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ways diminish the resistance, it may be easily ef- ers in a different manner, which does not, like fected by applying wheels or rollers to the sockets the preceding method, weaken the axle-tree. Inor bushes which sustain the gudgeons of large stead of fixing the rollers in the iron part of the wheels, and the axles of wheel carriages, Casatus axle, he leaves a space between the, uave and the seems to have been the first who recommended axis to be filled with equal rollers almost touching this apparatus. It was afterwards mentioned by each other. The axes of these rollers are inserted Sturmius and Wolfius; but was not used in prac- in a circular ring at each end of the nave and tice till Sully applied it to clocks in the year 1716, these rings, and consequently the rollers are kept and Mondran to cranes in 1725. Notwithstand- separate and parallel, by means of small bolts ing these solitary attempts to introduce friction passing between the rollers from one side of the wheels, they seem to have attracted but little nave to the other. attention till the celebrated Euler examined In wheel-carriages constructed in the common and explained, with his usual accuracy, their manner with conical rims, there is a great degree nature and advantages. The diameter of the of resistance occasioned by the friction of the gudgeons and pivots should be made as small linch-pins on the external part of the nate, which as the weight of the wheel and the impelling force the ingenious mechanic may easily remove by a will permit. The gudgeons should rest upon two judicious application of the preceding principles. wheels as large as circumstances will allow, hav- As it appears from the experiments of Ferguson ing their axis as near each other as possible, but and Coulomb, that the least friction is generated do thicker than what is absolutely necessary to when polished iron moves npon brass, the gudgesustain the superincurnbent weight. When these ons and pivots of wheels, and the axles of friction precautions are properly attended to, the resist- rollers, should all be made of polished iron, and ance which arises from the friction of the gudge- the bushes in which these gudgeons move, and the ons, &c. will be extremely trilling,
friction wheels should be formed of polished brass. The effects of friction may likewise in some When every mechanical contrivance has been measure be removed by a judicious application adopted for diminishing the obstruetion which of the impelling power, and by proportioning the arises from the attrition of the communicating size of the friction wheels to the pressure which parts, it may be still farther removed by the judicithey severally sustain. If we suppose, for exam- ous application of unguents. The most proper for ple, that the weight of a wheel, whose iron gudge- this purpose are swine's grease and tallow, when ons move in bushes of brass, is 100 pounds; then the surfaces are made of wood, and oil when they the friction arising from both its gudgeons will be are of metal. When the force with which the equivalent to 25 pounds. If we suppose also that surfaces are pressed together is very great, tallow a force equal to 40 pounds is employed to impel will diminish the friction more than swine’sgresse. the wheel, and acts in the direction of gravity, as When the wooden surfaces are very small, unguin the case of overshot wheels, the pressure of the ents will lessen their friction a little, but it will be gudgeons upon their supports will thas be 140 greatly diminished if wood moves upon metal pounds and the friction 35 pounds. But if the greased with tallow. If the velocities, however, force of 40 pounds could be applied in such a are increased, or the unguent not often enough remanner as to act in direct opposition to the newed, in both these cases, but particularly in the wheel's weight, the pressure of the gudgeons upon last, the unguent will be more injurious than useful. their supports would be 100-40, or 60 pounds, The best mode of applying it, is to cover the ruband the friction only 15 pounds. It is impossible bing surfaces with as thin a stratum as possible, indeed to make the moving force act in direct op- for the frietion will then be a constant quantity, position to the gravity of the wheel, in the case and will not be increased by an augmentation of of water-mills, and it is often impracticable for velocity. the engineer to apply the impelling power but in In small works of wood, the interposition of the a given way; but there are many cases in which powder of black lead has been found very useful the moving force may be so exerted, as at least in relieving the motion. The ropes of pulleys not to increase the friction which arises from the should be rubbed with tallow, and whenever the wheel's weight.
screw is used, the square threads should be preTlre application of these general principles to ferred. (Brewster's Ferguson, vol. ü.) particular cases is so simple as not to require any A more detailed account of Coulomb's experiillustration. To aid the conceptions, however, of ments may be seen in Gregory's Mechanics the practical mechanic, we may mention two vol. ji. p. 25–44. cases in which friction wheels bave been success- FRICTION WHEELS, are small wheels on the fully employed.
circumferences of which the pivots of other wheels Mr. Gottlieb, the constructor of a new crane, or axles turn, in order to lessen the quantity of has received a patent for what he calls an anti.at- friction, and give a longer duration to any mutrition axle-tree, the beneficial effects of which he tion. If a cylinder were to move on two small pins bas ascertained by a variety of trials. It consists or gudgeons, the friction would be abated nearly of a steel roller about 4 or 6 inches long, which in the proportion of the diameter of the cylinder turns within a groove cut in the inferior part of to that of the pins: but the friction on these gu the axle. When wheel-carriages are at rest, Mr. geons is considerably diminished by causing eac Gottlieb has given the friction wheel its proper of them to move on the circumferences of te position ; but it is evident that the point of great- equal wheels ; for the velocity of the circumferenc est pressure will change when they are put in mo- of each wheel is the same as that of the gudgeos tion, and will be nearer the front of the carriage. which turns upon it; but the velocity of eact This point, however, will vary with the weight of wheels axis (which is now to be considered as th the load; but it is sufficiently obvious that the rubbing part) is less than that of the wheel, i friction roller should be but a little distance from proportion as its diameter is less than that of the the lowest point of the axle-tree.
wheel, and the friction will be reduced accordingly Mr. Garnett of Bristol bas applied friction roll- It may be considered also, that in the frictiv
Dheels, the pivot of the inner wheel does not slide, FRIENDLY ISLANDS. Under this denomi. but roll over the perimeters of the others, and nation we must include not only Tongataboo, this diminishes the friction considerably; and Eaoo, and Anamooka, which were so named if the axes of these wheels be laid on the perime by captain Cook in 1773, on account of the ters of other wheels, the friction will be still far; friendship that subsists among the inhabitants, ther reduced : and thus by applying more and and their courteous behaviour to strangers; but more wheels it may be diminished ad infinitum.
also the group at Hapaee, visited by hiin in FRI'DAY.s. (frigetæy, Saxon.) The sixth 1777; and all the islands that have been discoday of the week, so named of Freya, a Saxon vered neårly under the same meridian, from deity.
Pilstart, discovered by Tasman, in lat. 22. 26 FRIDAY (Good), a fast of the Christian S. down to Boscawen and Kepple’s Isles, dischurch, in memory of the sufferings and death covered by Wallis, in lat. 15. 53, and thence of Jesus Christ. Ít is observed on the Friday westward' to Tasman's Prince William's Is-> in holy or passion week; and it is called, by lands, in lon. 179. W. as well as some others, way of eminence, good, because of the blessed that have never been seen by any European naeffects of our Saviour's sufferings, which were a'vigator. Within these limíts, the Archipelago · propitiatory or expiating sacrifice for the sins will be found to be very extensive. Above of the world. The commemoration of our 150 islands are reckoned up by the natives, Saviour's sufferings has been kept from the first who assign its proper name to each; fifteen of ages of Christianity, and was always observed them are said to be high ; 35 larger than Awaas a day of fasting and humiliation.
mooka ; and the rest small, many of them perFRIDBERG, a town of Wetteravia, in haps mere spots without inhabitants. 61 of Germany. Lat 50. 10 N. Lon. 8. 46 E. these islands are laid down in captain Cook's
FRIDBERG, a town of Bavaria, in Germa- chart of the Friendly Islands. ny. Lat. 48. 28 N. Lon. 11. 10 E.
FRI'ENDSHIP.' s. (vriendschap, Dutch.) FRIDING, a town of Suabia, in Germany, 1. The state of minds united by mutual be20 miles N.E. of Constance. Lat. 48. 11 N. nevolence; amity (Clarendon). 2. Highest Lon. 2. 31 E.
degree of intimacy (Dryden). 3. Favour; FRIDLAND, a town of Bohemia, belong personal kindness" (Spenser). 4. Assistance; ing to the house of Austria. Lat. 52. 4 N. help (Shakspeare). 5. Conformity; affinity; Lon, 15, 15. E.
correspondence; aptness to unite (Dryden). FRIDLENGEN, a town of Suabia, in FRIENDSHIP may be defined a mutual Germany, 4 miles N. of Basle. Lat. 47. 40 attachment subsisting between two persons ; N. Lon. 7. 36 E.
and arising, not merely from the general prinFRIDSTOL, mentioned in our ancient ciple of benevolence, from emotions of gratiwriters among the immunities granted to tude for favours received, from views of inchurches, signifies a seat, chair, or place of terest, or from instinctive affection, or animal peace and security, where criminals might find passion; but from an opinion entertained by safety and protection : of these there were each party, that the other is endowed with many in England, but the most famous was at some amiable, estimable, or valuable quaBeverley, and that in St. Peter's church at lities. York, granted by charter of king Henry I. Voltaire says, “ Friendship is a tacit contract
FRIEND. s. (vriend, Dut. freond, Sax.) between two sensible and virtuous persons. 1. One joined to another in mutual benevo- I say, sensible; for a monk, or a hermit, may lence and intimacy (Dryden). 2. One with- not be wicked, yet may live a stranger to friendout hostile intentions (Shakspeare). 3. One ship. I add virtuous ; for the wicked have reconciled to another (Shakspeare). 4. An at- only accomplices, the voluptuous have come tendant, or companion (Dryden). 5. Fa- panions, the designing have associates, the vourer; one propitious (Peacham). 6. A fa- men of business have partners, the politicians miliar compellation (Matthew).
form a factious band; the bulk of idle men FRIEND'S, a religious denomination. See have connections ; princes have courtiers : but QUAKERS.
virtuous men alone have friends. Cethegus To friend. v. a. (from the noun.) To fa- was Catiline's accomplice, and Mecenas was vour; to befriend; to countenance; to support Octavius's courtier ; but Cicero was Atticus's (Shakspeare).
friend." FRI'ENDLESS. a. Wanting friends; want- Genuine friendship, then, is founded on ing support ; destitute; forlorn (South). virtue, and on that approbation which virtue
FRIENDLINESS. s. (froin friendly.), 1. never fails to command : it is a natural conseA disposition to friendship (Sidney). 2. Ex- quence of intercourse between virtuous men. ertion of benevolence (Taylor).
Where it is once established, it cannot die, FRIENDLY. a. (from friend.). 1. Have while those virtues to which it owes its origin ing the temper and disposition of a friend; continue to adorn the persons between whom kind; favourable (Milton). 2. Disposed to it subsists. union; amicable (Pope). 3. Salutary; homo- Circumstances favourable to the formation geneal (Milton).
of friendship are, parity (though not strict FRI'Endly. ad. In the manner of friends; equality) of age, likeness of trade or profession, with appearance of kindness ; amicably (Shak- an approximation to equality of rank or forspeare).
tune, similarity of taste, temper, and views, . and especially conformity in religious views. Lord Bacon, in his excellent Essay on Friend. Whether sameness of sex is an essentiul re- ship (an essay which we warmly recommend quisite has been sometimes, though we think to the perusal of our readers), says, “ Men foolishly, disputed. Upon even a superficial have their time, and die many times in desire view of life, we find reason to declare, without of some things which they principally take to hesitation, that acquaintance and intimacy heart, the bestowing of a child, ihe finishing most naturally take place among persons of of a work, or the like. If a man have a true the same sex: yet there are cases where the friend he may rest almost secure that the care warmest and purest friendships have subsisted of those things will continue after him; so between persons of different sexes. This, that a man hath, as it were, two lives in his however, must always be where buth parties desires. A man hath a body, and that body is are so circumstanced as to be in no danger of confined to a place ; but where friendship is, cherishing any other feeling.
all offices of life are, as it were, granted to him Friendship often exists in the strongest de- and his deputy; for he may exercise them by gree among near relatives : and, though to his friend. 'How many things are there which some it may appear paradoxical, betwecn hus- a man cannot with any face or comeliness say band and wife. The fears, the jealousies, the or do himself? A man can scarce allege his timidity, nay even the fondness of love, are in own merits with modesty, much less extol some measure incompatible with the full exer- them; a man cannot sometimes brook 10 supcise of friendship: for, though the lover and plicate or bey; and a number of the like: but his mistress be dear to each other, yet the free all these things are graceful in a friend's mouth, confidence and faithfulness of friendship can- which are blushing in a man's own. So again not take place between thein. They dare not a man's person hath many proper relations yet venture to trust to each other all the secrets which he cannot put off. A man cannot of their hearts, much less to exercise the free- speak to his son but as a father; to his wife dom even of tender remonstrance, which but as a husband; to his enemy but upon friendship often demands. But if their mutual terms: whereas, a friend may speak as the wishes be crowned by marriage; then, indeed, case requires, and not as it sorteth to the as their interests become the same, if the tran- person." sports of love are not succeeded by the calm Several of our poets have descanted upon delights and the full coufidence which friend- the nature, the delights, and advantages of ship inspires, they cannot be happy: The friendship: we shall terminate this article with marriage state, when formed upon right prin- an extract or two from one of them, the author ciples and correct views, is peculiarly favourable of the Night Thoughts. to the most elevated degree of friendship. Persons whose relations to each other are more Friendship’s the wine of life; but friendship remote, will often find circumstances concurring to induce them to cultivate a friendly
is neither strong nor pure. intercourse with each other. But here in. difference is almost impossible. It is abso. O! for the bright complexion, cordial warmth, lutely requisite, in order that they may not And elevating spirit of a friend, render each other miserable, that the husband for twenty summers rip’ning by iny side; and the wife have that high esteem for each All feculence of falsehood long thrown down; other's character, which stands as the basis of All social virtues rising in his soul, friendship. This seems even to be one of the As crystal clear, and smiling as they rise ! great laws of nature, by wbich provision is Here nectar flows; it sparkles in our sight; made for the happiness and the preservation of Rich to the taste, and genuine from the heart. society. But, though the wife and the husband be particularly attached to each other by Deliberate on all things with thy friend : the ties of friendship, no less than by those of But since friends grow not thick on ev'ry love, yet their
mutual affection will not entirely bough, detach them from the rest of the world ; their Nor ev'ry friend unrotten at the core ; relations to the society around them will still First, on thy friend, delib’rate with thy self; remain; the husband will still cultivate the Panse, ponder, sist; not eager in the choice, intimacy of those of his own sex, and the wife Not jealous of the chosen; fixing, fix; will still choose female in preference to male Judge before friendship, then confide till death. friends : and both may thus derive assistance, comfort, and advice, which they might not be of friendship's fairest fruits, the fruit most able to supply to each other. "Nor will this fair cause any
undue separation, or any alienation is virtue kindling at a rival fire, of affection ; for where husband and wife are And, emulously, rapid in her race. united as we suppose, they are more than the soft enmity : endearing strife! friends—they are one bone and one flesh. This carries friendsbip to her noon-tide point,
Frie dship requires sincerity, mutual confi- And gives the rivet of eternity. dence, though certainly not, as many have contended, union of interests. Its principal FRIESLAND, one of the united provinces fruits are peace in the affections, support'in of the Low Countries. It is bounded on the the judgment, aid and support in conduct. east by the river Lauyers, which parts it from
the lordship of Groningen, on the south by square stern without any foremast, having only Overyssel, on the west by the Zuider-Zee, and a main-masi, mizen-mast, and bowsprit. on the north by the German ocean. It is 30 FRIGEFA'CTION. s. (frigus and facio, miles from north to south, and 28 from east to Lat.) The act of making cold. west. The land is very fertile in corn and T. FRIGHT. v. a. (frightan, Saxon.) To pasture; the horses are large, and the cows and terrify; to disturb with fear (Dryden). sheep prolific. It is divided into three parts ; FRIGHT, or TERROR, a sudden and vio. Westergo to the west, Ostergo to the east, and lent degree of fear. See Fear. Sudden fear Sevenwalden to the south. The islands of is frequently productive of very remarkable Sheling, Ameland, and other small ones, are effects upon the human system. Of this many dependent on this province. The principal instances occur in medical writings. In getowns are Leuwarden the capital, Franeker, neral, the effects of terror are a contraction of Dockuin, Harlingen, and Staveren.
the small vessels, and a repulsion of the blood FRIESLAND (East), a province of Germany, into the large and internal ones; hence proin the circle of Westphalia, lying near the ceed general oppression, trembling, and irre. German ocean. It is bounded on the south gularity in the motions of the heart, whilst the by the bishopric of Munster, on the east by the lungs are also overcharged with blond. county of Oldenburg, on the west by the pro- Frights often occasion incurable diseases, as vince of Groningen, and on the north by the epilepsy, stupor, madness, &c. In this way sea, being about 50 miles in length, and 30 in they have evidently killed many, by the agitabreadth. It belongs to Prussia, and was for- tion into which they have thrown the spirits, merly called the county of Embden. It is a already too much disordered. We have also very fertile country, and feeds a great number accounts of persons absolutely killed by terrors of cattle; but it was greatly damaged by an in- when in perfect health at the time of receiving undation in 1717, and the repair of the dykes the shock. Out of many instances, the fol cost an immense sum. The principal towns lowing is selected as one of the most singnlar: are Norden, Leer, Essens, Whitmunde, and “George Grochantzy, a Polander, who had Aurick. Einbden was an imperial city, and inlisted as a soldier in the service of the king the principal place in the country; but now of Prussia, deserted during the last war. Å belongs also to the king of Prussia, who bought small party was sent in pursuit of him; and, it of the Dutch.
when he least expected it, they surprised him FRIESLAND (West), another name for that singing and dancing among a company of peapart of Holland called N. Holland. The states sants, who were got together in an inn, and of Holland hence take the title of the states of were making merry. This event, so sudden Holland and W. Friesland.
and unforeseen, and at the same time so dread. FRIEZE, s. (drap de frise, Fr.) A coarse ful in its consequences, struck him in such a warm cloth, made perhaps first in Friesland manner, that, giving a great cry, he became at
once altogether stupid and insensible, and was FREZE. FRIZE. s. (In architecture.) A seized without the least resistance. They carlarge flat member which separates the archi- ried him away to Glocau, where he was brought trave from the cornice; of which there are as before the council of war, and received senmany kinds as there are orders of columns tence as a deserter. He suffered himself to be (Harris).
led and disposed of at the will of those about FRI'ÉZED. a. (from frieze.) Shagged or him, without uttering a word, or giving the napped with frieze (Addison).
least sign that he knew what had happened or FRIEZELIKE.'a. (frieze and like.) Re- would happen to him. He remained immovesembling a frieze (Addison).
able as a statue wherever he was placed, and FRIGATE, among seamen, a ship of war, was wholly passive with respect to all that was light built, and that is a good sailer. A frigate done to him or about him. During all the has commonly two decks, whence that called time that he was in custody, he neither ate, a light frigate is a frigate with only one deck. nor drank, nor slept, nor had any eracnation. These vessels mount from 20 10 41 guns, and After some time they knocked off his fetters, make capital cruizers. Merchantmen are said and left him at liberty to go whither he would to be frigate-built, when the disposition of the He received his liberty with the same insensidecks have a descent of four or five steps from bility that he had showed upon other occathe quarter-deck and forecastle into the waist, sions: he remained fixed and immoveable; his in contradistinction to those whose decks are eyes turned wildly here and there without takon a continued line for the whole length of ing cognizance of any object, and the muscles the ship, which are called galley-built. For- of his face were fallen and fixed like those of a merly the name of frigate was only known in dead body. Being left to himself, he passed the Mediterranean, and applied to a kind of 20 days in this condition, without eating, long vessels navigated in that sea with sails and drinking, or any evacuation, and died on the Oars. Our countrymen were the first who ap- 20th day.” peared in the ocean with those ships, and Yet frights have been known not only to equipped them for war as well as commerce. cause, but also to cure, diseases. Mr. Boyle
FRIGATOON, a Venetian vessel, com- speaks of agues, gout, and sciatica, cured by monly used in the Adriatic. It is built with a this means. To turn from the serious to the
ludicrous effects of fear, the following instance wanting warmth (Cheyne). 2. Wanting of the latter sort, quoted from a French author warmth of affection. 3. Impotent; without by Mr. Andrews, in his volume of Anecdotes, warmth of body. 4. Dull; without fire of shews upon what slight occasions this passion fancy (Suifl). may be sometimes excited in a very high de- FRIGIDITY.s. (frigiditas, Lat.) 1. Coldgree, even in persons the most unlikely to en- ness; want of warmth. 2. Dulness; want of tertain such a guest. “Charles Gustavus (the intellectual fire (Pope). 3. Want of corporeal successor of Christina of Sweden) was besieg- warmth (Glanville). 4. Coldness of affecing Prague, when a boor of most extraordinary tion. visage desired admittance to his tent; and, FRIGIDLY. ad. (from frigid.) Coldly ; being allowed entrance, offered, by way of dully; without affection. amusing the king, to devour a whole hög of FRIGIDNESS. s. (from frigid.) Coldness; one hundred weight in his presence. The old dulness ; want of affection. general Konigsmare, who stood by the king's FRIGORI'FIC. s. (frigorificus, frigus, side, and who, soldier as he was, had not got and facio, Latin.) Causing cold (Quincy). rid of the prejudices of his childhood, hinted to To FRILL. v.a. (frilleur, Fr.) To quake his royal master that the peasant ought to be or shiver with cold. Used of a hawk; as, the burnt as a sorcerer. 'Sir,' said the fellow, ir- hawk frills. ritated at the remark, 'if your majesty will but FRINGE. s. (frange, French.) Ornamental make that old gentleman take off his sword appendages added to dress or furniture (Wotand his spurs, I will eat him immediatly be- ton). fore I begin the hog.'. General Konigsmare To FRINGE. v. n. (from the noun.) То (who had, at the head of a body of Swedes, adorn with fringes; to decorate with ornáperformed wonders against the Austrians, and mental appendages (Fairfax). who was looked upon as one of the bravest FRINGE-TREE. See CHIONANTHUS. men of the age) could not stand this proposal, FRINGED COROL. In botany, fimbriate. especially as it was accompanied by a most The edge surrounded by hairs or bristles not hideous and preternatural expansion of the parallel or so regularly dispused as in the ciliate frightful peasant's jaws. Without uttering a corol. Exemplified in 'Menyanthes trifoliword, the veteran suddenly turned round, ran ata. out of the court, and thought not himself safe FRINGILLA. Finch. In zoology, a genus until he had arrived at his quarters; where he of the class aves, order passeres. Bill conic, remained above 24 hours locked up. securely, straight, pointed. A hundred, and twelve before he had got rid of the panic which had so species; distributed over the globe; of which severely affected him.”
ten are natives of our own country. Fear, observes Dr. Beattie in his Elements The following are those most worthy of of Moral Science, should not rise higher than notice. to make us attentive and cautious : when it 1. F. Calebs. Chaffinch; of which there gains an ascendency in the mind, it becomes are six
varieties. an insupportable tyranny, and renders life a a. Limbs black ; quill feathers white on burden." The object of fear is evil; and to be both sides; the three first without spots; exempt from fear, or at least not enslaved by two of the tail feathers obliquely white. it, gives dignity to our nature, and invigorates 6. Ashy; beneath flesh-colour; wingall our faculties. Yet there are evils which coverts white, black in the middle; we ought to fear. Those that arise from our- wings and tail black. selves, or which it is in our power to prevent,
7. Body white. it would be madness to despise, and audacity d. Collar and crown white. not lo guard against. External evils, which .. Fore-part white; hind-part ferruginous. we cannot prevent, or could not avoid without Š. Back yellowish, beneath very palc. Fea breach of duty, it is manly and honourable to nale wants the red on the breast and bear with fortitude. Insensibility to danger is other parts. Inhabits Europe and Afrinot fortitude, no more than the feeling pain ca; the females migrate from Sweden can be called patience; and to expose ourselves to Holland in the autumn, leaving their unnecessarily to evil is worse than folly, and mates behind, and return in the spring; very blameable presumption. It is commonly sings early in the vernal months ; lavs called fool-hardiness; that is, such a degree of from four to five dull white eggs spotted hardiness or boldness as none but fools are ca- with deep purple. pable of. See the article FORTITUDE. 2. F. Montifringilla. Mountain-finch.
To FRIGHTEN. v.a. To terrify; to shock Brambling. Three varieties. with dreau (Prior).
c. Base of the wings beneath five yellow. FRIGHTFUL, a. (from fright.) Terrible; 6. Eye-brows and band on the nape black; dreadful; full of terror (Shakespeare).
body beneath and rump white; chin FRIGHTFULLY. ad. (from frightful.) and breast reddish; wing-coverts with a Dreadfully; horribly (Burnet).
white band. FRIGHTFULNESS. s. (from frightful.) Body paler; head white. The power of impressing terrour.
Iohabits 'Europe and Siberia; variety €. FRIGID. a. (frigidus, Latin.) 1. Cold; Asia. Six and a quarter inches long; feeds