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boiling water, will force into the receiver a mixture of one part of very fine pulverized large quantity of acid gass, where it combines fluor şpar and two parts of sulphuric acid : to saturation with water, and thus produces then close the lid of the box, and place it on a liquid fuoric acid. In this process, provided stove, or in any other convenient situation the spar selected was free from quartz, there where it may be exposed to as high a heat as it is indeed no deposition of silex, but a very can bear without risking the melting of the notable proportion of lead is volatilized, and wax : fuoric acid gass will be copiously disenremains for the most part dissolved in the gaged, and in a short time (from one hour to liquor, which, on this account, is by no means three, according to circumstances) the plate so pure as the acid produced by Dr. Priestley's will be found sufficiently corroded. See Fluor. method.

FLU'RRY. s. 1. A gust of wind; a hasty Fluoric acid has not yet been decomposed, blast (Swift). 2. Hurry; a violent commoits base therefore is wholly unknown, and it is tion, only from analogy that chemists suppose it to To FLUSH. v. n. (fluysen, Dutch.) 1. To contain oxygen. A remarkable difference be. flow with violence (Mortimer). 2. To come tween the Auoric and muriatic acid is that the in haste (Ben Jonson). 3. To glow in the latter is incapable of becoming oxygenated : it skin (Collier). 4. Tó shine suddenly: obwill neither unite with oxygen in the state of solete (Spenser). gas nor when digested with manganese. Flu- T. FLUSH. v. a. 1. To colour; to redden oric acid combines with the alkalies and alka- (Addison). 2. To elate ; to elevate (Atterliu). line earths, with alumine and silex, and with Flush.a.1. Fresh ; full of vigour (Cleave.). the metallic oxyds ; the metals in a reguline 2. Affluent; abounding (Arbuthnot). state appear to have no affinity for dry Huoric FLUSH. $. i. Aflux; sudden impulse ; acid, but when liquid it will dissolve iron, violent Aow (Rogers). 2. Cards all of a sort, zinc, copper, and arsenic, hydrogen being at FLUSHING, a handsome, strong, and conthe same time disengaged. The order of its siderable town in Zealand, and in the island of affinities is as follows: lime, barytes, stron- Walcheren, with a good harbour, and a great tian, magnesia, potash, soda, ammonia, alu- foreign trade. It was put into the hands of mine, and silex.

queen Elizabeth as a security for the money The only use to which Auoric acid has been she advanced. It is one of the three places applied is engraving on glass. It appears from which Charles V. advised Philip II. to preserve Beckman that this was first practised by an with care. It is four miles S. W. of Middles artist of Nuremberg, in the year 1670, who burg. Lon. 3. 35 E. Lat. 51. 29 N. This prepared his etching liquor by digesting toge- town was taken, in August, 1809, by the En. iher nitrous acid and finely powdered fuor glish under the command of earl Chatham. spar for several hours on a warm sand bath, To FLUÄSTER. v. a. (from To flush.) To and then using the clear liquor as aquafortis isinake hot and rosy with drinking (Shake employed by the copper-plate engravers.

But speare), the knowlege and application of this liquor FLU'STRA. Horn-wrack In zoology, a was confined to a few German artists, till, genus of the class vermes, order zoophyta. after the discoveries of Scheele and Priestley, Animal, a polype proceeding from porous the fluoric acid in a pure state was used for cells ; stem fixed, foliaceous, mebranaceous, the same purpose by various ingenious artists consisting of numerous rows of cells united in England and France. Puyinaurin found together and woven like a mat. Eighteen spea the liquid acid prepared in leaden vessels accord- cies; inhabitants of the European or Meditering to Scheele's process to anwer very well ranean seas ; one or two of the Indian and for this purpose in warm weather, but by cold Atlantic; eight found on the British coasts ; its activity is so much impaired as to produce adhering to fucior other submarine substances. fitue effect even in three or four days. The F. chartacea may serve as an example. This, gasseous acid however is much more effica. as its name evinces, is papyraceous, or of a cious; and being at the same time sufficiently thin semitransparent texture, like fine paper; manageable with proper care, merits the pre- of a very light straw colour, with cells on both ference. To engrave on glass, select a piece of sides ; the tops of the branches sometimes digiplate glass of the requisite size, cover it with tated, soinetimes irregularly divided, and trunhard engraver's wax, and with a needle or other cate like the edge of an axe : the cells are obsuitable instrument trace the intended design long-square. It is found on the British shores, as in common etching, observing that every adhering to sea-wrack, shells, and rocks. stroke passes quite through the wax to the sur- FLUTE, a musical instrument, the most face of the glass; which may be ascertained simple of those which are played by the breath by placing the plate on a sloping frame like a impelled from the lips. The common fute, portable reading desk, in which situation the or flute a bec, is a tube about eighteen inches light will shine through wherever the wax is in length and one in diameter; it has eight removed. When the etching is completed, holes along the side, and the end is formed lay the plate with the engraved side downwards like a beak, to apply the lips to. The Ger. on a frame, in a box lined with strong sheet man fute consists of a tube formed of several lead or thick tin foil, and place on the bottom joints or pieces screwed into each other, with of the box a few leaden cups containing a holes disposed along the side, like those of the


common flute. It is stopped at the upper end, mistry, applied to those substances, often saand furnished with noveable brass or silver line mixtures, that are added to minerals or keys, which, by opening and closing certain metallic cres to assist in the process of reclacholes, serve to temper the tones to the various tion. flats and sharps. In playing this instrument White flur is made simply by mixing equal the performer applies his under lip to a hole parts of tartar or cream of tartar and nitre, and about two inches and a half from the upper deflagrating them in a clean crucible The extremity, while the fingers, by their action on nitrous acid burns the carbonaceous part of the holes and keys, accommodate the tones to the tartar, and the mixed alkalies of the vitre the notes of the composition.

and tartar alone remain. This Aux is, thereFLUTES, or Flurings, in architecture, fore, little else than a pure subcarbonat of potchannels or cavities running perpendicularly ash. The mixture of these substances before along the shaft of a column or pilaster. They deflagration is called crude flux. But of all are chiefly affected in the lonic order, in the saline reducing substances that most frewhich they had their first rise ; though they quently employed is black flur. This is made are also used in all the richer orders, as the by deflagrating in a large crucible a niixture of Corinthian or Composite; but rarely in the one part of nitre and two of tartar; and differs Doric; and scarce ever in the Tuscan. Their from the former in containing, besides carbonumber is usually twenty-four, though in the nat of potash, a quantity of charcoal of the tarDoric it is only twenty. Each fute is hollow- tar, which there has not been nitre enough to ed exactly in a quadrant of a circle. Between consume. It therefore both assists in the su. the flutes are litile spaces that separate them, sion of ores by its alkaline ingredient, and called by Vitruvius, striæ, and by us, lists; oxygenates, and reduces them to the metallic though in the Doric, the flutes are frequently state by means of its carbon. made to join each other, without any inter- In making this last flux, the materials, premediate space at all, the list being sharpened viously well mixed, should be thrown by small off to a thin edge, which forms a part of each quantities into a red-hot crucible, and loosely flute.

covered after each projection; and as soon as To FLUTE. v. a. To cut columns into hol- the last portion is deflagrated, it should be reJow's.

moved from the fire, and kept in well-closed To FLU'TTER. 1. n. (plore ran, Saxon.) bottles to prevent the deliquescence of the al1. To take short flights with great agitation of kali. Bergman however uses the term flux in the wings (Deuteronomy). 2. To move about a much more extensive sense; and intends by with great show and bustle without conse- it not only substances useful in the reductions quence (Grew). 3. To be moved with quick of metals, but substances capable of analyzing vibrations or undulations (Pope). 4. To move by the blowpipe saline, earthy, or inflammable irregularly (Howel).

matters. The fluxes recommended by him for To Flu’TTER. V. a. 1. To drive in disorder, this purpose are the following. like a flock of birds suddenly roused (Shak- 1. The phosphoric acid, or rather the mispeare). .. To hurry the mind. 3. To dis- crocosmic salt, as it is called, which contains order the position of any thing.

that acid partly saturated with mineral, partly Flu'tter. s. (from the verb.) 1. Vibration; with ammonia, and loaded besides with much ondulation (Addison). 2. Hurry; tumult; water. This salt, when exposed to the flame, disorder of mind. 3. Confusion; irregular boils and foams violently, with a continual position.

crackling noise, until the water, and ammonia FLUVIATICK. a. (fluviaticus, Latin.) have flown off: afterwards it is less agitated, Belonging to rivers.

sending forth something like black scoriæ arisFLUX. s. (fluxus, Latin.) 1. The act of ing from the burned gelatinous part: these, flowing ; passage (Digly). 2. The state of however, are soon dispelled, and exhibit a pelpassing away and giving place to others (Bro.). lucid sphericle encompassed by a beautiful 3. Any flow or issue of matter (Arbuthnot). green cloud, which is occasioned by the de4. Dysentery; disease in which the bowels Hagration of the phosphorus, arising from the are excoriated and bleed; bloody flux (Hali- extrication of the acid by means of the infiamfax). 5. Excrement; that which falls from mable matter. The clear globule which rebodies (Shakspeare). 6. Concourse; conflu- mains, upon the removal of the flame, contience (Shakspeare). 7. The state of being nues longer soft than that formed by borax, melted.

8. That which mingled with the and therefore is more fit for the addition of the body makes it melt.

matter to be dissolved. The ammonia is exFLUX AND REFLUX OF THE SEA. See pelled by the fire; therefore an excess of acid Tides.

remains in what is left behind, which readily Flux (fluss, German), in chemistry, any attracts moisture in a cool place. 2. Sodă, substance which is added to another to assist when put upon charcoal, melts superficially, its fusion when heat is applied. Thus alkali is penetrates the charcoal with a crackling noise, a flux for flint, as when mixed with it in due and then disappears. In the spoon it yields a proportion, and heated, it causes it to melt permanent and pellucid sphericle, as long as it into the compound called glass.

is kept fluid by the blue apex of the flame; The term flux is almost exclusively, in che- but when the heat is diminished, it becomes opaque, and assumes a milky colour. It at- easily roll off the charcoal, especially when of ticks several earthy matters, particularly those the size of a grain of pepper. Smaller pieces, of the siliceous kind, but cannot be employed therefore, ought either to be used, or they on charcoal. 3. Crystallized borax, exposed should rest in hollows made in the charcoal. 10 the fame urged by the blowpipe, or char- On their first melting they assume a polished coal, first becomes opaque, white, and exces- surface, an appearance always retained by the sirely swelled, with various protuberances, or perfect metals; but the imperfect are soon obbranches proceeding out from it. When the scured by a pellicle formed of the cals (oxide) water is expelled, it easily collects itself into a of the metal. The colours communicated by mass, which, when well fused, yields a trans- the calces vary according to the nature of the parent sphericle, retairing its transparency metal from which the calx is produced. Some even after cooling. If calcined borax be em- of the calces easily recover their metallic form ployed, the clear sphericle is obtained the by simple exposure to fame upon the charcoal; sooner.

oihers are reduced in this way with more dilliHaving provided every thing necessary, the culty; and some not at all. The reduced calces following directions are next to be attended 10. of the volatile metals immediately fly off from 1. A common tallow candle, not too thick, is the charcoal. In the spoon they exhibit glogenerally preferable to a wax candle, or to a bules; but it is very difficult to prevent them lamp. The snuff must not be cut too short, from being first dissipated by the blast. as the wick should bend towards the object. The metals are taken up by the fluxes; but 2. The weaker exterior flame must first be di- as soda yields an opaque spherule, it is not to be rected upon the object, until its effects are dis- made use of. Globules of borax dissolve and covered; after which the interior Aame must melt any metallic calx; and, unless too much be applied. 3. We must observe with atten- loaded with it, appear pellucid and coloured. lion whether the matter decrepitates, splits, A piece of metal calcined in flux produces the swells, vegetates, boils, &c. 4. The piece ex- same effect, but more slowly. A portion of posed to the flame should scarcely ever exceed the calx generally recovers its metallic form, the size of a pepper-corn, but ought always to and floats on the melted matter like one or more be large enough to be taken up by the forceps. excrescences. 5. A small piece should be added separately to The calces of the perfect metals are reduced each of the fluxes; concerning which it must by borax in the spoon, and adhere to it at the be observed whether it dissolves wholly or only point of contact, and there only. The microin part; whether this is effected with or with- cosmic salt acts like borax, but does not reduce out effervescence, quickly or slowly; whether the metals. It attacks them more powerfully the mass is divided into a powder, or gradually on account of its acid nature; at the same time and externally corroded; with what colour the it preserves the spherical form, and therefore is glass is tinged, and whether it becomes opaque adapted in a peculiar manner to the investigaor remains pellucid.

tion of metals. Having given these directions, M. Bergman The tinge communicated to the Aux fre. proceeds next to consider the subjects proper to quently varies, being different in the fused and be examined by the blowpipe. These he di- in the cooled globule; for some of the dissolvvides into four classes : 1. Saline; 2. Earthy; ed calces, while fused, show no colour, but ac3. Inflammable; and 4. Metallic. As the sub- quire one while cooling; byt others, on the ject, however, is treated at considerable length, contrary, have a much more intense colour we shall refer the reader to Mr. Bergman's while in the state of Auidity. Should the transwritings, and confine ourselves in this place to parency be injured by too great a concentrawhat he has advanced concerning the last of tion of colour, the globule, on compressing it these subjects, namely, metallic substances. with the forceps, or drawing it out into a

The perfect metals, when calcined (oxyge- thread, will exhibit a thin and transparent nated) in the moist way, recover their former mass; but if the opacity arises from supersatunature by simple fusion. The imperfect metals ration, more flux must be added ; and as the are calcined by fire, especially by the exterior fluxes attract the metals with unequal forces, flame; and then, in order to their being re- the latter precipitate one another. duced, indispensably require the contact of an Metals when mineralized by acids have the inflammable substance. With respect to fu- properties of metallic salts; when mineralized sibility, the two extremes are mercury and pla- by carbonic acid, they possess the properties of tina; the former being scarcely ever seen in a cálces, that volatile substance being easily exsolid form, and the latter almost as difficult of pelled without any eftervescence ; but when fusion. The metals, therefore, may be ranked combined with sulphur they possess properties in this order, according to their degrees of fusi- of a peculiar kind. They may then be melted, bility. 1. Mercury; 2. Tin; 3. Bismuth; 4. or even calcined upon the charcoal, as also in Lead; 5. Zinc; 6. Antimony; 7. Silver ; 8. a golden or silver spoon. The volatile parts Gold; 9. Arsenic; 10. Cobalt; 11. Nickel; are distinguished by the smell or smoke; the 12. Iron; 13. Manganese; 14. Platinum. The fixed residua, by the particles reduced or prelast two do not yield to the blowpipe, and in- cipitated upon iron, or from the tinge of the deed forged iron does not melt without diffi- fluxes. cuty; but cast iron perfectly.

Gold in its metallic state fuses on the charMetals in fusion affect a globular form, and coal, and is the only metal which remains unchanged. It


be oxygenated in the moist through the glass it appears of a gold colour ; way by solution in aqua regia; but to calcine but care must be taken not to crack the glass. it also by fire, we must pursue the following Calcined silver precipitated froin nitrous acid method : To a globule of microcosmic salt, let by fixed alkali is easily reduced. The inicrothere be added a small piece of solid gold, of cosmic acid dissolves it speedily and copiously; gold leaf, purple mineral, or, which is best of but on cooling it becomes opaque, and of a all, of the crystalline salt formed by a solution whitish yellow, which is also sometimes the of gold in aqua regia containing sea-salt. Let case with leaf-silver. Copper is discovered by this again be melted, and adoled while yet soft a green colour, and sometimes by that of a to turbith mineral, which will immediately ruby, unless we choose rather to impute that to grow red on the contact. The fusion being gold. The globules can scarcely be obtained afterwards repeated, a vehement effervescence pellucid, unless the quantity of calx is very arises; and when this is considerably diminish. small; but a longer fusion is necessary to pro. ed, let the blast be stopped for a few moments, duce an opacity with borax.

The globule, again begun, and so continued until almost all loaded with dissolved silver during the time of the bubbles disappear. After this the sphe- its fusion in the spoon, covers a piece of copper rule, on cooling, assumes a ruby colour; but with silver, and becomes itself of a pellucid if this does not happen, let it be just made soft green: antimony quickly takes away the milky by the exterior flame, and upon hardening, this opacity of dissolved luna cornea, and separates tinge generally appears

. Should the process the silver in distinct grains. Cobalt, and most fajl at first, owing to some minute circum- of the other metals, likewise, precipitate silver stances which cannot be described, it will suc- on the same principles as in the moist way, ceed on the second or third trial. The ruby- viz. by a double elective attraction. This mecoloured globule, when compressed by the for- tal, when mineralized by marine and vitriolic ceps while hot, frequently becomes blue; by acids, yields a natural luna cornea, which prosudden fusion it generally assumes an opal co- duces a number of small metallic globules on lour, which by refraction appears blue, and by the charcoal : it dissolves in microcosmic salt, reflection of a brown red. "If further urged by and renders it opaque, and is reduced, partially the fire it loses all colour, and appears like wae at least, by borax. Sulphurated silver, called ter; but the redness may be reproduced several also the glassy ore of that metal, fused upon times by the addition of turbith mineral. The charcoal, easily parts with the sulphur it conflux is reddened in the same manner by the ad- taivs; so that a polished globule is often prodition of tin instead of turbith ; but it has a duced, which, if necessary, may be depurated yellowish hue, and more easily becomes by borax. The silver may also be precipitated opaque; while the redness communicated by by the addition of copper, iron, or manganese. turbith mineral has a purple tinge, and quite When arsenic makes part of the compound, as resembles a ruhy. Borax produces the same in the red ore of arsenic, it must first be freed phenomena, but more rarely; and in all cases from the sulphur by gentle roasting, and finally the slightest variation in the management of entirely depurated by borax. It decrepitates in the fire will make the experiment fail entirely. the fire at first.

The ruby colour may also be produced by Copper, together with sulphur and arsenic copper; whence a doubt may arise, whether it mixed with silver, called the white ore of silis the gold or the remains of the copper that ver, yields a regulus having the same alloy. produce this effect. M. Bergman thinks it Galena, which is an ore of lead containing probable that both may contribute towards it, sulphur and silver, is to be freed in the same especially as copper is often found to contain manner from the sulphur; after which the gold.

lead is gradually dissipated by alternately meltThis precious metal cannot directly be mi- ing and cooling, or is separated in a cupel from neralized by sulphur; but by the medium of the galena by means of the Alame. Bergman iron is sometimes formed into a golden pyrites. has not been able to precipitate the silver diHere, however, the quantity of gold is so small, stinct from the lead, but the whole mass bethat a globule can scarcely be extracted from it comes malleable; and the same is true of tin, by the blowpipe.

but the mass becomes more brittle. Grains of native platinum are not affected Pure mercury Aies off from the charcoal by the blowpipe, either alone or mixed with with a moderate heat, the fixed heterogeneous fluxes; which, however, are frequently tinged matters remaining behind. When calcined, green by it but platinum, precipitated from it is easily reduced and dissipated, and the fluxes aqua regia by vegetable or volatile alkali, is re- take it up with effervescence; but it is soon toduced by microcosmic salt to a small malleable tally driven off. When mineralized by sul. globule. Our author has been able to unite phur, it liquefies upon the charcoal, burns with seven or eight of these into a malleable mass; a blue flame, smokes, and gradually disappears; but more of them produced only a brittle one. but, on exposing cinnabar to the fire on a poPlatinum scarcely loses all its iron, unless re- lished piece of copper, the mercurial globulcs duced to very thin fusion.

are fixed upon it all round. Silver in its metallic state easily melts, and Lead in its metallic state readily melts, and resists calcination, Silver leaf fastened by continues to retain a metallic splendour for means of the breath, or a solution of borax, some time. By a more intense heat it boils, may easily be fixed on it by the name, and and smokes, forming a yellow circle upon the

The mass

and copper.


charcoal. It communicates a yellow colour, obtained with borax: but Mr. Bergman could scarcely visible, to the Auxes; and when the not produce this colour with microcosinic quantity is large, the globule, on cooling, con- salt. 'Copper simply sulphurated, when cautracts more or less of a white opacity. It is tiously and gently roasted by the exterior pot precipitated by copper when dissolved; nor flame, yields at last by fusion a regulus surdo the metals precipitate it from sulphur in the rounded with a sulphurated crust. same order as from the acids. When united roasted with borax separates the regulus inorc to carbonic acid, it grows red on the first touch quickly. of the flame; when the heat is increased it If a small quantity of iron happens to be melts, and is reduced to a multitude of small present, the piece to be examined must first be globules. When united with phosphoric acid roasted, after which it must be dissolved in boit irelts, and yields an opaque globule, but is rax, and tin added to precipitate the copper. not reduced. With fluxes it shows the same The regulus may also be obtained by sufficient appearance as oxide of lead. When minera- calcination and fusion, even without any prelized by sulphur, lead casily liquefies, and be- cipitant, unless the ore is very poor. When ing gradually deprived of the volatile part, the pyrites contain copper, even in the quanyields a distinct regulus, unless too much load- tity of the one hundredth part of their weight, ed with iron. It may be precipitated by iron its presence may be detected by these experi

Let a grain of pyrites, of the size of a A small piece of copper, either solid or foli- fax-seed, be roasted, but not so much as to ated, sometimes communicates a ruby colour to expel all the sulphur; let it then be dissolved Auses, especially when assisted by tin or tur- by borax, a polished rod of iron added, and the bith mineral. If the copper is a little more or fúsion continued until the surface when cooled further calcined, it produces a green pellucid loses all splendour. As much borax is requirglobule, the tinge of which grows weaker by ed as will make the whole of the size of a grain cooling, and eren verges towards a blue. By of hemp-seed. Slow fusion is injurious, and long fusion with borax, the colour is totally the precipitation is also retarded by too great destroçed upon charcoal, but scarcely in the tenuity; but this may be corrected by the adspoon. when once destroyed, this colour can dition of a little lime. Too much cascination scarcely be reproduced by nitre; but it remains is also inconvenient; for by this the globule fixed with microcosmic salt. If the calx or forms slowly, is somewhat spre :d, becomes metal to be calcined is added in considerable knotty when warm, corrodes the charcoal, dequantity during fusion, it acquires an opaquestroys the iron, and the copper does not precised on cooling, though it appears green while pitate distinctly. This defect is corrected by a pellucid and fused; but by a still larger quan- small portion of crude ore. When the globule tiiy it contracts an opacity even while in fusion, is properly melted, according to the directions and upon cooling a metallic splendour. Even already given, it ought to be thrown into cold when the quantity of copper is so small as water immediately on stopping the blast, in scarcely to tinge the Aus, a visible pellicle is order to break it suddenly. If the copper conprecipitated upon a piece of polished iron aud- tained in it is less than one-hundredth part, ed to it during strong fusion, and the globule one end of the wire only has a cupreous apin its turn takes the colour of polished iron; pearance, but otherwise the whole. and in this way the smallest portions of copper Dr. Gahn has another method of examining may be discovered. The globule made green the ores of copper, namely, by exposing a by copper, when fused in the spoon with a grain of the ore, well freed from sulphur by small portion of tin, yields a spherule of the calcination, to the action of the fiame driven latter mixed with copper, very hard and brit- suddenly upon it by intervals. At those instants tle: in this case the precipitated metal per. a eupreous splendour appears on the surface, tades the whole of the nass, and does not ad- which otherwise is black; and this splendour here to the surface. Cobalt precipitates the is more quickly produced in proportion as the calx of copper dissolved in the spoon by a flux, ore is poorer. The fame is tinged green by in a metallic form, and imparts its own colour cupreous pyrites on roasting. to glass, which nickel cannot do. Zinc also Forged iron is calcined, but can scarcely be precipitates it separately, and rarely upon its melted. It cannot be melted by borax, though own surface, as we can scarcely avoid melting it may by microcosmic salt, and then it beit. When mineralized by the carbonic acid, comes brittle. Calcined iron becomes magnecopper grows black on the first contact of the tic by being heated on the charcoal, but melts flame, and melts in the spoon; on the char- in the spoon. The Auxes become green by coal the lower part, which touches the sup- this metal; but in proportion as the oxygen is port, is reduced. With a superbundance of more abundant, they grow more of a brownish marine acid, it tinges the flame of a beautiful yellow. On cooling, the tinge is much weakcolour ; but with a small quantity shows no ened, and when originally weak, vanishes enappearance of the metal in that way. Thus the tirely. By too much saturation the globule beautiful crystals of Saxony, which are cubic, becomes black and opaque. The sulphureous and of a deep green, do not ringe the fame, pyrites may be collected into a globule by futhough they impart a pellucid greenness to sion, and is first surrounded by a blue flame; microcosmic salt. An opaque redness is easily but as the metal is easily calcined, and changes

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