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judge. He was born in the parish of Wear At a time when the great simplicity of manners Gifford, in Devonshire, and educated at Ox- gave a limit to the ambition even of the most asford, from whence he removed to Lincoln's-inn. piring, and when science was yet in the womb of In 1430 he was made a sergeant at law, and in time, we may reasonably conclude, that the means 1441 chief justice of the court of King's-bench. of control and of resistance, then in use, were neiHe served Henry VI. with such fidelity, that ther.costly, laborious, nor very effectual. The
details furnished in scripture prove incontestibly, in the first parliament of Edward IV. he was attainted of high treason with other adherents that even the circumvallations used at their date
were inadequate to the parposes of security and of that unfortunate prince, whom he followed duration. In fact, the events that shone conspicuinto Scotland, where Henry made him chan- ous in those times were, with very few exceptions, cellor of England. In 1463 he went abroad, pitched battles in the open plain, ambuscades, and and settled in Lorrain. While in exile, he treasonable conspiracies! wrote his famous book, entitled, De Laudi- Nor do we find in the more recent histories of bus Legum Angliæ, which however was not Rome, of Greece, of Asia, or of other parts then published till the reign of Henry VIII.; since holding any rank in the military world, much to which it has been frequently printed. When the support the opinion of the ancients having knowaffairs of the house of Lancaster turned, For- ledge of fortification. The few places that made tescue came back to England, and though his any resistance appear to have been principally
maintained by the personal prowess of their departy, did not succeed, yet he remained unmo
fenders. Their walls were, indeed, sometimes of lested. He lived to the age of 90, and was great moment, as we see in the instance of Troy; buried in the church of Elberton in Gloucester- which, if existing in the eighteenth century, would shire, where he had bought an estate. The probably capitulate at the first summons. best edition of his book is that of 1741.
It was not to be expected that where the powers FORTEVENTURA, one of the Canary of demolition were insignificant, the means of reIslands, 65 miles in length, and of a very ir- sistance would be extended beyond the quantum regular breadth. It produces plenty of wheat, absolutely necessary. The catapulta, the batterbarley, beeves, and goats. Lai. 28. 4 N. Lon. ing ram, the tower, and such devices, were oppos. 14. 26 W.
ed by heavy masses of stone, or of other adequate FORTH. ad. (rorð, Saxon; whence fur- materials, on which the besieged mounted to repel ther, furthest, corrupted from forther, for- those machines received additional vigour, and the thest.) 1. Forward ; onward in time (Spenser). necessity that arose for opposing to their progress 2. Forward in place or order (Whitgift). 3.
more resistance than could be accumulated imAbroad ; out of doors (Shakspeare). 4. Out
mediately in their front, (of the tower in particuaway ; beyond the boundary of any place lar) first gave rise to the introduction of pro(Spenser).'5. Out into public view (Waller). jections from the even line of the wall, whereby 6. Thoroughly; from beginning to end (Shuk- the besiegers could be annoyed laterally, as well speare). 7. To a certain degree (Hammond). as immediately front to front. 8. On to the end (Memoir in Strype).
Still the engineer confined himself to small proForth. prep. Out of (Donne).
jections, generally semicircular, which, for the Forth, a fine rirer of Scotland, which most part, appear to have been added to the old rises in Perthshire. After a course of nearly
walls, impending like our modern balcony windows. 40 miles it meets the German ocean a little be. In the sequel, these towers were built the same as low Alloa, where it forms a noble æstuary, modern bastion, rested on the terra firma. It
the other parts of circumvallation, and, like the called the Frith of Forth.
however seems doubtful, whether the former mode FORTHCOMING. a. ( forth and coming.) was not the best, considering every circumstance Ready to appear; not absconding (Shakspeare). attendant upon the ancient mode of assault, and
FORTHI'SSUING. a. Conring out; com- the nature of their weapons. ing forward from a covert (Pope).
The invention of gunpowder does not appear to FORTHRIGHT. ad. Straight forward; have made any important change for several years, without flexions (Dryden).
nor indeed until heavy artillery formed a part of FORTHRI'GHT. s. A straight path (Shak- the assailants' means, as may be proved by an exspeare).
amination of the remaining castles, towers, keeps, FORTHWITH. ad. Immediately; with. &c. the dates may be traced beyond the middle of out delay; at once; straight (Davies).
the fourteenth century. Such were the solidity FOʻRTIETH. a. (from forty.) The fourth the stone shots, originally used, produced a very
and the hardness of many ancient buildings, that tenth. FOʻRTIFIABLE. a. (from fortify.) What into use that the powers of cannon were, in any
slight effect; nor was it until iron balls werebrought may be fortified.
measure, ascertained. FORTIFICATION.s. (fortification, Fr.) That point being gained, the whole system of 1. The science of military architecture. 2. A defence was necessarily made to conform to the place built for strength (Sidney). 3. Addition destructive engines which now were added to the of strength (Gov. of Tongue).
common practices of assault. The sword, buckler, FORTIFICATION, called also Military their wonted estimation, and, dwindling into insig
lance, dart, javelin, sling, bow and arrow, lost Architecture, is the art of strengthening a place nificance on the great scale, were reserved for by erecting batteries, walls, and other works, individual contest, or for the lesser purposes of around the same, to render it capable of being de- desultory warfare. The great object was to confended by a small force against the attack of a
struct such stupendous bulwarks as might not only more numerous 'enemy.
oppose the newly devise:l missiles, but, at the
same time, support similar means of destroying dell's Fortification: and Lochee's Field fortifthe invading army.
cation. Hence arose the formation of ramparts, and, From the general idea and office of fortification gradually, the necessity for deep ditches, and vari- some useful fundamental rules or maxims may be oas outworks; whereby considerable delay and drawn: as, difficulty might be created.
1. That the manner of fortifying should be acThe fortifications of the fifteenth century, al. commodated to that of attacking; so that no one though to a certain extent new modelled, and manner can be assured always to hold, unless it be made conformable to the necessity imposed by assured the manner of besieging be incapable of the invention and use of cannon, nevertheless did being altered; and that to judge of the perfection not display any ingenuity in regard to mutual de- of a fortification, the method of besieging at the fence. That great principle was little understood, time when it was built must be considered. and the minutiæ of the science remained, for a long 2. All the parts of a fortification should be able time, miserably defective. Men of genius, at to resist the most forcible machines used in be length, in part remedied the errors of the old sieging, and they should be equally strong on all school, and opened the way for that exactness of sides. proportion, and for that systematic arrangement, 3. A fortification should be so contrived, as that which characterize the works of modern times. it may be defended with as few men as possible; The impregnable fortresses to be seen in various which consideration, when well attended to, saves parts of Europe, cannot fail to transmit the names a vast deal of expence. of their several engineers to posterity; unhappily, 4. That the defendants may be in the better not unaccompanied by those of the traitors who, condition, they must not be exposed to the enemy's even since the commencement of the present guns and mortars; but the aggressors must be excentury, have shamefully abandoned the posts of posed to theirs. honour, and yielded to inferior powers.
Hence, 5. All the parts of a fortification should The immense armies now constantly brought be so disposed, as that they may defend each into the field, and the heavy traips of artillery by other: in order to this, every part there is to be whieh they are, in almost all cases, attended, oc- flanked, i.e. capable of being seen and defended "casion not only an adequate preparation for resist- from some other; so that there be no place where ance, but the necessity for establishing lines of an enemy can lodge bimself, either unseen, or communication, of depots, &c. all of which must under shelter. be on the best construction for defence, containing 6. All the campaign around must lie open to safe lodgment for a sufficient garrison, together the defendants; so that no hills or eminence must with ample and secure magazines for provisions be allowed, behind which the enemy might shelter and for stores. Hence the province of the engineer himself from the guns of the fortification; or from becomes peculiarly important; it comprises vari- which he might annoy them with his own. ous branches of information, and requires that The fortress, then, is to command all the place readiness of computation, of discernment, and of round about; consequently the out-works must all appropriate resource, which rarely combine in the be lower than the body of the place. same individual. The merely planning in the 7. No line of defence is to be above point-blank closet, and the laying down on the soil such de- musquet-shot, which is from one hundred and fences as may perbaps be void of fault, so far as twenty to one hundred and fifty fathom. relates to mutual support, and to the great work 8. The acuter the angle at the center, the of procrastination, will avail nothing, if the other stronger is the place; as consisting of the more essentials are neglected; and even when they are sides, and consequently more defensible. not, the whole may be rendered abortive, and be- 9. All the defences should be as nearly direct come contemptible, merely from a want of judg- as possible. Such are the general laws and views ment in point of locality.
of 'fortification: the particular ones, respecting Those whose turn of minil, or whose professional each several work or member thereof, will be depursuits, lead them to trace the gradual progress livered under their proper articles. See Bastion. of fortification minutely from its rude origin to its The art of Fortification may be distinguished into present state, will read with pleasure the history two parts, viz. the elementary or theoretical, and given by Mr. Robins in the preface to his Gunnery. practical. The principal treatises on fortification are Mel- Elementary or theoretical Fortification, consists in der's Praxis Fortificatoria: Les Fortifications du tracing the plans and profiles of a fortification on Comte de Pagan: L'Ingénieur Parfait du Sieur paper, with scales and compasses; and in examin. de Ville: Sturmy's Architectura Militaris Hypo- ing the systems proposed by different authors, in thetical.: Blondel's Nouvelle Maniere de Forti- order to discover their advantages and disadvanfier les Places: the Abbé de Fay's Veritable tages. Maniere de Bien Fortifier: Vauban's logénieur Practical Fortification, consists in forming a pro' François: Coehorn's Nouvelle Fortification tant ject of a fortification according to the nature of pour un Terrain bas et humide, que sec et elevé: the ground, and other necessary circumstance, Alexander de Grotte's Fortification : Donatus tracing it on the ground, and executing the project, Roselli's Fortification: Medrano's Ingénieur Fran- together with all the military buildings, such as çois: the chevalier de St. Julien's Architecture magazines, store-houses, bridges, &c. Militaire: Lansberg's Nouvelle Maniere de Forti. Fortification again is either offensive or defensivr. fier les Places: an anonymous treatise in French, Offensive fortification is the same with the attack of called Nouvelle Maniere de Fortifier les Places, a place, and is the art of making and conducting tirée des Methodes du chevalier de Ville, &c.: all the different works in a siege, in order to gain Ozanam's Traité de Fortification: Memoires de possession of the place. P'Artillerie de Surirey de St. Remy: Muller's Defensive, or defence Fortification, is the art of detreatises of Elementary and Practical Fortifica- fending a town that is besieged, with all the ad. tion: Montalambert's Fortification Perpendicu- vantages which the fortification of it will admit. laire: Landmann's works on Fortification: Pley- Fortification is also used for the place fortified; or the several works raised to defend and flank it, siegers approaches in proportion; and, therefore, and keep off the enemy.
the strength of a fortification increases in proporAll fortifications consist of lines and angles, tion to the number and length of its sides; so that which have various names, according to their a dodecagon is stronger than an octagon, when the various offices.
length of their sides is the same. However, as it . The principal angles are those of the center, the is found difficult to inscribe a polygon in an ellipse Aanking angle, flanked angle, angle of the epaule, or oval, the following more easy method will &c.
answer the purpose. Reduce the spot of ground The principal lines are those of circumvallation, to be fortified to the figure ACEG fig. 3. and of contravallation, of the capital, &c. See each draw BE, AF, parallel to each other; draw CH, in its place.
DG, perpendicular to these lines, and at equal diFortifications are divided into regular, and irre- stance from the points B and E, and let their gular, and again into durable and temporary. interval be equal to that of the lines BE and AF;
Regular Fortification is that wherein the bastions then, draw DC, GH, parallel to AF and BE, and are all equal; or that which is built in a regular equally distant from them; and from their interpolygon, the sides and angles whereof are generally sections C, D, G, H, with DG, CH, as centers, about a musquet-shot from each other.
describe arcs, with a radius equal to CD or GH, In a regular fortification, the parts being all so as to intersect the lines AF, BE, in A, B, E, F; equal, have the advantage of being equally de- join the points A, B, E, F, and ABCDEFGH, will fensible; so that there are no weak places. See be an oblong octagon, having one half similar and Pl. 72. fig. 2.
equal to the other half. If a hexagon be to be deIrregular Fortification, is that wherein the bastions scribed, instead of drawing the two lines CH, DG, are unequal, and unlike; or the sides and angles one will be sufficient; in a decagon there must be not all equal, and equidistant.
three, and four in a dodecagon. If the sides canIn an irregular fortification, the defence and not easily be made equal, then the sides AB, EF, strength being unequal, there is a necessity for on the narrowest part of the polygon, should reducing the irregular figure, as near as may be, be the longest, because it is the weakest. But to a regular one; i. e. instead of inscribing it in a when the figure cannot in any respect be made circle, it should be inscribed in an oval, so that regular, the strength of each side must be est one half may be similar and equal to the other mated according to the works a besieger is obliged half.
to make in the attack, and according to the obAnd as the irregularity of a figure depends on stacles he meets with in his approaches. the quantity of angles and sides; the irregularity Marine Fortification, is sometimes used by way of of a fortification arises either from the angles distinction from land fortification, and denotes being too small, or the sides being too long, or too the art of raising works fit for the defence of a short.
harbour against the attacks of any kind of shipConsequently an irregular figure being proposed ping; but the works proper for this purpose deto be fortified; all the angles, with the quantity of pend in a great measure on the principles emthe sides, must be found, to be able to judge how ployed in the fortification of towns. However, it is to be fortified. See Pl. 72. fig. 1. which re- attention should be given to the situation of roads presents a fortification inscribed in an oval. or harbours in contriving works for their defence:
In this case the sides CD, GH, on the flat parts, e. gr. wben a town lies open to the sea, on a curved, are stronger than the sides AB, EF, on the narrow or straight hold shore, and has before it a sufficio parts, supposing all the exterior sides equal, and ent depth of water and good anchorage, the ships, the place equally fortified. When the angles in this situation, may be well defended by forts BCD, CDE of the polygon are rery great, and the built near the water's edge on each side of the besieger comes within a small distance of the anchoring place, so contrived as to have two or works, he cannot approach nearer, without being three batteries, one higher than the other, and furseen in front, except by a direct sap, with tra- nished with a sufficient number of cannon, carryverses; and as this way of approaching presents ing shot from twenty-four to forty-eight pounds. but a small front, the besieged, who have a much A town, in this situation, may be defended by a larger, may oppose with peculiar advantage: rampart, or wall, well flanked, built along the whereas, if the angles HAB, ABC of the polygon, shore, beside the fortifications on the land side. are very small, the besiegers may carry their ap- The works along the shore should be carried so proaches to the counterscarp itself, and have al. near to the water's edge, that troops, attempting ways a larger front than the besieged; and, as the to land under the cannon of a fleet, might not find besiegers must extend their approaches to three ground on which to intrench themselves. Farther, fronts, whether they are small or large, the work when a harbour, being a bay, has a shoal or small of the approaches before the front BCDE will be island lying before its entrance, a strong fort should to the work before the front HABC, as the line be built upon the island, in a place where it can BE is to the line HC, nearly, i. e, as the greater command the entrance on both sides, if the island axis of the oval js to the less; and therefore the be not too large; otherwise two or more forts front CD, on the flat side, is stronger than the should be erected in such places as may command front AB, on the narrow side; consequently, the the avenues to the bay; other forts should also be longer CD is, so that the lines of defence are raised on the most convenient points of land, formwithin the reach of musket-shot, and the angles ing the mouth of the bay. Again, when the har. BCD, CDE, are the same, the stronger will the bour is in a bay, whose points, forming the enfront be; since the works become more spacious, trance, stretch into the sea, and approach one hold more troops to defend them, and the besiegers another within cannon shot; such a harbour may are obliged to extend their trenches farther. More- be fortified by building on both sides of its entrance over, the greater the angles of the polygon BCL), one or more forts; and, if possible, a fort should CDE are, the exterior sides being the same, the also be built within the harbour's mouth in such a stronger will be the front CD; because the length manner, that its cannon can rake the shipping of the line BE increases, and the extent of the be- fore and aft as they come in,