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FURZE. s. (firs, Saxon.) Gorse ; goss. FU'sion. A chemical process, by which See Ulex.

bodies are made to pass from the solid to the FU'RZY. a. (from furze.) Overgrown fuid state, in consequence of the application with furze ; full of gorse (Gay).

of heat. The chief objects susceptible of this FUSA, in the Italian music, a quarer. operation are salts, sulphur, and metals. Salts

FUSA'NUS, in botany, a genus of the class are liable to two kinds of fusion; the one, polygamia monæcia. Herm. : calyx five-cleft; which is peculiar to saline matters, is owing to corolless; stamens four; germ inferior; stig- water, and is called aqueous fusion; the other, mas four ; drupe. One species only; a Cape which arises from the application of fire, is tree, with two-edged branches and axillary ra- known by the name of igneous fusion. cemes.

FUSS. s. (a low cant word.) A tumult; a FUSCATION. s. (fuscus, Latin.) The bustle (Swift). act of darkening or obscuring.

FUST. s. (fuste, French.) 1. The trunk or FUSE, or Fuze, in artillery: See Fusee. body of a column. 2. A strong smell, as that

To Fuse. v. a. (fusum, Latin.) To melt; of a mouldy barrel. to put into fusion ; to liquify by heat.

To Fust.v. 1.

To grow mouldy; to smell To Fuse. v. n. To be melted.

ill. FU'SEE. s. (fuseau, French.) In clock- Fust, or Faust (John), a goldsmith of work, is the conoidal part which is drawn by Mentz, and one of the three to whom the inthe spring, and about which the chain or string vention of printing has been ascribed. It apis wound. See Clock and Watch. pears, however, that he only supported Gut

Fusee, or FIRELOCK. See MUSQUET. temburg in his attempts to make moveable

Fusee, or Fuse, of a bomb or grenado, is metal types at Strasburg. This was in 1444. that which communicates fire to the whole Fust is supposed to have died of the plague at powder or composition in the shell, to do the Paris about 1466. The story told of his being designed execution.

accused of magic on account of the exactness Fuses are chiefly made of very dry beech of his bibles at Paris is a fable. wood, and sometimes of horn-beam taken near FU'STIAN. s. (futaine, French.) 1. A the root. They are turned rough and bored at kind of cloth made of linen and cotton, or of first, and then kept for several years in a dry cotton only (Shakspeare). 2. A high swelling place. The diameter of the hole is about kind of writing made up ofheterogeneous parts ;

of an inch; the hole does not go quite bombast (Smith). through, having about & of an inch at the bot- FU'stian. á. (from the noun.) 1. Made tom ; and the head is made hollow in the form of fustian. 2. Swelling; unnaturally pomponis; of a bowl.

ridiculously tumid (Dryden). The composition for fuses is, salt-petre 3, FUSTIĆ, a kind of wood used in dying. sulphur 1, and mealed powder 3 or 4, and See Morus. sometimes 5. This composition is driven in FU'STIGATE. v. a. (fustigo, Latin.) To with an iron driver whose ends are capped beat with a stick; to cane. with copper, to prevent the composition from FUSTIGATIO, in the Roman customs, a taking fire, and to keep it equally hard ; the punishment inflicted by beating with a cudgel: last shovel-full being all mealed powder, and 2 it was peculiar to freemen; for the slaves were strands of quick match laid across cach other, scourged or lashed with whips. being driven in with it, the ends of which are FUSTILA'RIAN, s. À low fellow; a folded up into the hollow top, and a cap of stinkard ; a scoundrel : not used (Shakspeare). parchment tied over it until it is used.

FU'STINESS. s. (from fusty.) MouldiFU'SIBLE. a. (from fuse.). Capable of ness ; stink. being melted, or made liquid by heat (Boyle). FU'STY. a. (from fust.) Ill smelling ;

FU'SIBILITY. s. (from fusible.) Capacity mouldy. of being melted ; quality of growing liquid by FURTILE. a. ( futile, French.) 1. Talkaheat (Wotton).

tive ; loquacious (Bacon). 2. Tribing; worthFUSIFORM ROOT. (fusus, a spille.) less; of'no weight. In botany, spindle-shaped root. Simple or ge- FUTI’LITY. s. (futilité, French.) 1. nerally so, tapering downwards to a point ; as Talkativeness ; loquacity (L' Estrange): 2: in radish, carrot, parsnip. Applied also to the Triflingness : want of weight; want of solileaf, as in crassula rubens.

dity (Bentley); FU'SIL. a. (fusile, French.) 1. Capable FUT OCKS. s. (from foot hooks. Skinof being melted liquifiable by heat (Milton), ner). The lower timbers that hold the ship 2. Running by the force of heat (Philips). together.

FU'sil. s. ( fusil, French.) 1. A firelock; FUTTYPOUR, SICRI, a considerable town a small neat musket. 2. (In heraldry; from of Hindustan Proper, in the province of Agra. fusus, Latin.) Something like a spindle It is seated under a range of hills, the southern (Peachanı).

boundary of an immense plain, in which, for FUSILIER. s. (from fusil.) A soldier the greatest part, not a shrub is to be seen, and armed with a fusil; a musketeer.

the soil is almost as fine as hair powder ; a cir. FUSION. s. ( fusio, Latin.) 1. The act cumstance productive of the most disagreeable of melting. 2. The state of being melted effects. Lat. 27° N. Lon. 77: 45 E. (Newton).

FUTURE. e. (futurus, Latin ) That will

be hereafter ; to come : as, the future state leg. A fuzee is accounted, moreover, more (Milton).

dangerous than a simple splint. FUTURE Tense, among grammarians. See TO FUZZ. v. n. To fly out in small partie GRAMMAR and TENSE.

cles. FU'TURE. s. Time to come; somewhat to FU'ZZBALL. S. A kind of fungus, which, happen hereafter (Locke).

when pressed, bursts and scatters dust in the In time to come (Ral.). eyes.

FUTURITION. s. The state of being FY. interj. (fy, French ; qiu, Greek.) A to be; the condition of being come to pass word of blame and disapprobation (Spenser). hereafter (South).

FYAL, one of the Azores, or Western FUTU'RITY, s. (from future.) 1. Time islands. It is well cultivated ; and has abunto come (Swift). 2. Event to come. 3. Fu- dance of chesnuts, beeches, myrtles, and aspenturition (Glanville).

trees. The cottages of the common people are FUZEE. See FUSEE.

built of clay, thatched with straw; and are FUZEE. A name given by farriers to two small, but cleanly and cool. The most conconsiderable splints in a horse, joining from siderable place is called Villa de Horta. Lon. above downwards Commonly a fuzee rises 28. 36 W. Lat. 38. 32 N. to the knee, and lames the horse. Fuzees differ FYZABAD, a city of Hindustan Proper, from screws or thorough splints in this, that in the territory of Oude. This city is very pothe latter are placed on the opposite sides of the pulous. Lat. 26. 34 N. Lon. 82.30 E.

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Greek gamma.


THE seventh letter and fifth consonant pronouncing Segnor. And Ramus in his bets of all the oriental languages, the Hebrew, French only with a little coinma over it, inPhæniciau, Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, Ara- stead of joining the G to it. bic, and even Greek, G is the third letter. Here arises still another difficulty, namely, The Hebrews call it ghimel or gimel, 9. d. to know if the letter N is changed by the camel; because it resembles the neck of that Greeks into r in some words, as Alyses and animal ; and the same appellation it bears in the afuuser, &c. r is then pronounced like an N. Samaritan, Phænician, and Chaldee: in the For it seems, says Henricus Stephanus, that it Syriac it is called gamel, in Arabic giim, and in is an error of the copyists, who have made


, a little too broad in joining the small letFrom the Greeks the Latins borrowed their ters, and have made a y of it. From whence form of this letter; the Latin G being certainly comes that in the MS. written in capital letters, a corruption of the Greek gamma r, as might like those he has made use of to make his Theeasily be shown, had our printers all the cha- saurus, these whole words are found with an racters and forms of this letter which we meet N, ANTEADE, ANKYPA, and the like. For, says with in the Greek and Latin MSS. through he, it seems absurd to say, that N was changed which the letter passed from r to G. Diomed, into r, to the end that r might be pronounced lib. ii. cap. De litera, calls G a new letter. His like an N. Wherefore Scaliger tells us, that reason is, that the Romans had not introduced if we read sometimes these words with an N, it before the first Punic war; as appears from then we must be sure that it is a fault of the the rostral column erected by C. Duilius, on copyists, who thought to express this pronunwhich we every where find a C in lieu of G. ciation the better by that character, which It was Sp: Carvilius who first distinguished pronunciation, as Vossius says, should rebetween those two letters, and invented the quire rather some new and particular characfigure of the G.; as we are assured by Teren- ter tius Scaurus. The C served very well for G; The Latins had something like that in their it being the third letter of the Latin alphabet, tongue, which Nigidius in Aulus Gallius as the r or y was of the Greek,

calls a false N, as in the words Anguis, Ancora · Ainsworth remarks, that the Romans, when and others. Wherefore Varro, as is related they wrote pucna and Carthaco, read pugna by Priscian, affirms that Attius and the auand Carthago; and to remedy the ambiguity cient authors wrote these words with a double and inconvenience this led to, they took in the GG, like the Greeks, Aggulus, Aggens, and letter G, which they had not, to make their the like. tongue more easy; whereas we have laid aside The letter G is of the mute kind, and cannot P and 8 which we had, to make ours more dif- be any way sounded without the help of a ficult, which is very unaccountable.

vowel. It is formed by the reflexion of the air It has been much controverted whether the against the palate, inarle by the tongue as the Romans pronounced the G before the N, as air passes out of the throat; which Martianus the French do in these words, Agnez, Magni. Copello expresses thus, G spiritus cum palato ; fique, Espagnol, &c.

so that G is a palatal letter. But in all probability the Romans pro- The modern G takes its form from that of nounced the G not as the French do in the the Latins. In English it has two sounds, above words, and the G in Agnus was pro- one from the Greek r, and the Latin, which nounced by them, as it is in Agger; for the is called that of the hard G, because it is formed other pronunciation is so particular and dif- by a pressure somewhat hard on the fore part ferent from the common pronunciation of G, of the tongue against the upper gum; which the ancient writers had otherwise never made sound it retains before a, o, u, l, r; as gale, go, use of it.

gull. At the end of a word it is always hard, And it is to be observed, that the G is so

as ring, sing, &c. The other sound, called little pronounced in these words Agnez and that of the soft G, resembles that of j; and is the like, that it does but denote a liquid N; as commonly found before e and i, as in gesture, the same letter G shews in the Italian tongue giant, &c. To this rule, however, there are the liquid L, figlliola, daughter: wherefore many exceptions; G is often hard before i, as the Spaniards write Segnor without a G, give, &c. and sometimes before e, as get, &c. drawing only a little stroke upon the N, to shew It is also hard in derivatives from words ending that it is a liquid letter, and that it receives in g, as singing, stronger, &c. and generally that pronunciation, writing thus, Senor, and before er, at tlic end of words, as finger. G is mute before n, as gnash, sign. Gh has the GABIONS, in fortification, baskets made sound of the hard G in the beginning of a of ozier twigs, of a cylindrical form, six feet word, as ghostly; in the middle, and some- high, and four wide: which being filled with times at the end, it is quite silent, as right, earth, serve as a shelter from the enemy's fire. though. At the end of a word, Gh has often See FORTIFICATION. the sound of f, as laugh, rough, tough,

GA'BLE. s. (gaval, Welsh.) The sloping As a numeral, G was anciently used to de- roof of a building (Mortimer). note 400; and with a dash over it thus G, GABLE-END OF A HOUSE, is the upright 40,000

triangular end from the cornice or eaves to the As an abbreviature, G stands for Gaius, Gel- top of the house. lius, gens, genius, &c. G. G. for gemina,

GABRES, or GAVRES, a religious sect in gessit, gesserunt, &c. G. C. for genio civita- Persia and India, called also Gebres, Guebres, iis or Cæsaris. G. L. for Gaius libertus, or Gevres, Gaurs, &c.. (See Magl.) 'The Turks genio loci. G. V. S. for genio urbis sucrum. call the Christians Gabres, q. d. infidels, or G. B. for genio bono. And G. T. for genio people of a false religion ; or rather, as Leantutelari.

clavius observes, heathens or gentiles: the In music, G is the character or mark of the word Gabre among the Tarks having the same treble cleff; and from its being placed at the signification as pagan or infidel among the head, or marking the first sound in Guido's Christians, and denoting any thing not Mahoscale, the whole scale took the name gamut.

metan. In Persia the word has a more peculiar GABARA, or GABBAR A, in antiquity, the signification ; wherein it is applied to a sect disdead bodies which the Egyptians embalmed, persed through the country, and said to be the and kept in their houses.

remains of the ancient Persians or followers of GA'BARDINE. s. (gavardina, Italian.) Zoroaster, being worshippers of fire. They have A coarse frock; any mean dress (Shak.). a suburb at Ispahan, which is called Gaura

GABBIANI (Antonio Domenico), an his. bad, or the town of the Gaurs, where they are torical and portrait painter

of Florence, born employed in the meanest and vilest drudgery : in 1652, and died in 1726. He was patronized some of them are dispersed through other parts by the grand duke Cosmo III. who sent him of Persia; but they principally abound in to the Florentine academy, at Rome, where he Kerman, the most barren province in the whole studied three years, and on his return to his na- country, where the Mahometans allow them tive city was employed by his highness and the liberty and the exercise of their religion. Seprincipal nobility of his court. He was killed veral of them fled many ages ago into India, by a fall from a scaffold as he was at work.

and settled about Surat, where their posterity T. GA'BBLE. v. n. ( gubbare, Italian.) 1. remain to this day. There is also a colony of To make an inarticulate noise (Dryden). 2. them at Bombay. They are a poor, ignorant, To prate loudly without meaning (Hudibras). inoffensive people, extremely superstitious and

GA'BBLE. ś. (from the verb.) 1. Inarticu- zealous for their rites, rigorous in their morals, late noise, like that of brute animals (Shak- and honest in their dealings. speare). 2. Loud talking without meaning

GABRIEL (a man of God, strength of (Milton).

God), one of the principal angels in heaven ; GA'BBLER. s. (from gabble.) A prater; a who was sent to the prophet Daniel (Dan. chattering fellow

viii. 16. ix. 21.); who announced the birth GABEL, GABELLA, GABLUM, GABLA- of John the baptist (Luke i. 11), and of Jesus GIUM, in French gabelle, i.e. vectigal, hath the Christ (Luke i. 36.). same signification among the ancient English

GAD.s. (gad, Saxon.) 1. A wedge or inwriters that gabelle till lately had in France. got of steel (Moxon). 2. A style or graver It is a tax; but hath been variously used, as for (Shakspeare). a rent, custom, service, &c. And where it To Gad. 2. n. ( gadau, Welsh, to forsake.) was a payınent of rent, those who paid it were To ramble about without any settled purpose; termed gablatores. When the word gabel was to rove loosely and idly (Fairfax). formerly mentioned without any addition to it, GADDER. s. (from gad.). A rambler ; it signified the tax on salt, though afterwards it one that runs much abroad without business tras applied to all other taxes.

(Eccies.). GABIANUM OLEUM. See PETROLEUM GA'DDINGLY. ad. (from gad.) In a


rambling manner. GABIN, a town of Poland, in the palati

GAD-FLY, in entomology. Sce s. nate of Rava. Lat. 52. 26 N. Lon. 19. TRUS. 45 E.

GADUS. Cod-fish. In zoology, a genus of GABINIAN LAWS, in Roman antiquity, the class pisces, order jugulares. Head smooth; laws instituted upon several occasions, by per- gill-membrane with seven slender rays; body sons of the name of Gabinius. The first was oblong, covered with deciduous scales; fins the Gabinia lex de Comitiis, by A. Gabidius all covered with the common skin ; dorsal and the tribune, in the year of Rome 614: it re- anal generally more than one; the rays unquired, that in the public assemblies for elect- armed; ventral fins slender, ending in a point. ing magistrates, the votes should be given by Twenty-three species. Chiefly inhabitants of tablets, and not viva voce.

the European seas, and especially towards the

this genus.

north ; a few of the seas of America, and one sixtieth degrees ; such as are caught beyond it or two of the Pacific ocean. They may be being always inferior both in quantity and thus subdivided.

quality. Their grand resort for centuries past A Dorsal fins three; mouth bearded. has been on the banks of Newfoundland, and B Dorsal fins three; inouth beardless, or other sand banks off Cape Breton. This exwithout cirri.

tensive fat seems to be the broad top of a subC Dorsal fins two.

aqueous mountain, every where surrounded D Dorsal fin one.

with a deeper sea. Hither the cod annually The following are the most remarkable of repair, in numbers beyond the power of calcu

lation, to feed upon the worms that swarm 1. G. æglesinus. Haddock. Whitish ; tail upon the sandy boitom. Here they are taken forked, upper jaws longer; eyes large, pupil in such quantities, that they supply all Europe black, iris silvery; scales minute, rounded, with a considerable stock of provision. The and striking firmer. than in the other species; English have stages erected all'along the shore, very minute teeth in the jaws. Inhabits the for salting and drying them; and the fishermen, northern seas, and migrates in vast shoals, that who take them with the hook and line, draw appear on the Yorkshire coast about Christ- them as fast as they can throw them out. mas ; feeds in summer on young herrings and This immense capture makes no sensible other small fishes; in winter chiefly on ser- diminution of their numbers; for after their pulæ; is eagerly hunted after by seals and food is consumed in these parts, or when the other rapacio:is marine animals ; flesh white season of propagation approaches, they take and tolerably good.

their departure for the polar seas, where they 2. G. callarius. Zorsk. Colour various; deposit their roes in full security, and repair equal ; upper jaw longer; head less than the the waste which has been occasioned by death, last, cinereous, spotted in the summer with or the depredations of their enemies. They brown, in the winter with black. Inhabits annually make their appearance on the coasts the Baltic and Northern European seas in ge- of Iceland, Norway, and Britain, gradually neral; sometimes enters the mouths of rivers ; diminishing in their numbers, as they proceed feeds on smaller fishes, worms, and marine to the south, and ceasing altogether on this side insects ; Aesh white, firm, and finely flavour- the straits of Gibraltar. ed; seldom exceeds two pounds in weight. Before the discovery of Newfoundland, the

3. G. morpua. Common cod. Tail sub- largest cod-fisheries were on the coasts of Iceequal; first anal ray spinous ; mouth large, land, and the Hebrides, where the English rejaws equal, bearded with a cirrous body, cine- sorted in quest of them as early as the beginning reous, spotted with yellowish, beneath white; of the fifteenth century. On the banks of the younger fishes sometimes reddish, spotted Newfoundland the English, who for a consi with orange ; scales larger than in any other derable period of time, and especially in the of its tribe; flesh white, and excellent when middle of the sixteenth century, were only in season.

rivals of the French, Spaniards, and PortuThe stated migration of the cominon cod, guese, have long possessed almost a monopol which is by far the most important species of of the trade, and draw from it not merely the entire genus, is a very remarkable circum- valuable accession to the wealth of individuals stance in its history; although in this respect it but a very considerable augmentation of th only assimilates with the habits of many other naval power of the empire. species of the same tribe. All these in their This immense fishery is conducted in a trace annual voyages, in the immensity of their of the sea agitated by a perpetual swell, an numbers, and in their social habits, bear a involved in continual fogs and darkness. Th strong analogy to birds of passage. The cod, bait used is herring, a small fish called capelin the haddock, and the whiting, issue forth in a shell fish, and bits of sea fowl. The natura immense shoals from the arctic seas, very early food of the cod is small fishes, testaceous ani in the spring, and after having dispersed over mals, such as crabs and whelks; and thei the temperate latitudes, again regularly return digestive powers are so strong, that they dis to their northern retreats about the same time solve every substance, which, from an insatiabl of the year. The necessity of procuring food voracity, they swallow. Their sight is pro has been assigned as the cause of their annual bably very imperfect; for almost every sma migrations from the arctic seas; and their re- body that is agitated by the water attracts the treat thither has been ascribed to the security rapacious jaw, stones and pebbles not ex that these unfrequented tracts are supposed to cepted, for these are often found in the afford them, while they deposit their spawn. stomachs.

But although the cod undertakes annual The sounds of the cod-fish are reckoned excursions of considerable length, it still may great delicacy, and frequently brought fros be regarded as a local fish; for it never ventures Newfoundland, salted up by themselves: the into the warmer tracts of the ocean. None are

are employed by the fishermen of Iceland a found in the Mediterranean; and few in those making isinglass; and are obtained by car parts of the Atlantic of the same latitude. fully separating them from the back-bóne, i They are in greatest perfection, and seem to which they adhere after the fish is cut up. prefer that space lying between the fiftieth and The general weight of the cod-fish on th

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