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farmers call this disease sturdiness, or the stur- stowed (Stilton). 2. Endowed with extraors
dinary powers (Dryden). GIDDILY. ad. (from giddy.) 1. With GIG. s. (Eiymology uncertain.) 1. Ang the head seeming to inrn rounii. 2. Incone thing that is whirled round in play. 2. (gigia, stantly; unsteadily (Donne). 3. Carelessly; Islandick.) A fiddle: out of use. 3. A light heedlessly; negligently (Shakspeare).
open carriage, drawn by a single horse. GIDDINESS. s. (trom giddy) 1. The GIGA, or Jig, in music, an airy brisk State of being giddy or vertiginous. 2. Incon- movement generally written in the time of Stancy; unsteadiness ; mutability; change- GIGA, a small island on the W. coast of ableness (Bacon). 3. Quick rotation ; inabi- Scotland, between the isle of Skye and the lity to keep its place. 4. Frolick; wanton- peninsula of Cantyre, in Argyleshire, in which ness of life (Donne).
county it is included. The inhabitants anvu. GIDDY. a. (31013, Saxon.) i. Verti- ally export a considerable quantity of grain, ginous; having in the head a whirl, or sensa- GIGANTES, the rebel giants. tion of circular motion (Tate). 2. Rotatory; GIGANTIC.a. (gigantes, Latin.) Suitablo whirling (Pope). 3. Inconstant; nutable; to a giant; big; bulky; enormous (Pope). unsteady; changeful (Shakspeare). 4. That TOGI'GGLÉ.n. n: (gichgelen, Dutch.) To causes giddiness (Prior). 5. IIcedless ; thought. laugh idly; to titter (Garrică). less; wild (Rowej. 6. Totiering; unfixed GI’GGLER. s. (from giggle.) A laugher; a (Shakspeare). 7. Intoxicated; elated to titterer (Herbert). thoughilessness; overcome by any overpower
GIGLET. s. (geagl, Saxon.) A wanton; a
lascivious girl: out of use (Shakspeare). GI'DDY BRAINED, T. (giddy and brain.) GIGOT. s. (French.) The hip-joint. Careless ; thonghtless (Otway).
GIGS, a term in the stable, but now almost GIDDYHEADED. a. Without steadiness obsolete, for what are now called Haps, a kind or constancy (Burton).
of Aaccid Aleshy enlargement on each side a GI'DDYPACED. a. Moving without re- horse's jaw, which, in his mastication, fregularity (Shakspeare).
qnently falling between the grinders, is proGIDEON, in Scripture history, the son of ductive of pain, and prevents the horse from Joash, of the tribe of Manasseh. He was eating. if long and thin, they may be chosen judge of Israel in the year of the world completely taken off by a pair of scissors, 2751), and died in 2768.
and ihe wounds washed with a strong solution GIFFORD (Dr. Andrew), an English bap- of alum in water: if they are too feshy for tist minister, was born in 1700. He was this inode of estirpation, they may be slightly assistant librarian many years at the British scarified with a bistory, or abscess lancet. Museum, and died in 1784, bequeathing his GIHON, in ancient geography, one of the library to the baptist academy at Bristol. °Dr. rivers of Paradise ; according to Wells, the Gifford was a learned antiquary and a pious eastern branch of the Euphrates, into which divine.
it divides after its conjunction with the TiGIFT. s. (from give.) 1. A thing giren or gris. bestowed (Matthew) 2. The act of giving
GILBERT (William), a learned physician, (Hilton). 3. The right or power of bestowing who discovered several of the properties of the (South). 4. Ohlation; offering (Tobit). 5. loadstone, was born at Colchester, in 1540, A bribe (Deuteronomy). 6. Power; faculty and educated at Cambridge, but took his des (Shakspeare).
gree of M.D. abroad. On his return to Eng. Girt, Donum, in law, is a conveyance land he was elected a fellow of the college of which passeth either lands or goods, and is of physicians in London iu 1573, and practised larger extent than a grant, being applied to in ihe metropolis with great success and repute, things moveable and immoveable; yet as to so that queen Elizabeth appointed him her things immoveable, when taken strictly, it is physician in ordinary:. In 1000 lie published applicable only to lands and tenements given a work, intided De Magnete, magneticisque in tail; but gift and grunt are too ofien con- Corporibus, and de magno Magnete' tellure, founded.
Physiologia nova. He died in 1603. (Itaca New-Year's Gifts, presents made on new- kins). car's day, as a loken of the giver's good will, GILBERT (Sir Humphrey), an alle narias well as by way of presage of a happy year. gator, who took possession of Newfoundland! This practice is very ancient, the origin of it in the name of queen Elizabeth ; but was unanong the Romans being referred to Tatius successful in an attempt he made to plant a cching of the Sabines, who reigned at Rome con- lony on the continent of America.‘lle co). jointly with Romulus, and who having consi- tended for the existence of a N.W. passage to dered as a good omen a present of some sprigs the Indies, in a book written for that
purpose. of verrain gathered in a wood consecrated io He died in 1583. Strenia the goddess of strength, which he re- GILBERTIA. In botany, a genus of the ceived on the first day of the new year, autho- class decandria, order monogynia. Calyx four rised this custom afterwards, and gave to these or five-toothed; corol four or fire-petalled; presents the namic of Strenz.
pectary cylindrical, truncate; anthers inserien GIFTED. a. (from gifl.) !. Giren; be into the margin of the nectary ; capsule four
celled; the cells about one-seedel. Four spe. zabeth Negus, by wliom he had many child! cies; vatives of the isle of Bourbon.
ren, two of whioin only survived him. Mrs. CILBERTINES, an order of religious, Gill died in 1704. His works are, A Conthos cailed trom Si. Gilbert of Sempringham mentary on the Old and New Testament, in 9 in the county of Lincoln, who founded the vols. folio. A Body of Divinitv, in 3 vols. same about ilie year !148; the monks of whicle quarto. The Cause of God and Trutlı, 4 rols. otserved ihe rule of St. Augustin, and were octaro. A Treatise concerning the Prophecies accounted canons: and the nuns that of St. of the Old Testapient respecting the Vessiah. Benedict. The founder of this order erected a A Disservation on the Amiguity of the lies doable monastery, or rather two different ones, brew Language, Letters, Vowel-Points, and emigious wv cach other, the one for men, the Accents. Sermops, on the Canticies, fulio; other for women, but parted by a very high besides a great number of sernions and controwall. Si. Gilbert himself founded 13 monas- versial pieces on different subjects. The docteries of this order, viz. four for men alone, tor was a man of considerable labour and inand nine for men and women together, which dustry; his works, though somewhot tedious had in them 700 brethren and 1500 sisters. and dull, exbibit marks of sound piety and a At the dissolution there were about 25 houses good understanding; bui we do not now recolof this order in England and Wales.
lect a single trait of genius. GILBOA, mountains of Samaria, stretch- GILLS, in ichibyology, the respiratory oring out from west to cast, on the contines of gan of fishes, anatomically demoninated branthe half tribe of Manasseli, and of the tribe of chiæ, and in many respects very closely assiiniof Jezreel, beginning westward at the city of or branchiæ lic in two larve openings, one on Jezreel, situated at The foot of these moun. each side of the head. Their form is seinicira tains, reaching almost quite to the Jordan, ly- cular, and terminate with a fringe of beautiful ing at the distance of six miles froin Scytho- fibrilla, resembling, in their form, the vane of polis: famous for the death of Saul and his a feather. They are perpetually subject to an sou Jonathan, and the defeat of the Israelites alternating action from the pressure of the by the Philistines.
water, nor is any red blood to be discovered GILD. See GUILD.
where such alternate pressure dues not exist. To Gied: v. as pret. gilded or gilt. (gildan, Over these gills is a large flap, or valve, allowSaxon.) 1. To overlay with thin gold (Spen- ing a communication externally, by which the ser). 2. To cover with any yellow matter water fishes are compelled to take into their (Shak.). 3. To adorn with lustre (Pope). mouthis with their food finis an exit without 4. To brighten ; to illuminate (South). 5. passing into the stomach. The blood is col. To recommend by adventitious ornaments lected from the infinite ramification of the (Shakspearr).
small branchial arteries, by a vast number of GI'LDER. s. (from gild.) 1. One who small veins, gradually communicating and enlavs gold on the surface of any other body larging, which at length, instead of uniting to (Bacon). 2. A coin, from one shilling and form a pulmonary veiw, as in quadrupels, and sixpence, in two shillings (Shahspoure): return the blood to the heart, unite and forin
GI'LDING. s. (from gild.) Gold laid on an aorta descendens, which, without the interany surface by way of ornament (Bacon). vention of the contraction or dilation of the GILDING (Art of). See GOLD.
heart, circulates the blood through erery part GILEAT), in Scripture history, the son of of the system, to be returned to the heart by Machir, and grandson of Manasseh, had his the corporeal veing alone. The heart of fishes, inheritance allotted him in the mountains of which is single instead of couble, is, hence, a Gilead, whence he took his name. See Gee mere pulmonary and not a corporeal heart. ne is xxxi, xxxvii, &c.
Gills, in botany. See LAMEL. GILEAD (Balm of). See DRACOCEPHA. Gril, a measure of capacity, containing a LUM.
quarter of an English pint. GILEAD (Balm of, Tree). See AMYRIS. Gill, contracted from Gillian, is an appel
GILL (Jolm, D.D.), a protestant dissent, lation for a woman in ladicrous language. ing minister of the birprise denomination, and GILL-COVER, in ichihyology, the bony or the son of Edward and Hlizabeth Gill, was cartilaginous substance placed on the memborn at Kettering in Northamptonshire, No. brane that covers the gills. veuter 23, 1697. His sentiments, as a divine, GILLIFOWER. GILLIFLOWER (Clore), were throughout Calvinistic : " And perhaps in botany. See DIANTHUS. no man (says the Rev. Mr. Toplady, a minis- GILLIFLOWER (Queen's), in hotany. See ter in the church of England), since the days HESPERIS. of Ausun, has written so largely in defence of GILLIFLOWER (Stock), in botany. See the system of grace; and certainly no man las CHEIRANTHUS. treated that momentous subject, in all its GILOLO, a large island of the East Indies. branches, more closely, judiciously, and suc- It lies directly under the equmoctial line, in lan. cessfully." He died at Camberwell, October 130.0 E. The inhabitanis are fierce and cruel. 14, 1771, aged 73 years 10 months and 10 GILPIN (Bernard), an English divine of duge su 1718 the doctor married Mrs. Eliextraordinary merit, was born at kentenire int Westmoreland in 1513, and educated at Queen's sea-compass is suspended in its box that usualcollege, Oxford, where he took his degrees in ly stands in the binacle. arls, and was chosen a fellow'. On the com- GI'MCRACK. s. (ludicrously formed from plerion of the foundation of Christ church col- gin.) A sliglit or trivial mechanism (Prior). lege by Henry VIII. he was chosen one of its GIMLET. s. (gibelet, guimbelei, French.) first masters. In the reign of Edward VI. his A borer with a screw at its point (23.1.xon). zeal for popery led him to hold a dispute with GI'MMAL. s. (gimellus, Latin.) Some litPeter Mariyr, the result of which was his own tle quaint devices of machinery (llanmer): 'conversion to the protestant religion. Soon
GIMMER. S. Movement; machinery after this he was presented to the living of (More); Norton in the diocese of Durham, and by the GIMP. s. A kind of silk twist or lace. advice of Tonstal, bishop of that diocese, who GIN. s. (from engine.) 1. A trap; a snare was his uncle, he went abroad, that he inight (Ben Jonson). 2. Any thing mored with consult foreign divines, taking with him a screws, as an engine of torture (Spenser). 3. MS. of that prelate on the eucharist to get A pump worked by rotatory sails ( iVoodward). printed. After the accession of queen Mary, 4. (contracted from GENEV..) The spirit 'Tonstal being restored to his sec, he offered a drawn by distillation from juniper-berries. valuable living to Gilpin, who declined it from Gin, in mechanics, an engine for driving scruples of conscience. Soon after he went to piles. See PILE-ENGINE. Paris, where the first thing he did was to print GINGEE, a town of Asia, in the peninsula his uncle's book. In 1556 Gilpin returned to of Hindustan, and on the coast of CoromanEngland, a little before the death of queen clel. It is a large town, well peopled, and Mary. His uncle conferred on him the arch- strong both by art and nature, being seated on deaconry of Durham, with the rectory of Ea- a inountain, whose top is divided into three sington annexed. Although the persecution points, on each of which is a castle. The still raged against the protestants he preached Great Mogul in 100 began a siege, which openly against vice of every kind, but more continued three years, to no purpose. It is 33 particularly in the clergy, and amongst other miles W. of Pondicherry.' Lat. 11. 4. N. things, against pluralities and non-residence, Lon. 10. 13 E. by which he brought such a persecution on GINGER, in botany. See AMOMUM. himself that he was twice formally accused be. GI’NGERBREAD, s. (ginger and bread.). fore his bishop, who, however, found means A kind of farinaceous sweetmeat made of to protect him. But he was so embarrassed dough, like that of bread or biscuit, sweetened with the malice of his enemies, that he resign- with treacle, and Havoured with ginger and ed the archdeaconty and retired to Houghton- some aromatic seeds (Swift). le-spring, the living of which becoming vacant GI'YGERLY, ad. Cautiously; nicely was given to him by his uncle. Although he (Shakspeare). now forhore to attack the clergy, they could GINGERNESS, s, Niceness ; tenderness. not forgive him, and he was accused before GINGIDIUM, in botany. Sce CHÆREBonner, bishop of London, who ordered him to be apprehended. He began without delay GINGIRO, or ZINDERO, a small territory to prepare himself for martyrdom, and, having of Africa, to the south of Abyssinia; being desired his house steward to provide him with separated from it by the river Zebee, by whichi a long garment, in which he proposed to go to it is also almost entirely surrounded. This the stuke, he set out for London. But the river is extremely large, having more water death of queen Mary, the news of which he than the Nile, and being inuch more rapid; Teceived on the road, sared him in this ex- so that during the rainy season it would be altremity. He returned to Houghton, where together impassable, were it not for the large his parishioners received him with every token rocks which are in its channel. The extreme of respect and satisfaction. When the popish difficulty which occurs in pascing this river, bishops were deprived, a congé d'elire was sent however, is the means of preserving the kingto Carlisle to elect him bishop of that sce; but dom of Gingiro, which could otherwise be he declined the honour, and the following conquered in a single season by the Galla.
car refused the prorostship of Queen's college. In this kingdon every thing is conducted, He endeared himself to all by his munificence, or pretended io be conducted, by magic; and charity, and virtuous life. His death was hast. all those slaves, which iņ other African councned by an accident. He was thrown down tries are sold to Europeans, are here sacrificed in the market-place at Durham by an ox, and to the devil, human blood being a necessary extremely hurt; and though he got abroad part in all their accursed solemnities. How again after a long confinement, he never per- far (says Mr. Bruce) this reaches to the southfectly recovered. He died in 1583, in the oth ward, I do not know; but I look upon this so year of his age. (Iatkins).
be the geographical bounds of the reign of the GILT. s. (from gild.) Golden show; gold des il on the north side of the equator in the laid on the surface of any matter (Shakspeare). peninsula of Africa." Gint. The participle of gild.
..GINGIVE. (gingivæ, from signo, to la GILTHEAD), in ichtyology. Sse Sedo get, becarise the teeth are, as it were, born in RL'S.
ihem) The gums. See Gums. GIM. a. (An old word.) Neat; spruce. GINGI'VAL. A. (gingira, Latin.) Belonga GIMBOLS, are the brass rings by which a ing in the mums (Hollen.
T. GI'NGLE. v. n. 1. To utter a sharp careful in copying the life, that he excelled clattering noise (Pope). 2. To make an affecio Giorgione in discovering the delicacies of vac ed sound in periods or cadence.
!ure, by tempering the boldness of his coloura To GI'NGLE. v. a. To shake so that a ing. The most valuable piece of Giorgione in sharp shrill clattering noise should be made oil is that of Christ carrying his cross, now in (Pope).
the church of San Rovo in Venice; where it To Gi'ngle. s. (from the verb.) .1. A is held in great veneration. He died young of shrill resounding noise. 2. Affectation in the the plague in 1511. sound of periods.
GIOTTO, an eminent painter, sculptor, GI'NGLYMOID. a. (yogyaume, a hinge, and architect, was born near Florence in 1976, and odc;.) Resembling a ginglynius; approach- and was a disciple of Cimabue, whom he greais ing to a ginglymus.
ly excelled. He was chiefly admired for his GINGLYMUS.(ginglymus, from yoygauplos, works in mosaic, the best of which is a ship a hinge.) The hinge-like joint. A species of over the grand entrance of St. Peter's church diaribrosis or moveable connexion of bones, at Rome. At Florence is the famous mosaic which admits of flexion and extension, as the of the death of the Virgin, which was wonderknee-joint, &c.
fully admired by Michael Angelo. He died in GINKSO, in botany. See MAURITIA. 1330.
GI'NNET. s. (yeros.) A nag; a niule; a de- GIOVENAZZO, a town of Naples, in generated breed.
Terra di Bari, with a castle. It is sented on a GINONIA. In botany, a genus of the mountain near the sea. Lat. 41. 26 N. Lon. class dodecandria, order monogynia. Calyx 16.30 E. six-cleft; petals six: capsule one-celled, four- To GIP. v. a. To take out the guts of here valved, many seeded. One species; a myrtle rings. form shrub of Cuba, with leaves opposite, GI'PSY. s. (corrupted from Egyptian.) 1. lanceolate, entire, glabrous; peduncles axil- A vagabond who pretends to foretell futurity, lary and terminal, one-flowered.
commonly by palmestry or physiognomy. (Sce GINSENG. (ginseng, Indian.) The plant Gypsy.) 2. A reproachful name for a dark from which this root is obtained is the panax complexion (Skakspeare). 3. Name of slight quinquefolium ; foliis ternis quinatis, of Lin- reproach to a woman. néus. A genus of the class polygamia, order 'GIRALDI (Lilio Gregorio), an eminent dioccia. It is imported into this country writer, was born at Ferrara in 1479. He rescarcely of the thickness of the little finger, sided some time at Rome in favour with some about three or four inches long, frequently eininent men at that court, but after losing his forked, transversely wrivkled, of a horny tex- patrons he fell into poverty, and returned to his ture, and both internally and externally of a native place, where he died in 1552. The yellowish white colour. To the taste it disco- most esteemed of his works is, Historia de vers a mucilaginous sweetness, approaching to Diis Gentiuin, and it is among the last he that of liquorice, accompanied with some de- wrote. gree of bitterness, and a slight aromatic GIRALDI (John Baptist Cintio), an Italian warmth. The Chinese ascribe extraordinary poet, was born at Ferrara in 1504. Alter goo virtues to the root of gingseng, and have no ing through a course of classical and philosoconfidence in any medicine unless in combina- phical study, he applied to physic, in which tion with it. In Europe, however, it is very he took his doctor's degree. "He was for some seldom employed. See Panax.
time secretary to the duke of Ferrara, but afGIOIA'(Flavio), of Amalfi in the kingdom terwards accepted the professorship of rhetoric of Naples, the celebrated mathematician; at Pavia. Being greatly afflicted with the who, from his knowledge of the magnetic gout be quitted the chair, and retired to his napowers, invented the mariner's compass, by tive place, where he died in 1573. His works which the navigation of the Europeans was are chiefly tragedies, an edition of which was extended to the most distant regions of the published at Venice, in 1583, in 8vo. globe: before this invention, navigation was GIRARD (Gabriel), author of the celeconfined 10 coasting. The king of Naples be. brated work, intitled, Synonymes François, jog a younger branch of the royal family of &c. was almoner to the duchess de Berry, and France, he narked the north point with a the king's interpreter for the Russian and Sclafleur de lis, in compliment 10 that country. vonian languages. He also wrote a work, inIt is said the Chinese knew the compass long tiiled Principes de la Langue Françoise ; but before ; be this as it may, the Europeans are this is inferior to the former, which indeed indebted to Gioia for this invaluable discovery. exhibits great subtlety of understanding and He lourished A.D. 1300.
refinement of taste. The abbé Girard died in GIORGIONE, so called from his comely 1748, at the age of 70. aspect, was an illustrious Venetian painter, GIRARDON ('rancois), a French sculpborn in 1478. He received his first instruc- tor and architect, was born at Troyes in 1628. tions from Giovanni Bellino ; brit studying at. After studying under Maziere and Anguier, he terwards the works of Leonardo da Vinci, he was sent io Roine ht Louis XIV. to perfect soon surpasscal them both, being the first himself in his art, and succeeded le Brun as among the Lombarus who found out the ad- inspector-general of sculpture. The chief mirable etfects of strong lights and shadows. works of this artist are the Mausoleum of car: Titian became his rival in this art, and vias so dinal de Richelieu, in the church of the Sor. Bonne; the equestrian statue of Louis XIV.; to the girders. The size of girders and suma and the rape of Proserpine, in the gardens of mers, upon the rebuilding of London, were l'ersailles." He died at Paris in 1715. ordained by act of Paaliament, to be in length
GIRASSE, in mastiology. See CAMELO- from ten tv twenty-six feet, in breadth from PARDALIS.
eleven to seventeen inches, and in depth from TOGIRD. v.a. pret. girded or girt. (sýndan, eight to fourteen inches. It was also ordained Saxon.) 1. To bind round (Maccabees). 2. by the same statute, that no girder or summer
To put on so as to surround or bind (Swift). should be less than ten inches in the wall, and 3. To fasten by binding (Millon). 4. To in- that their ends should be laid in loam; as also rest (Shakspeare). 5. To dress; to habit; to that they be of good hearty oak, as free from clothe (Ezekiel). 6. To cover round as a gar- knots as may be, because that will be the least ment (Milton). 7. To furnish; to equip subject to breaking, and may with more safe(Milton). 8. 'To enclose; to encircle (Mil- ty be relied on in this cross and transverse to). 9. To reproach; to gibe (Shakspeare). work.
To GIRD. v.'n. To break a scornful jest; to A scantling of fir 10 feet in length, 8 inches gibe; to sneer (Shakspeare).
in breadth, and 10 high, is found to be suffiGIRD. S. (from the verb.) A twitch; a pang ciently strong for all practical purposes ; the (Tillotson. Goodman).
following tables contain the dimensions of GIRDERS, in architecture, some of the other girdlers, of very nearly equal strength, allargest pieces of timber in a floor. Their ends lowing the relative strength of oak and for to are usually fastened into summers and breast be as stated under the article Bean, suinwers, and joists are framed in at one end
GI'RDLE. s. (zynde, Saxon.) 1. Any
GIRE. s. (gyrus, Latin.) A circle described thing drawn round the waist, and tied or by any thing in notion. buckled (Brown). 2. Enclosure; circunfer- GIRGASHITES, or GERGESENEs, an ence (Shak-peare). 3. The zodiack (Bacon). ancient people of the land of Canaan, whose
GIRDLE (Maidens' or Virgins')." It was habitation was beyond the sea of Tiberias, the custom among the Grecks and Romans where we find some footsteps of their name in for the husband to untie his bride's girdle. the city of Gergesa, upon the lake of Tiberias. Hoiner, lib. xi. of his ()dyssey, calls the girdle GIRGE, a town of Egypt, the capital of Dezbevono sumy, maid's girdle. Festus relates the Said, situate near the left bank of the Nile. that it was made of sheep's wool, and that the It is about three miles in circunference. Lat. husband untied it in bed. The poets attribute 26. 30 N. Lon.31. 22 E. to Venus a particular kind of girdle called GIRGENTI, a town of Sicily, which occestus, to which they annexed a faculty of in- cupies part of the site of the ancient Agrigenspiring the passion of love.
tuin. 'It has only one street fit for carriages.' To GIRDLE. v. n. (from the noun.) 1
It is inhabited by 15,000 persons, but has To gird; to bind as with a girdle (Śhak- no remarkable buildings or works of art that strare). 2. To inclose; to shut in; to en- deserve mention; the only antiquities to be viron (Sakspeare).
seen were a Latin inscription of the time of the GIRDLE (Order of the). The order of Antonincs, as is pretencled, relative to some Cordeliers.
association between Agrigentum and LilyGIRDLEBELT. s. (girdle and belt.) The bæum; and a piece of ancient masonry in the belt that encircles the waist (Dryden).
foundations of a church pretended to be the GI'RDLER. s. (from girdle.) A maker of remains of a temple of Jupiter. At some disgirdles.
tance, on the old ground in the vale, stands