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FOIX, a town of France, in the depart- shut sheep in the fold (Milton). 2. To en. ment of Arriege, at the foot of the Pyrenees. close; to include; to shut (Shakspeare). 3. Lat. 43. 0 N. 'Lon. 1. 32 E.
To double; to complicate (Collier). FOKIEN, a province of China in Asia, To FOLD. y. n. To close over another of the commodionsły situated for navigation and com- same kind (Kings). merce, part of it burdering on the sea, in FOLIA, among botanists, particularly sigwhich they catch large quantities of fish, which nify the leaves of plants ; those of flowers being they send salted to other parts of the empire. expressed by the word petals. Its shores are very uneven, by reason of the FOLIACEOUS SPIKE. In botany. A number and variety of its bays'; and there are leafy spike. Having leaves intermixed with many forts built thereon to guard the coast. the flowers. Glandulæ foliaceæ. Leafy glande, The air is hot, but pure and wholesome. The or glands situated on the leaves. See GLAND. mountains are almost every where disposed into FOʻLIAGE. s. (folium, Latin.) Leaves ; a kind of amphitheatres, by the labour of the tufts of leaves (Addison). Representations of inhabitants, with terraces placed one above tufts or clusters of leaves. another. The fields are watered with rivers FOLIATE, a name given by some to a and springs, which issue out of the mountains, curve of the second order, expressed by the and which the husbandmen conduct in such a equation 29+yo = axy, being one species manner as to overflow the fields of rice when of defective hyperbolas, with one asymptote, they please, because it thrives best in watery and consisting of two infinite legs crossing ground. They make use of pipes of bamboe each other, forming a sort of leaf. It is the for this purpose. The chief town is Fou- 42d species of Newton's Lines of the third tcheou-Fou.
order. FOLARD(Charles), a French officer, born FOLIATE TENDRIL. In botaný. A tenai Avignon, in 1609. In 1720 he becaine dril placed on the leaf. Foliate gem. A leaf aid-du-camp to M. de Vendome, who uin- bud. Containing leaves, not Aowers. dertook nothing without consulting him. For FOLIATE CAUL. In botany. A leafy his great services he was rewarded with a pen- stalk. In opposition to aphyllabus, leafless. sion, and the cross of St. Louis. He received FOLIATING OF LOOKING-GLASSES, the a wound at the battle of Cassano, by which he spreading the plates over, after they are powas deprived of the use of his left hand. líshed, with amalgam, in order to reflect the About 1710 he was made prisoner by prince image. It is performed thus : a thin blotting Eugene, and on his being exchanged he was paper is spread on
the table, and
sprinkled with sent to Malta, to assist in its defence against fine chalk; and then a fine lamina or leaf of the Turks. He afterwards served under Charles · tin, called foil, is laid over the paper ; upon XII. of Sweden, and was present at the siege this mercury is poured which is to be distriof Frederickshall, when that prince was killed buted equally over the leaf with a hare's foot, in 1718. He then returned to France, and in or cotton : over this is laid a clean paper, and 1719 served as colonel under the duke of Ber- over that the glass plate, which is pressed down wick. He died in 1752. He wrote as follows: with the right-hand, and the paper drawn 1. Commentaries upon Polybius, 6 vols. 4to. gently out with the left: this being done, the 2. A book of new Discoveries in War. 3. A plate is covered with a thicker paper, and Treatise on the Defence of Places.
foaden with a greater weight, that the superFOLC-LANDS, the name given to copy- fluous mercury may be driven out, and the tin hold lands, in the time of the Saxons. adhere more closely to the glass. When it is
FOLCMOTE, or FOLKMOTE, according dried, the weight is removed, and the lookingto Kennet, was the common-council of all the glass is complete. Some add an ounce of marinhabitants of a city, town, or borough ; casite, nielted by the fire; and, lest the merthough Spelman will have the folkmote to cury should evaporate in sinoké, pout it into have been a sort of annual parliament or con: cold water; and, when cooled, squecze it vention of the bishops, thanes, aklermen, and through a cloth or through leather. freemen, on every May-day. Dr. Brady, on Some add a quarter of an ounce of tin and the contrary, tells us, that it was an inferior lead to the marcasite, that the glass may dry court, held before the king's reeve, or his the sooner. steward, every month, to do folk right.
FOLIATING OF GLOBE LOOKINGFOLD. si (palo, Saxon.) 1. The ground GLASSES, is done as follows: Take five ounces in which sheep are confined. 2. The place of quicksilver, and one ounce of bismuth; of where sheep are housed (Raleigh). 3. The lead and tin half an ounce each: first put the Alock of sheep (Dryden). 4. A limit; a lead and tin into fusion, then put in the bisboundary (Creech). $. A double ; a compli- muth, and when you perceive that in fusion cation; one part added to another. (from filo, too, let it stand till it is almost cold, and pour Saxon.) (Arbuthnot). 6. From the foregoing the quicksilver into it; after this, take the glass signifieation is derived the use of fold in come globe, which must be very clean, and the in, position. Fold signifies the same quantity add. side free from dust; make a paper funnel, ed: as, twenty-fold, twenty times repeated which put into the hole of the globe, as near (Matthew).
to the glass as you can, so that the amalgam, To Fold. v, a. (from the noun.) !. To when you pour it in, may not splash, and cause
the glass to be full of spots ; pour ít in gently, London in 1754. Dr. Birch had drawu up and move it about, so that the amalgam may materials for a life of Mr. Folkes, which are touch every where. If you find the amalgain preserved at large in the Anecdotes of Bowyer, begin to get curdly and fixed, then hold it over p. 562 et seg. a gentle fire, and it will easily flow again. And FOLKSTONE, a town in Kent, with a if you find the amalgam too thin, add a little market on Thursdays. It is a member of the more lead, tin, and bismuth to it. The finer port of Dover, governed by a mayor, and seaiand clearer your globe is, the better will the ed on the English Channel. Lat. 51.5 N. looking-glass be.
Lon. 1. 14 E. To FoʻLATE. v. a. (foliatus, Latin.) To FOLLIA, a species of musical composition beat into laminæ or leaves (Newton).
consisting of variations on a given air. FOLIATION. s. (foliatio, Latin.) 1. FOLLICLE. (from follis, a bag.) In boThe act of beating into thin leaves. 2. Folia- tany. A univalvular pericarp, opening on one tion is one of the parts of a flower, being the side longitudinally, and having the seeds loose collection of those fugacious coloured leaves in it. Pericarpiuin univalve latere altero loncalled petals, which constitute the compass of gitudinaliter dehiscens, nec suturæ semina the Hower (Quincy).
atligens. Exemplified in asclepias, apocynum, FO’LIATURE. s. (from folium, Latin.) stapelia. See CONCEPTACLE. The state of being hammered into leaves. fu Philos. Botan. follicles (folliculi) are
FOLIGNI, an episcopal and trading town vessels distended with air : (air bags, with,) of Italy, in the duchy of Umbria. It is noted as at the root in utricularia, and on the leaves for its sweetmeats and paper-mills. Lat. 42. in aldrovanda. 48 N. Lon. 12. 24 E.
Follicle, in anatomy, a cell or little FOʻLIO. s. (in folio, Latin.). A large book bag : it is generally applied to the cells of the of which the pages are formed by a sheet of cellular membrane, or of the simplest order of paper once doubled.
glands which (as the mucous) contain a sinFolio, in merchants accounts, a page, or gle cavity and excreting duct. sometimes two; being so much of the ledger FOLLICULOSE GLAND. One of the as contains both the debtor and creditor side of most simple species of gland, consisting merely
of a hollow vascular membrane or follicle and FO’LIOMORT. a. (folium mortuum, Lat.) an excretory duct; such are the muciparous A dark yellow; the colour of a leaf faded : glands, the sebaceous, &c. vulgarly called philomot (IVoodward).
To FOLLOW. v. a. (rolzian, Saxon.) 1. FOLIS, or Follis, anciently signified a To go after; not before, or side by side. little bag or purse; whence it canie to be used To pursue as an enemy; to chase (Dryden). for a sum of money, and very different sums 3. To accompany; not to forsake (Milton). were called by that name: thus, the scholiast 4. To attend, as a dependant (Pope). 5. Ta on the Basilics mentions a follis of copper go after, as a teacher (Dryden). 0. To sucwhich was worth but the twenty-fourth part ceed in order of time (Pope). 7. To be conof the miliarensis; the glossæ nomicæ, quoted sequential in argument (Millon). 8. To imiby Gronovius and others, out of a hundred and tale; to copy, as a pupil (Ilooker). 9. To twenty-five miliarenses, and another of two obey; to observe, as a guide (Tillotson). 10. hundred and fifty denarii, which was the an- To pursue as an object of desire (Iebren's). cient sestertium ; and three different sums of 11. To confirm by new endeavours (Spenser). eight, four, and iwo pounds of gold, were each 12. To attend to ; to be busied with (Ecclus). called follis.
T. FOLLOW. v. n. 1. To come after an. FOLIUM ORIENTALE, in medicine. Other (Ben Jonson). 2. To attend servilely See Senna.
(Shukspeare). 3. To be posterior in time. 4. FOLK. s. (rolc, Saxon.) 1. People, in fa- To be consequential, as effect to cause. 5. To miliar language (Sidney), 2. Nations ; man- be consequential, as inference to premises kind (Psalms). 3. Any kind of people as dis- (Temple). 6. To continue endeavours (l/ocriminated from others (Shakspeare).
sea). FOLKES (Martin), an English antiquary, FOʻLLOWER, s. (from follow.) 1. One
WER mathematician, and philosopher, was born at who comes after another; not before him, or Westminster about 1090; and was greatly dis- side by side (Shakspeare). 2. One who obtinguished as a member of the Royal Society serves a leader (South). 3. An attendant, or in London, and of the Academy of Sciences at dependant (Pope). 4. An associate; a comParis. He was admitted into the former at 24 panion (Shakspeare). 5. One under the comyears of age; and made one of their council mand of another (Dryden). 7. A scholar; an two years after; named by sir Isaac Newton imitator; a copier (Sprat). himself as vice-president; and, after sir Hans FOʻLLY, s. (folie, French.) 1. Want of Sloane, became president. There are numerous understanding; weakness of intellect (IlawksMemoirs of his in the Philosophical Transac- worth). 2. Criminal weakness ; depravity of tions. Coins, ancient and modern, were a mind (Shakspeare). 3. Act of negligence or great object with him; and his last production passion unbecoming gravity or deep wisdom svas a book upon the English Silver Coin, from (Pope). the couquest to his own times. He died at FOMAHAUT, or FOMALHAUT, in astro
nomy, a star of the first magnitude, marked a, French poet, was born at Chateau-Thierry in in Piscis Australis.
1621, and educated arnong the fathers of the T. FOMENT. r. a. (fomentor, Latin.) 1. oratory. He did not shew any marks of a poetiTo cherish with heat (Millon). 2. To báthe cal genius till he was past iwenty. Soine of with warm lotions (Arbuthnot). 3. To encou- his pieces introduced him to the notice of the rage ; to cherish (Wotton).
duchess of Bouillon, whom he followed to PaFOMENTATION. i fomentatio.) A sort ris, where he obtained a pension. Madame de ef partial bathing, by applying hot Aannels to la Sabbliere gave him apartments in her house, zny part dipped in medicated decoctions, and here he resided twenty years in habits of whereby steams are communicated to the dis- intimacy with the greatest wits of the age. He cased paris, their vessels are relaxed, and their died in 1695. Besides his Tales, he also wrote morbid action sometimes removed.
Fables, in both of which he possesses all the FOME'NTER. s. (from foment.) An en- merit of originality. Four volumes of his miscourazer ; a supporter.
cellaneous works were printed at Paris, in FONTES, the plural of which is fomites, 1744. (from fores, to cherish.) The contagious or Fontaine's character is remarkable for a simother miasm that produces or feeds and matu- plicity, candour, and probity seldom to be mes rates a disease.
with. He was of an obliging disposition; culFON. . A fool ; an ideot: obsolete (Spen.). tivating a real friendship with his brother poets
FOND. a. J. Foolish; silly; indiscreet; and authors; and, what is very rare, beloved imprudent; injudicious (Ascham). 2. Tri- and esteemed by them all. His conversation Hing; valued by folly (Shakspeare). 3. Fool- was neither gay nor brilliant, especially when ishly tender; injudiciously indulgent (Addi- he was not among his intimate friends. One son). 4. Pleased in too great a degree; day being invited to dinner at a fariner genefoolishly delighted (Prior).
ral's, he ate a great deal, but did not speak. T. FOND. T. FO'NDLE. T. a. To treat with Rising up from table very early, under pregreat indulgence; to caress; to cocker (Drye text of going to the academy, one of the comden).
pany represented to him that it was not yet a To Ford. r. n. To be fond of; to be in love proper time: “ Well,” says he, “ if it is not with; to dote on (Shakspeare).
I will stay a little longer. He had one son FONDLER. s. (from fond.) One who by his wife in the year 1660. At the age of fondles.
14 he put him into the hands of M. de Harley, FONDLING. s. (from fondle.) A person the first president, recommending to him his or thing much fondled or caressed; something education and fortune. It is said, that having regarded with great affection (Swifi). been a long time without seeing him, he hap
FONDLY. ad. (from fond.) i. Foolishly; pened to meet him one day visiung, without weakly; imprudently (Pope). 2. With ex- recollecting him again, and mentioned to the treme tenderness (Sarage).
company that he thought that young inan had FONDNESS. s. (froni fond.) 1. Foolish- a good deal of wit and understanding. When Dess; weakness; want of sense; want of they told him it was his own son, he answered judgment (Spenser). 2. Foolish tenderness in the most tranquil manner, “ Ha! truly I Addison). 3. Tender passion (Swifi). 4. am glad on't." Ugreasonable liking (Hammond).
FONTAINES (Peter Francis Guyot des), a FONE. s. Plural of foe: obsolete (Spenser). French critic, born at Rouen in 1685. At fira
FONG-TSIANG-FOU, a city of China, teen he joined himself to the jesuits, but quitin the province of Chen-si. Its district con- ted them when he was thirty. In 1724 he tains eight cities of the second and third class.. succeeded the abbé Bignon in the management It is +15 miles S.W. of Pekin.
of the Journal des Savans. In 1731 he began FONG-YANG, a city of China, in the pro- a new work, called Nouveliste du Parnasse, ou since of Kiang-Nan. It is situated on a moun: Refexions sur les Ouvrages nouveaux, which tain, which hangs over the yellow river, and did not continue long. He started several other incloses with its walls several fertile little hills. periodical publications, and died in 1745. He Its jurisdiction is very extensive, for it com- also translated several esteemed English books, prehends 18 cities; 5 of which are of the se- and some of the Latin classics. cond, and 13 of the third class.
FONTANA (Domenico), an eminent FONS PULSATILIS. See FONTANEL- architect and mechanic, born at Milan in LA.
1543. He raised the Roman obelisk from the FONT, or BAPTISMAL FONT, a stone or dust in the front of St. Peter's, a work deemed marble vessel, at the lower end of a parish impracticable, and which many others had atchurch, serving to hold water to be used in ad- tempted in vain. He removed to Naples in ministering the sacrament of baptism. 1592, and died there in 1607. Foxt, in printing. See Fount.
FONTANALIA, or FONTINALIA, in anFONTAINBLEAU, a town of France, in tiquity, a religious feast held among the Rothe department of Seine and Maine, remark- mans, in October, in honour of the deities who able for its fine palace; a hunting seat of the presided over fountains. late kings of France. Lat 48. 25 N. Lon, FO'NTANEL. s. (fontanelle, Fr.) An 2. 47 E.
issue; a discharge opened in the body (WiseFONTAINE (John de la), the celebrated man).
FONTANGE. . A knot of ribands on May 1745, in which the latter were victorious. the top of the headdress : out of use (Addi. It is four miles S. W. of Tournay. Lat. 50. son
32 N. Lon. 3. 26 E. FONTANELLA, (fontanella, of fons, a
, a FONTEVRAULT, a town of France, in fountain.) Fons pulsatilis. In anatomy. The the department of Maine and Loire. Here was parietal bones and the frontal bones do not coa- a famous abbey, founded by Robert d'Arbrisse! lesce until the third year, so that before this in 1100. Lat. 47.9 N. Lon. 0.0. period there is an obvious interstice, common- FONTI'CUELUS (fonticulus, i, m. dim. ly called mould, and scientifically the fontanel, of fons, an issue.) An artificial ulcer formed or fons pulsatilis. There is also a smaller space, in any part, and kept discharging by introducoccasionally, between the occipital and parie- ing daily a pea, covered with any digestive tal bones, termed the posterior fontanel. These ointment. spaces between the bones are filled up by the FONTINALIS. Water-moss. In botany, dura mater and the external integuinents, so a genus of the class cryptogamia, order musci. that, during birth, the size of the head may be Capsule oblong, lateut, invested with an imlessened; for at that time the bones of the bricate scaly sheath ; fringe double; outer of head, upon the superior part, are not only sixteen broadish teeth; inner a conic reticupressed nearer to, but frequently wrap over one lated membrane. Four species: three of them another, in order to diminish the size during indigenous to our own country, and found on the passage of the head through the pels the brinks of rivulets and the trunks of trees. vis.
The most remarkable is f. antipyretica with purFONTANE'SIA, in botany, a genus of the ple stalks : so called from the difficulty with class diandria, order monogynia. One species: which it catches fire; or rather from the praca Syrian shrub with opposite branches ; oppo- tice of the Scandinavians of lining the insirle site, entire, lanceolate leaves, flowers yellowish of their chimney places with this moss to dein axillary corymbs.
fend them against taking fire. FONTARÁBIA, a sea-port of Spain, in FOOD. s. (redan, Saxon.) 1. Victnals; Biscay, well fortified both by nature and art. provision for the mouth (Shakspeare). 2. Any It has a good barbour, though dry at low wa- thing that nourishes (Shakspeare), ter, and is surrounded on the land side by the
Food, the substances eaten by animals, Pyrenean mountains. Lat. 43. 23 N. Lon. under the impulse of natural instinct, to sustain 1.33 W.
the body. Providence has ordained that different FONTENAI-LE-COMTE, a town of beings should be supported by such productions of France, in the department of Vendee. It has the earth as are especially adapted to their orgaa woollen manufacture, and a famous fair fornization. Various directions upon this subject, as cattle. Lat. 46. 30 N. Lon. 0. 55 W. it relates to man, will be found in the article DIET.
FONTENELLE (Bernard de), a celebrata The kinds of food usually appropriated to the use ed French author, was born in 1657, and died of different domestic animals are too well known in 1756, when he was near 100 years old. He to need a description. Some observations on the discharged the trust of perpetual secretary to used for horses may be important, and may point
different qualities of fodder and grain that are the Academy of Sciences above 40 years with universal applause; and his History of the sequence of an improper use of them.
out the effects they produce on the body, in conAcademy of Sciences throws a great light upon Hay is the principal fodder used for horses in their memoirs, which are very obscure. The Britain. Although there are a great number of eloges which he pronounced on the deceased herbs and grasses mixed with it, yet they are all members of the academy have this peculiar included under the general denomination of hay.
merit, that they excite a respect for the sciences The common distinction that is made is that of · as well as for the author. In his poetical per- natural or meadow-bay, and the sown or rye.grass
formances, and the Dialogues of the Dead, the hay. The natural hay is generally used in the spirit of Voiture was discernible, though more
southern parts of Britain. From the method obextended and more philosophical. His Plus served in the making of it, and allowing it to heat rality of Worlds is a work singular in its kind; to a certain degree in the rick, it acquires an upthe design of which was to present that part of common smell, something like that of malt dried
This practice likewise gives it a philosophy to view in a gay and pleasing dress. sweetishness to the taste, and it is then called İn his more advanced years, he published co- mow-burnt hay. Horses eat greedily of it; and, medies, which, though they shewed the cle- as it is of a soft quality, they swallow large mouthgance of Fontenelle, were little fitted for the fuls without chewing it properly. This, producing stage; and An Apology for Des Cartes's Vor- thirst, causes them to drink a great deal of water, tices. M. de Voltaire, who declares him to which considerably increases the bulk of the have been the most universal genius the age of stomach. In this state, the lungs, the diapbragm, Louis XIV. produced, says, “ We must ex- and other viscera surrounding it, are compressed cuse his comedies, on account of his great age; to an uncommon degree: and if the horse is then and his Cartesian opinions, as they were those put to any exercise that requires activity or ex. of his youth, when they were universally re- svinded; for it is always observed, that the latter
pedition, he is in danger of becoming brokenceived all over Europe."
be trace! to some instance of sharp FONTENOY, a town of Hainault, in the exercise performed when the stomach is full
. Austrian Netherlands, remarkable for a battle There is a greater number of broken-minded fought between the Allies and the French, in horses in countries where this kind of hay is used
3 than in those parts where rye-grass iš the common to horses that are not brought up or gradually fodder.
accustomed to it, as it is hard of digestion. It is Gibson, lowever, in bis treatise on the food of likewise apt to produce fatulencies, attended with horses, condeinns the use of rye-grass. He says, griping pains and obstructions in the bowels. It that.“ in England, it is seldom given but in the is commonly given to work-horses and horned months of August and September, except to horncattle. ed cattle. Before Michaelmas it is tolerably hard “ New hay of any kind should not be given to and dry, especially in dry seasons; and many horses, more especially to those employed in feed their working horses with it, mixed with dry active exercises, as they feed upon it too greçdily, clover: but allerwards it imbibes so much mois- and swallow it without chewing it properly. It cure that it becomes unwholesome, and few horses overloads the stomach, and, at the same time, that have been used to good hay will care for it.” produces a crude watery chyle, which disposes Here, however, Mr. Clarke differs from Mr. Gib- the horse to sweat much, which weakens greatly; son; for be says, that, where rye-grass mixed with therefore it should never be given till the supera little clover is much used, it is found to be a fluous moisture it contains is dried up, which will clean wholesome fodder for horses; and those that require some months after it is got in. But to are constantly fed upon it are not so subject to be such horses as are employed in very active exer broken-winded as those that are fed with natural cises, it should at least be eight or ten months hay that is mow-burnt, whilst, at the same tine, old. tbey perform the exercises required of them with “ Grass is the most natural food for horses; strength and vigour. Nor does he, in another but, whether it proceeds from the coldness of the respect, agree with Gibson, who, in the same soil or climate in Britain, it does not produce such page, sys, that “ soft hay, of all others, imbibes rich nourishment as to enable them to perform moisture the easiest, and retains the effects of any active exercises with the same strength and it the longest, which generally turns it rotten and vigour as in warmer climates, without the addiunwholesome, and so affords but a crude faint tion of grain, as oats, &c. When horses are alnourishment; and those horses that are forced to lowed to run abroad, and have a sufficiency of feed upon it, for want of better, are çenerally weak oats, and, at the same time, are provided with and faint, and in time grow diseased."
proper shades to protect them from the incle“It is well known,” says Mr. Clark,“that natural mency of the weather, we find, from experience, hay is much softer than rye-grass hay; of course, that they thrive and perform any active labour as it is more liable to attract moisture, and to ac- well as those horses that are kept in stables on quire all the bad qualities above mentioned: dry food only; together with this advantage, that whereas rye-grass hay, being harder and firmer they are not so subject to diseases, por lo lamein its texture, will not so readily become moist; ness, but what, in the latter case, may proceed consequently, according to the author's reasoning, from accidents among themselves. the latter should be the wholesomest fodder for “ Grass is not only food, but it is likewise phyhorses. Another recommendation ic its favour sic to horses mean the early or spring grass. is, that, being harder and firmer than natural hay, When the viscera are sound, it cures most of the it obliges a horse to chew it more completely be. diseases they are subject to with more certainty fore be can swallow it. This makes it easier of and expedition than can be done by medicine. digestion, less bulky in the stomach, and, of After a long course of dry feeding and hard lacourse, pot so liable to produce the bad effects bour, it restores the constitution to the highest which have been mentioned.
health and strength. It cleanses the bowels, and But, whatever be the quality of hay, much carries off those chalky concretions that are apt depends upon its being well got in; for the best to be produced in the stomachs of such horses as grass that ever was cut for this purpose may be have been long used to dry hard feeding. It likespoiled by wet weather, or by bad management; wise carries off the different species of worms with and, where there is a choice, the best should which they are infested. “It renovates, as it always be given to horses that are employed in were, the whole mass of Auids in the body. It active exercises."
promotes all the secretions, and removes glandu“ Clover-hay,” says Mr. Clark," should only lar obstructions; and, in many cases, it carries be given to cattle and draught-horses, whose off stiffness in the joints, and other lameness; labour is slow and equal. It cannot be recom- and, upon the whole, it restores the body to the mended as a proper fodder for horses that stand highest state of perfection of which it is capable.' much at rest, nor to those wbo are used in violent The author, however, observes, that the usual exercise of any kind, as they are apt to over-feed advantages that arise to horses from their feedupon it.
ing on spring grass are in a great measure lost to * Wheat-straw is generally used as litter. It them, if they are allowed to continue through the is seldom giren as fodder, unless to draughtsummer, when the grass becomes tov çank; for borses, or when it is chopped or cut small, and they then grow fat and corpulent, and by no mixed with bats, &c. in order to oblige horses to means fit for active exercises of any kind, which break their food" thoroughly before they can cannot be attempted without danger. It is cusswallow it. Yet the highest fed horses, when it tomary, indeed, when horses are too fat, and full is fresh laid before them, are not only fond of of blood, to reduce them by bleeding, purging, picking the unthreshed heads of wheat that re- &c.; but these, when too frequently repeated, main on the straw, but are likewise fond of the impair their constitutions, and bring on a premastraw itself, by way of a change.
ture old age. -- Bariey and oat straw are the common fodder If, instead of undergoing this kind of medical of cattle 'and farm-horses. They are seldom discipline, those borses that are intended for given to the better kind of horses, unless it be out hunting, &c. were taken up from grass as soon as of economy, or by 'way of amusing them when it begins to shoot, and kept in constant daily exthey stand idle in the stable, and to prevent them ercise, although fed with a very moderate allowa from being restless for want of other food. ance of oats at the time, as the hunting season
* Pease and bean straiñ are a dangerous fodder approaches, both their feeding and exercise may