressed to its neighbours, and none is exposed as stone corals, cornelians, agates, and beautie to a transverse strain. The Greeks were en- ful petrefactions. In former times here were abled to execute their colossal buildings only also fine marble quarries. Very good lime by using iminense blocks of the hardest mate- stones, tar, deal boards, beans, turneps, and an rials. The Norman mason could raise a build. excellent breed of sheep are exported from this ing to the skies without using a stone which a island. Gouland is not infested with bears or labourer could not carry to the top on his back. wolves, but is sufficiently stocked with deer, Their architects studied the principles of equi- foxes, and hares: the inhabitants subsist by librium; and having attained a wonderful agriculture, grazing, fishing, working in the knowledge of it, they indulged themselves in quarries, burning lime, and by several sorts of exhibiting remarkable instances. We call this mechanic trades, and navigation. Lat, 57. to false taste, and say that the appearance of in- 58 N. Lon. 18. 6, to 19. 6 E. security is the greatest fault. But this is ow- GOTHOFRED (Dennis), a French writer ing to our habits; our thoughts may be said to upon civil law, was born at Paris in 1549 ; but fun in a wooden train, and certain simple quitting the catholic faith, he removed first to maxims of carpentry are familiar to our ima- Genera, and then into Germany, and taught gination; and in the careful adherence to these law at several universities. He died in 1622. consists the beauty and symmetry of the Greek GOTHOFRED (Theodosius), the eldest son architecture. Had we been as much habitu- of the preceding, became a meinber of the ated to the equilibrium of pressure, this appa- church' his father had renounced. He was rent insecurity would not have met our eye: made counsellor of state in France, and acwe should have perceived the strength, and we quired a high reputation for letters. He died should have relished the ingenuity:
in 1649. The Gothic architecture is perhaps intitled GOTHORPRED (James), apother son of to the name of rational architecture, and its Dennis, adhered to calvinism. He was five beauty is founded on the characteristic distinc- five times syndic of Geneva ; and died there in tion of our species. It deserves cultivation : 1652. He was a man of profound erudition.' not the pitiful, servile, and unskilled copying GOTHOFRED (Dennis), son of Theodoof the monuments ; this will produce incon- sius, was born al Paris, and died at Lisle, gruities and absurdities equal to any that have director of the chamber of accounts. crept into the Greek architecture; but let us wrote the Histories of Charles VI. VII. and examive with attention the nice disposition of VIII. the groins and spaundrels ; let us study the GOTHOFRED (John), son of the preceding, tracery and knots, not as ornaments, but as succeeded to the office of his father. ' He died useful members ; let us observe how they have in 1732. He wrote some historical works. made their walls like honey-combs, and admire GOTHS, a warlike nation, and ahove all their ingenuity as we pretend to adinire the in- others famous in the Roman history, came stinct infused by the Great Architect into the originally out of Scandinavia (the name by bee. All this cannot be understood without which the ancients distinguished the present mechanical knowledge; a thing which few of countries of Sweden, Norway, Lapland, and our professional architects have any share of. Finmark.) According to the most probable Thus would architectonic taste be a mark of accounts, they were the first inhabitants of skill; and the person who presents the design those countries; and from thence sent colonies of a building would know how to execute it into the islands of the Baltic, the Cimbrian without committing it entirely to the mason Chersonesus, and the adjacent places yet des and carpenter.
titute of inhabitants. Gothic COLUMN. See COLUMN Gothic. The Goths were famous for their hospitality
GOTHLAND, one of the five general di- and kindness to strangers, even before they visions of the kingdom of Sweden, containing embraced the Christian religion. Nay, it is the provinces of Ostrogothia or E. Gothland, said, that, from their being eminently good, Smoland, Westrogothia or W. Gothland, the they were called Goths by the neighbouring isles of Gothland and land, Wermland, nations; that name, according to Grotius and Dalia, Halland, Bleckingen, and Scania or most other writers, being derived from the Schonen.
German word gotten, which signifies “ good." GOTHLAND, or GOTTLAND, an island of They encouraged, says Dio, the study of phiSweden, in the Baltic, about sevenly miles in Josophy above all other barbarous or foreign nalength, and twenty-five in its greatest breadth, tions, and often chose kings from among their formerly an independent kingdom, but now philosophers. Polygamy was not only allowed subject to the supreme court of jusțice at but countenanced among them; every one beStockholm. From its convenient situation, it ing valued or respected according to the numhas justly acquired the name of the eye of the ber of his wives. By so many wives they had Balíic. The soil is fertile, and there are fine an incredible number of children, of whom
they kept but one at home, sending out the rest time of the emperor Honorius, where they in quest of new settlements; and hence those founded a kingdom which continued till the swarms of people which overran so many country was subdued by the Saracens. countries. With them adultery was a capital GOTTEN. The part. passive of get. crime, and irremissibly punished with death. GOTTINGEN, or GoETINGEN, a town
The time of the first settling of the Goths in of Germany, in the circle of Lower Saxony, Scandinavia, and that when they first peopled and principality of Calenberg, and principal with their colonies the abovementioned islands town of a quarter, or district, to which it gives and Chersonesus, are equally uncertain; though name, situated in an agreeable, spacious, and the Gothic annals suppose the latter to have fertile valley, on a canal, or branch of the happened in the time of Serug the great grand- river Leine, which passes through, and divides father of Abraham. This first migration of it into the New Town and Marsch. It conthe Goths is said to have been conducted by tains about 1000 houses, and 8000 souls; the their king Eric; in which all the ancient Go- streets are large and convenient, and paved on thic chronicles, as well as the Danish and each side. The principal ornament and adSwedish ones, agree. Their second migration rantage of Gottingen is the university, founded is supposed to have happened many ages after'; in the year 1734, by George II. king of Engwhen, the abovementioned countries being land, and consecrated on the seventeenth of overstocked with people, Berig, at that time September, 1737 ; which university, by the king of the Goths, went out with a fleet in inexpressible attention and care of its first cuquest of new settlements. He landed in the rator, baron Munchausen, has acquired a very country of the Ulmerugians, now Pomerania, distinguished reputation. Belonging to it is a drove out the ancient inhabitants, and divided large splendid church, with a peculiar pastor, their lands among his followers. He fell next and to it likewise belong a new and stately upon the Vandals, whose country bordered on structure of stone, the ground floor of which that of the Ulmerugians, and overcame them; serves as a hall for public lectures, and that but instead of forcing them to abandon their above is the library, with a council chamber, camtry, he only made them share their pos- and other apartments. This library, to which sessions with the Goths.
considerable additions are every year made, if The Goths who had settled in Pomerania considered with regard to the number, goodand the adjacent parts of Germany being ness, and value of its books, is one of the most greatly increased, insomuch that the country capital libraries in Europe. It is called the could no longer contain them, they undertook Bulowcan, having received its origin from a at third migration in great numbers, under Fili- collection of about 10,000 volumes, bequeathmer, surnamed the Great, their fifth prince ed by the baron Bulow for the public use, and after leaving Scandinavia ; and taking their by his heirs given to the university. A royal course eastward, entered Scythia, advanced to society of sciences, founded in 1751, and a the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and, driving ont royal German society, also form part of the the Cimmerians, settled in the neighbourhood university. It has likewise a finc observatory, of the Palus Mæotis. Thence in process of erected on a tower on the rampart, with a time, being greatly increased in Seythia, they physic garden, and near it a handsome anatoresolved to seek new settlements; and, accord- mical iheatre of ingenious construction, a ingly taking their route eastward, they travers, school for teaching midwifery, &c. The territoed several countries, and at length returned ry belonging to the town is very considerable: into Germany. Their leader in this expedi- twenty-iwo miles N.E. Cassel, and fifty-one tion was the celebrated Woden.
E.S.E. Paderborn. Lon. 27. 19 E. Lat. The Romans distinguished the Goths into 51. 24 N. two classes; the Ostrogoths and Visigoths. GOTTORP, a town of Denmark, in the These names they received before they left duchy of Sleswick, capital of the duchy of Scandinavia, the Visigoths being softened by Holstein Gottorp. Here is a fine old palace, the Latins from Westerogoths, or those who formerly the ducal residence. Gottorp is seaiinhabited the western part of Scandinavia, as ed at the bottom of an arm of the sea called the the Ostrogoths were those of the eastern part of Sley. Lat. 54. 36 N. Loh. 9. 56 E. that country. Their history affords nothing of GOUANIA. Chawstick. In botany, a moment till the time of theirquarelling with the genus of the class polygamia, order monccia. Romans; which happened under the reign of Hermaphrodite: calyx five cleft; corolless ; the emperor Caracalla, son to Severus. After anthers five under å veil; styles three-cleft; that tinre it becomes so closely interwoven with fruit dry, divisible into three parts. One spethat of the Romans, that for the most remarkable cies: a native of St. Domingo, with shrubby particulars of it we must refer to the histories of stem), climbing by axillary tendrils; leaves Rome. After the destruction of the Roman orate with a point, toothed, glabrous į racemes empire by the Heruli, the Ostrogoths, under furnished with a leaflet or two. their king Theodoric, became masters of the GOUDA, or Turcow, a considerable greatest part of Italy, having overcome and put town of South Holland, in the United Pro io death Odoacer, king of the Herali, in 494. vincts, remarkable for its stately church. Late They retained their dominion in this country 52. 2 N. Lon. 4.41 E. till the year 553; when threy were finally con. GOUDHURST, a town in Kent, with a quered by Narses, the emperor Justinian's ge- market on Wednesdays. Lat: 51.8 N, Long ueral. 'The Visigoths settled in Spain in the 0.31 E.
GOVE. s. A mow (Tusser).
to the feudal policy, how it limited govern. To GovE. l', n. To mow; to put in a gore, ment, see FoedAL SYSTEM. See also goff, or mow (Tusser).
ARISTOCRACY, CONSTITUTION, DemoTO GOVERN. v. n. (gouverner, Fr.). 1. CRACY, &c. To rule as chief magistrate (Spenser). 2. To A mixed government is composed by the Tegulate; to influence; to direct (Alt.). 3. combination of the simple forms of governTo manage; to restrain (Shaks.). 4. (Inment which have already been, or will heregranımar.) To have force with regard to syn- after be, described; and, in whatever proportax :. as, amo governs the accusative case. 4. cion each form enters ioto the constitution of a To pilot; to regulate the motions of a ship. government, in the same proportion may both
To Go'VERN. v. n. To keep superiority; to the advantages and evils, which have been ate behare with haughtiness (Dryden).
tributed to that form, be expected. The goGOVERNABLE. a. (from govern). Sub- vernment of this country is unquestionably a missire to authority; subject to rule ( Locke). mixed government, though by some writers it
GOVERNANCE. s. (from govern). 1. is denominated a limited monarehy. It is Government; rule; management (Macc.). 2. formed by a combination of the three regular Control, as that of a guardian (Spenser). 3. species of government; the monarchy residing - Behaviour; manners: obsolete (Spenser). in the king, the aristocracy in the house of
GO’VERNANT. s. (gouvernante, Fr.) A peers, and the republic being represented by lady who has the care of young girls of quality. the house of cominons. The perfections in
GOVERNESS. $. (gouvernesse, Fr.). i. tended, and, with regard to the United Kingo A female invested with authority (Shaks.). 2. doms, in a considerable degree effected, is to A tutoress; a woman that has the care of young unite the advantages of the several simple forms, Jadies (Clarendon). 3. An instructress; a dio and to exclude the inconveniences. « For, as Tectress (More).
with us," says sir William Blackstone, “the · GOVERNMENT. s. (gouvernement, Fr.). executive power of the laws is lodged in a 1. Form of a community with respect to the single person, they have all the advantages of disposition of the supreme authority (Temple). strength and dispatch that are to be found in 2. An establishment of legal authority (Dry.). the most absolute monarchy; and as the legisa 3. Administration of public affairs (Young). Jature of the kingdom is entrusted to three 4. Regularity of behavion (Shaks.). 5. Ma- distinct powers, entirely independent of each nageableness; compliance; obsequiousness other: first, the king; secondly, the lords, spi(Shaks.). 6. Management of the limbs or ritual and temporal, which is an aristocratical body (Spenser). 7. In grammar). Influence assembly of persons selected for their piety. with regard to construction.
their birth, their wisdom, their valour, or their GOVERNMENT, in general, is the polity of property; and, thirdly, the house of commons. a state, or an orderly power constituted for the freely chosen by the people from among them public good. Civil government was iostituted selves, which makes it a kind of democracy: for the preservation and advancement of men's as this aggregate body, actuated by different civil interests, and for the better security of springs, and attentive to different interests, their lives, liberties, and property. The use composes the British parliament, and has the .and necessity of government is such, that there supreme disposal of every thing, there can be nerer was an age or country without some sort no inconvenience attempted by either of the of civil authority : but as men are seldom una- three branches, but will be withstood by ove niinous in the means of attaining their ends, of the other two; each branch being armed so their difference in opinion in relation to go- with a negative power sufficient to repel ang veroment has produced a variety of forms of innovation which it shall think inexpedient it. To enumerate them would be to recapi- or dangerous." See MONARCHY. tulate the history of the whole earth. But, GOVERNOLO, a town of Mantua, in according to Montesquieu and most other Italy, 12 miles N.W. of Mirandole. Lai. 45. writers, they may in general be reduced to one 4 N. Lon. 10. 56 E. of these three kinds. 1. The republican. 2. GOVERNOUR. s. (gouverneur, Fr.). 1., The monarchical. 3. The despotic. The One who has the supreme direction (Hooker). first is that, where the people in a body, or 2. One who is invested with supreme authorionly a part of the people, have the sovereign ty in a state (South). 3. One who rules any power; the second, where one alone governs, place with delegated and temporary authority but by fixed and established laws; but in the (Shaks.). 4. A tutor; one who has care of a despotic government, one person alone, with- young man (Shaks.). 5. Pilot; regulator; out law and without rule, directs every thing inanager (James). by his own will and caprice. See the article GOUGE, an instrument or tool used by Law.
divers artificers; being a sort of round hollow On the subject of government at large, see chisel, for cutting holes, channels, grooves, Montesquieu's L'Esprit des Loix, l. 2. c. 1; &c. either in wood or stone. Locke, ii. 129, &c. quarto edition, 1768; GOURA, o Gura, a town of Mazovia, Sidney on Government; Sir Thomas Smith de in Poland; the greater part of the inhabitants Repub. Angl.; and Archerly's Britannic Con- are ecclesiastics. Lat. 52. 1 N. Lon. 21. 50 E. stitution. As to the Gothic government, its GOURI). In botany. See CUCURBITA. original, and faults, &c. See Montesquieu's GOURD (Ethiopian, sour). See ADAN, L'Esprit des Loix, 1. 11. C. 8. With respect. SONIA,
GOURD' TREE (Indian). See CRESCEN- GOWER (John), one of our most ancient
English poets, was cotemporary with Chaucer, Gourd-WORM, in helminthology. See and his intimate friend." of what family or GOURDINESS, among farriers implies a studied the law, and was some time a mem diffused swelling in a horse's legs, of a dropsi- ber of the society of Lincoln's-inn, where his cal or elematous nature. It often lays a foun- acquaintance with Chaucer began. Some dation for grease, and will produce it if not hare asserted that he was a judge ; but this is by counteracted by such evacuants as appear most no means certain. In the first year of Henry applicable to the case.
IV. he became blind; a misfortune which he GOURNAY, a town of France, in the de- laments in one of his Latin poems. He died partment of Lower Seine, remarkable for its in the year 1402, and was buried in St. Mary hne butter. Lat. 49.32 N. Lon. 0. 36 W. Overie, which church he had rebuilt chiefly
GOUSSIER (Louis James), a celebrated at his own expence, so that he must have lived French mathematician, was born in the year in affluent circumstances. His tomb was 1722, and applied at a very early period to the magnificent, and curiously ornamented. It study of the mathematics. His first labours still remains, but hath been repaired in later were, to arrange and superintend the publica- times. From the collar of SS. round the neck tion of the niemoirs, which the celebrated of his effigies, which lies upon the tomb, it is Condamine gave to the public in 1751, on the conjectured that he had been knighted. As measurement of the three first degrees of the to his character as a man, it is impossible, at meridian in the southern hemisphere. In con- this distance of time, to say any thing with sequence of the ability which he displayed by certainty. With regard to his poetical talents, the part he took in this interesting work, he he was undoubtedly admired at the time when was invited to co-operate in the Encyclopedie he wrote, though a modern reader may find it with Diderot and D'Alembert. Being charged difficult to discover much harmony or genius with the part respecting the mechanical arts, in any of his compositions. He wrote, t. Goussier exercised several of them himself, Speculum meditantis, in French, in ten that he might be better able to give a descrip- books. There are two copies of this in the tion of them; such as those of watch-making, Bodleian library. 2. Vox clamantis, in Latin lock-making, cabinet-making, turning, &c. verse, in seven books. Preserved also in the His articles display clearness, precision, and Bodleian library, and in that of All-Souls. It method. About the year 1760, the baron de is a chronicle of the insurrection of the comMarivet invited Goussier to reside with him, mons in the reign of Richard II. 3. Confesin order that he might improve himself in na sio amantis; printed at Westminster by Caxton tural philosophy. In 1779 they distributed in 1493. Lond. 1532, 1554. It is a sort of the prospectus of a New Philosophy of the poetical system of morality, interspersed with World, which they proposed to publish con- a variety of moral tales. 4. De rege Henrico IV. jointly, and which was to make fourteen vo- Printed in Chaucer's works. There are likelumes in quarto ; but it was never carried far- wise several historical tracts in manuscript, ther than the eighth. Goussier was fond of written by our author, which are to be found travelling on foot, and in this manner went in different libraries; also some other short over all France. He had a great attachment poems printed in Chaucer's works. to hydraulics, and was acquainted with every GOWN. s. (gonna, Italian). 1. A long river and canal in the kingdom. . With the upper garment (Abbot). 2. A woman's upper same baron Marivet he published, in 1789, a garment (Pope). 3. The long habit of a man work, in two volumes octavo, on the Internal dedicated to acts of peace, as divinity, mediNavigation of France, with an atlas adapted cine, law (Young).' 4. The dress of peace to the subject. He invented several curious (Dryden). pieces of mechanism, among which is a mill GOWNED. a. Dressed in a gown (Dry.). with portable arms for sawing planks. This GOʻWNMAN.S
.s. (gown and man.) A man piece of mechanism was sent to Poland to devoted to the acts of peace; one whose proper serve as a model for the mills destined to ma- habit is a gown (Rowe). nufacture the timber of the immense forests of GOWRIE, in helminthology. See CYthat country. He invented also a water level, PREA. much used by land surveyors.
He died at GOUYE (Thomas), a French jesuit and Paris, Oct. 23, 1799, aged 77 years.
eminent mathematician, was born at Dieppe GOUT. See MEDICINE, and ARTHRI. in 1650, and died at Paris in 1725. His prio
cipal work is entitled Mathematical and PhiloGOUTY. 2. (from gout.). 1. Afflicted or sophical Observations, two vols. 8vo. This diseased with the gout (Dryd.). 2. Relating writer must not be confounded with Gouge to the gout (Blackmore).
de Longuemare, who wrote various '
memoirs GOWER, the peninsulated extremity of and dissertations to illustrate the History of Glamorganshire, to the W. of the bay of Swan- France. sea. It has very lofty limestone cliffs next the GRAAF (Regnier de), an eminent physisea, whence large quantities of lime are ex- cian, was born at Schoonhaven in Holland in ported to the English counties across the Bris- 1641. He died at the age of 32, Icaving been tol channel. The land is a fertile tract of ara. hind several works which do honour to his ble and pasture.
memory. Two editions of them bare been