Page images
PDF
EPUB

freehold goes to the heir; and things fixed stitution as to allow of being cut freely in any thereto may not be taken in distress for rent, direction. or in execution, &c. No man shall be disseis- The qualities of the several kiuds, of freeed of his freehold by stat. Magna Charta, cap. stones ased in the different parts of Europe are 29, but by judgment of his peers, or according very different. They all agree in this general to the laws of the land : nor shall any distrain property indeed, that they are softer when in freeholders to answer for their freehold, in any the quarry, than when they have been some thing concerning the same, without the king's time exposed to the air ; but even this general writ. Freehold estales, of certain value, are property differs greatly in degree. They have required by statutes to qualify jurors, electors of a sort of grey freestone in use at Paris (of which the knights of the shire in parliament, &c. we do not yet seem to have met with any in

FREEHOLD is likewise extended to such this country), which has the abovementioned offices as a man holds in fee, or for life. quality in so great a degree, that the expence of

FREEHOLD is also sometinies taken in op- working it is in a great measure saved. position to villenage. Lambarri observes, that This stone lies every where on the south land, in the Saxon times, was distinguished side of the river Seine, and is of a coarse and into bockland, i.e. holden by book or writing; large grit. It is so soft when newly taken out and folkland, held without writing. The of the strata, that they fashion it rery conveni former, he says, was held on far better condi- ently with a sort of broad axe, and form as tions, and by the better sort of tenants, as many stones for building in this manner in an noblemen and gentlemen; being such as we hour, as an equal oumber of our people do in a now call freehold : the latter was mostly in the day or two. Though this stone is as soft as possession of peasants; being the same with dry clay when first taken up, it is found to what we now call at the will of the lord. In harden'so considerably in the air, that it bethe ancient laws of Scotland, freeholders are comes more than equal to our ordinary freecalled milites, knights. In Reg. Judicial. it is stone. expressed, ibat he who holds land upon an exe- Our Portland stone of the finest kind, which cution of a statute merchant, uniil he hath is white, and of a close grit, is very fit for hewsatistied the debt, tenet ut liberum tenementum ing and carving.; but it will neither resist sibi et assignatis suis ; and the same of a te- water nor fire, which is a very singular in. nant per eligit: the meaning of which seems to stance in so dense a stone; while the freestone be, not that such tenants are freeholders, but of Kent, which is less beautiful to the eye, and as freeholders for the time, till they have re- is of a greyish colour, and considerably close, ceived profits to the value of their debt. though of a larger grain, resists the air and

FREEHO'LDER. . (from freehold.) One water very well. The freestone of Derbyshire, who has a freehold (Davies),

on the other hand, is so brittle as to be unfit FRE'ELY. ad. (from free.) 1. At liberty; for any fine working; and so coarse and open without vassalage ; without slavery; without in its texture, that it lets water through; yet dependance. 2. Without restraint; heavily it bears the fire extremely well, and is fit for (Shakspeare). 3. Plentifully; lavishly (Shak- ovens, hearths, &c. speare). 4. Without scruple; without reserve FREETHI'NKER, s. (free and think.) A (Pope). 5. Without impediment (Ascham). libertine; a contemner of religion. (Addison). 6. Without necessity; without predetermina- FREE WARREN, a franchise or place tion (Rogers). 7. Frankly; liberally (South). distinct from forest, chace, park, manos, or 8. Spontaneously; of its own accord. warren, derived originally from the crown;

FRE’EMAN. s. (free and man.) 1. One and the person having a grant of such franchise not a slave; not a vassal (Locke). 2. One or free warren possesses a sole right of pursu. partaking of rights, privileges, or imnunities ing, taking, and killing game of every kind (Dryden).

within its limits: althongh not ore acre of FREEMASON. See Mason, and Ma- Jand belonging to it may be his own proSONRY

FREEMI'NDER. a. ( free and mind.) Pande are situate in, and sucrounded by, a free Unperplexed ; without load of care (Bacon). warren, the owner of such lands may kill game

FRE'ENESS. s. (from free.) 1. The state within his own manor, but he cannot introor quality of being free. 2. Opennesss ; unre. duce even a qualified person to kill game there servedness; ingenuousness ; candone (Dryd.). also, without the consent of the owner or pose. 3. Generosity; liberality (Sprat).

sessor of the privilege of free warren over the FREESCHOOL. s: (free and school.) A. whole. school in which learning is given without pay FREEWI'LL. 3. (free and will.) 1. The (Davies).

power of directing our own actions without FREESPOʻKEN. Q. (free and spoken.), restraint by necessity or fate (Locke). 2. Vo Accustomed to speak without reserve (Bacon). luntariness; spontaneity (Ezra). FREESTONE, a whitish stone, dug up in

FREEWOMAN. s. free and womax.) A many parts of Britain, that works like alabaster, woman not enslaved (Maccabees). but is more hard and durable ; being of excel- TO FREEZE. v. n. pret. froze, (urieson. lent use in building, &c. It is a species of Dutch.) 1. To be congealed with cold the grit stone, but finer sanded and smoother; (locke). %. To bę of that degree of cold by and is called free, from its being of such a con. which water is congealed (Dryden).

To FREEZE. 0. l. 1. To congeal with cold, hours, and burst the piece in two places. 2. To kill by cold (Shakspeare). 3. To chill Mathematicians have computed the force of by the loss of power or motion.

the ice upon this occasion, and they say, that FREEZE, or FRIZE, in architecture, that such a force would raise a weight of 27,720 part of the entablature of columns which is be- pounds. Lastly, Major Edward Williams, of tween the architrave and corniche. In the the royal artillery, made many experiments on Tuscan order it is quite plain; in the Doric, the force of it, at Quebec, in the years 1784 enriched with triglyphs, or channelled figures, and 1785. He filled all sizes of iron bombwith spaces between them, called metopes, shells with water, then plugged the fuze-hole which are often plain, and sometimes orna- close up, and exposed them to the strong mented; in the lonic, it is sometimes made freezing air of the winter in that climate; arched or swelled ; in the Corinthian and sometimes driving in the iron plugs as hard as Composite, it is frequently joined to the archi- possible with a sledge hammer; and yet they trave, by a little sweep, and sometimes to the were always thrown out by the sudden expancorniche: and in these richer orders it is usu- sion of the water in the act of freezing, like a ally adorned with sculpture, figures, comparti- ball shot by gunpowder, sometimes to the ments, histories, foliages, festoons, &c. distance of between 400 and 500 feet, though

FREEZING, in natural philosophy, con- they weighed near three pounds; and when the gelation, the transformation of a Auid body plugs were screwed in, or furnished with into a firm or solid mass, hy the action of hooks or barbs to lay hold of the inside of the cold; in which sense the term is applied to shell by, so that they could not possibly be water when it freezes into ice; to metals forced out, in this case the shell was always when they resume their solid form after being split in two, though the thickness of the melted by heat; or to glass, wax, pitch, tal metal of the shell was about an inch and low, &c. when they barden again after having three quarters. It is farther remarkable, that been rendered fluid by heat.

through the circular crack, round about the The process of congelation is always attend- shells, where they burst, there stood out a ed with ihe emission of heat, as is found by thin film, or sheet of ice, like a fin; and in experiments on the freezing of water, wax, the cases when the plugs were projected by spermaceti

, &c.; for in such cases it is always freezing water, there suddenly issued out froin found that a thermometer dipt into the fluid the fuze-hole a bolt of ice of the same diamemass keeps continually descending as this ter, and stood over it to the height sometimes cools, till it arrive at a certain point, being the of eight inches and a half. And hence we need point of freezing, which is peculiar to each not be surprised at the effects of ice in destroy Huid, where it is rather stationary, and then ing the substance of vegetables and trees, and rises for a little, while the congelation goes even splitting rocks, when the frost is carried on. But by what means it is that fluid bodies to excess. should thus be rendered solid by cold, or Auid It is also obseryed that water loses of its by heat, or what is introduced into the bodies weight by freezing, being found lighter after by either of those principles, are matters the thawing again, than before it was frozen. And learned have not yet been able to discover, or indeed it evaporates almost as fast when frozeu to satisfy themselves upon. The following as when it is Auid. phænomena however are usually observed. It is said too that water does not freeze in

Water, and some other fluids, suddenly di. vacuo; requiring, for that purpose the prelate and expand in the act of freezing, so as to sence and contiguity of the air. ' But this ciroccupy a greater space in the form of ice than cumstance is liable to some doubt, and it may before, in consequence of which it is that ice be suspected that the degree of cold has not is specifically lighter than the same Auid, and been carried far enough in these instances; as floats in it. And the degree of expansion of it is found that mercury in the vacuum of water, in the state of ice, is by some authors thermometers has even been frozen, though it computed at about to of its volume. Oil, how- requires a vastly greater degree of cold to ever, is an exception to this property, and freeze mercury than water. quicksilver too, which shrinks and contracts Water which has been boiled freezes more still more after freezing. Mr. Boyle relates readily than that which has not been boiled; several experiments of vessels made of metal, and a slight disturbance of the fluid disposes very thick and strong; in which, when filled it to freeze more speedily; having sometimes with water, close stopped, and exposed to the been cooled several degrees below the freezing cold, the water being expanded in freezing, point, without congealing when kept quite and not finding either room or vent, burst the still

, but suddenly freezing into ice on the vessels. A strong barrel of a gun, with water least motion or disturbance. in it close stopped and frozen, was rept the Water, being covered over with a surface of whole length. Huygens, to try the force with oil of olives, does not freeze so readily as which it expands, killed a cannon with it, without it; and nut oil absolutely preserves whose sides were an inch thick, and then it under a strong frost, when olive oil would

the mouth and vent, so that none not. could escape; the whole being exposed to a The surface of the water, in freezing, apstrong freezing air, the water froze in about 12 pears all wrinkled : the wșinkles being some.

closed

up

times in parallel lines, and sometimes like of cold beyond the ordinary standard. And, rays, proceeding from a centre to the circum- in severe winters, nature has provided the ference.

best natural defence for the cornfields and garThe prodigious power of expansion evinced dens, namely, a covering of snow, which preby water in the act of freezing is nearly doue serves such parts green and healthy as are ble that of the most powerful steam-engines, under it, while such as are uncovered by it are and exerted in so small a mass, seemingly by either killed or greatly injured. the force of cold, was thought a very material Although the thermometer in this country argument in favour of those who supposed hardly ever (lescends so low as 0, yet, in the that cold, like heat, is a positive substance, winter of 1780, Mr. Wilson, of Glasgow, obDr. Black's discovery of latent heat, however, served, that a thermometer laid on the snow has now afforded a very easy and natural expli- sunk to 25° below 0; and Mr. Derham, in cation of this phenomenon. He has shewn the year 1708, observed in England that the that, in the act of congelation, water is not mercury stood within one tenth of an inch of cooled more than it was before, but rather its station when plunged into a mixture of grows warmer : that as much heat is discharg- snow and salt. Ai Petersburgh, in 1732, the ed, and passes from a latent to a sensible state, thermometer stood at 28° below 0; and when as, had it been applied to water in a fluid the French academicians wintered near the state, would have heated it to 135°. In this polar circle, the thermometer sunk to 33 process the expansion is occasioned by a great below 0; and in the Asiatic and American number of ininute bubbles suddenly produced. continents still greater degrees of cold are often Formerly these were supposed to be cold in observed. the abstract; and to be so subtle, that iosinu- The effects of these extreme degrees of cold ating themselves into the substance of the are very surprising. Trees are burst, rocks Auid, they augmented its bulk, at the same rent, and rivers and lakes frozen several time that by impeding the motion of its parti- feet deep: metallic substances blister the skin cles upog each other, they changed it from a like red' hot iron : the air, when drawn in by Auid io a solid. But Dr. Black shews, that breathing, hurts the lungs, and excites a these are only air extricated during the con- cough : even the effects of fire, in a great gelation ; and to the extrication of this air he measure, seem to cease : and it is observed, ascribes the prodigious expansive force exerted that though metals are kept for a considerable by freezing water. The only question, there. time before a strong fire, they will still freeze fore, now remaining is, by what means this water when thrown upon them. When the air comes to be extricated, and to take up French mathematicians wintered at Tornea, more room than it naturally does in the Auid? in Lapland, the external air, when suddenly To this it may be answered, that perhaps part of admitted into their rooms, converted the the heat, which is discharged from the freezing moisture of the atmosphere into whirls of water, combines with the air in its unelastic snow; their breasts seemed to be rent when state, and, by restoring its elasticity, gives it they breathed it, the contact of it was intolethat extraordinary force, as is seen also in the rable to their bodies ; and the spirit of wine, case of air suddenly extricated in the explosion which had not been highly rectified, burst of gunpowder.

some of their thermometers by the congelation Cold also usually tends to make bodies elece of the aqueous part. tric, which are not so naturally, and to increase Extreme cold too often proves fatal to anithe electric properties of such as are so. And mals in those countries where the winters are it is farther found, that all substances do not very severe : thus 7000 Swedes perished at transmit cold equally well; but that the best once in attempting to pass the mountains conductors of electricity, viz. metals, are like- which divide Norway from Sweden. But it is wise the best conductors of cold, It may far. not necessary that the cold, in order to prore ther be added, that when the cold has been fatal to human life, should be so very intense carried to such an extremity as to render any as has been just mentioned ; it is only requibody an electric, it then ceases to conduct the site to be a little below 32° of Fahrenheit, or cold so well as before. This is exemplified in the freezing point, accompanied with snow or the practice of the Laplanders and Siberians ; hail, from which shelter cannot be obtained. where, to exclude the extreme cold of the The snow which falls upon the clothes, or the winters from their habitations the more effec- uncovered parts of the body, then melts, and tually, and yet to admit a little light, they cut by a continual evaporation carries off the ani. pieces of ice, which in the winter time '

must mal heat to such a degree, that a sufficient always be electric in those countries, and quantity is not left for the support of life. In put them into their windows : which they such cases, the person first feels himself ex. find to be much more effectual in keeping out tremely chill and uneasy ; hę turns listless, the cold than any other substance.

unwilling to walk or use exercise to keep him. Cold, or rather the absence of heat, is the self warm, and at last turns drowsy, sits down destroyer of all vegetable life, when increased to refresh himself with sleep, but wakes no to an excessive degree. It is found that many more. garden plants and Powers, which seem to be With regard to the term congelation, it is very stout and hardy, go off at a little increase applied to water when it freezes into ice; to metals, when they resume their solid form freight pro rata: and when a ship is insured after being melted by heat; or to glass, wax, and such a misfortune happens, the insured pitch, tallow, &c. when they harden again commonly transfer those gooils over to the asafter having been rendered Auid by heat. But suters, towards a satisfaction of what they it differs from crystallization, which is rather make good. Lex mercat. a separation of the particles of a solid from a FREIGHT, also denotes a duty of 50 sols per Auid in which it had been dissolved more by ton fornierly paid to the crown of France, by the the moisture than the action of heat.

másters of foreign vessels going in, or out of, FREEZING-POINT, denotes the point or the several ports of the kingdom. degree of cold, shewn by a inercurial ther

To Freight. v. a. pret. freighted; part. nometer, at which certain Auids begin to fraught, freighted. (fretter, French.) 1. To freeze, or, when frozen, at which they begin load a ship or vessel of carriage with goods for to thaw again. On Fahrenheit's thermometer transportation (Shakspeare). 2. To load as the this point is at +32 for waler, and at - 40 burden; to be the thing with which a vessel is for quicksilver, these fluids freezing at those freighted (Shakspeare), two points respectively. It would also be FREIGHTER. s. (fretteur, Fr.) He who well if the freezing points for other Auids freights a vessel. were ascertained, and ihe whole arranged in a FREIND (John), a most learned English table. See THERMOMETER.

physician and writer in the 18th century, was FREEZING-RAIN, or RAINING ICE, a born at Croton, Northamptonshire, in 1675. very uncommon kind of shower, which fell in In 1696 he published, in conjunction with the west of England, in December, 1672, of Mr. P. Foulkes, an edition of two Greek orawhich we have various accounts in the Phi- tions, one of Eschines against Ctesiphon, and losophical Transactions. This rain, as soon the other of Demosthenes De Corona, with as it touched any thing above ground, as a a new Latin version. In 1699 he wrote a letbough, &c. immediately settled into ice ; ter to Dr. Sloane concerning an Hydrocephaand, by multiplying and enlarging of the ici- lus, published in the Philosophical Transaccles, broke all down with its weight. The tions; and another letter in Latin to the same rain that fell on the snow immediately froze gentleman, De spasmis rarior. historia, printed iuto ice, without sinking in the snow at all. in the saine Transactions. In 1703 his EmIt made an incredible destruction of trees, menalogia appeared, which gained him great beyond any thing in all history. “ Had it reputation. In 1704 he was chosen professor concluded with some gust of wind (says a of chemistry in the university of Oxford. In gentleman on the spot), it might have been of 1705 he attended the earl of Peterborough to terrible consequence. I weighed the sprig of Spain, as physician to the army there; and, an ash-tree, of just three-quarters of a pound, upon his return in !707, published an account the ice on which weighed 16 pounds. Some of the earl's expedition and conduct. In 1709 were frightened with the noise in the air, till be published his Chemical Lectures. In 1712 they discerned it was the clatter of icy boughs, he attended the duke of Ormond in Flanders, dashed against each other.” This phenome- as his physician. In 1716 he was admitted a bon, however, is not uncommon in a less de- fellow of the college of physicians in London. gree, and depends wholly on the nice balance This year he published the first and third books of temperatures in the rain and atmosphere. of Hippocrates De morbis popularibus, with a Dr. Beale observes, that there was no consi. Cominentary on Fevers, written by himself. derable frost observed on the ground during He sat a member for the borough of Launcesthe whole ; whence he concludes, that a frost ton in Cornwall in 1722, when he distinguishmay he very intense and dangerous on the tops ed himself by his opposition to the administraof some hills and plains; while in other tion. March 1722 he was committed to the places it keeps at two, three, or four feet dis- Tower on a charge of high treason : and, while tance above the ground, rivers, lakes, &c. and he was under confinement, he wrote a Latin may wander about very furious in some places, epistle to Dr. Mead, De quibusdam variolarum and remiss in others not far off. The frost generibus; and began his History of Physic, was followed by glowing heats, and a wonder the first part of which was published in 1725, ful forwardness of Aowers and fruits. and the second in 1726. Upon the accession

FREEZING MIXTURE. See Cold. of George II. to the throne, he was appointed FREIGHT. (fret, French.) The money physician in ordinary to the queen, who showpaid for carriage of goods by sea; or, in á ed the utmost regard and esteem for him. He larger sense, it is taken for the cargo, or bur- died at London in 1728. His works were then of the ship. Ships are freighted either by published together in Latin, at London, 1733, the ton, or by the great; and in respect to in folio, and dedicated to the

queen. time, the freight is agreed for at so much per FREJUS, a town of France, in the departmonth, or at a certain sum for the whole ment of Var. By the Romans, it was called voyage. If a ship freighted by the great hap- Forum Julii; and had then a port on the Me. pens to be cast a way, the freight is lost; but diterranean, which is now above a mile from if a merchant agrees by the ton, or at so much it. It is the birth-place of that great Roman for every piece of commodities, and by any ac- general and philosopher Agricola ; and near it cident the ship is cast away, if part of the goods some fine remains of antiquity are still visible. is saved, it is said she ought to be answered her It is seated near the river Argens, in a morass, 40 miles N.E. of Toulon, Lón. 6. 50 E. but over all the known languages in the world ; Lat. 43. 26 N.

but then the turns, the expressions, and the FREN. s. A stranger (Spenser).

idioms, of the English, are sometimes so quaint FRENCH, in general, something belonging and extraordinary, that it loses a good deal of to France; thus we say, the French language, the advantage which its grammatical simplicity French customs, polity, &c. The French lan- gives it over the rest. guage, as it uow stands, is no original or mo- The French has but few compound words ; iher language, but a medley of several. Those wherein it differs widely from the Greek, High that prevail most, and which are, as it were, Dutch, and English. This the French authors the basis thereof, are, 1. The Celtic; whether own a great disadvantage in their language ; that were a particular language itself, or whe- the Greek and Dutch deriving a great part of ther it were only a dialect of the Gothic, as their force and energy from the composition of spoken in the west and north. 2. The Latin, words, and frequently expressing that in one which the Romans carried with them into sounding word, which the French cannot exGaul, when they made the conquest thereof. press but by a periphrasis. The diminutives And, 3. The Teutonic, or that dialect of the in the French are as few as the compounds, Teutonic used by the Franks, when they pass the greatest part of those remaining in use ed the Rhine, and established themselves in having lost their diminutive signification ; but Gaul. Of these three languages, in the space what most distinguish the French language, of about thirteen hundred years, was the pre- are its justness, purity, accuracy, and flexibisent French formed, such as it is now found. lity. Its progress was very slow; and both the Ita- FRENCH OF KIDNEY BEAN.

Se: Pha. lian and Spanish were regular languages long seolus. before the French.

FRENCH HONEY SUCKLE. See HEDYPasquier observes, it was under Philip de SARUN. Valois that the French tongue first began to FRENCH MARIGOLD. See TAGETES. be polished : and that, in the register of the FRENCH WILLOW. See EPILOBIUM. chamber of accounts of that time, there is a T. FRENCHIFY. v. a. (from French.) purity seen almost equal to that of the present To infect with the manners of France; to make age. However, the French was still a very a coxcomb (Camden). imperfect language till the reign of Francis I. FRENETIC. a. (frenetique, French; The custom of speaking Latin at the bar, and P; EVHTIXOS ; generally therefore written phreneof writing the public acts and instruments of tick.) Mad; distracted (Daniel). the courts of justice in that language, had made FREʻNZY. s. (Davetis; phrenitis, Latin.) them overlook the French, their own language. Madness; distraction of mind; alienation of Add, that the preceding ages had been re- understanding; any violent passion approachmarkable for their ignorance, which was ow- ing to madness (Bentley). ing, in good measure, to the long and calami. FREQUENCE. s. frequence, French.) tous wars which France had been engaged in: Crowd; concourse; assembly (Milton)

, whence the French noblesse deemed it a kind FREQUENCY. s. (frequentia, Lativ.). 1. of merit not to know any thing; and the gene- Common occurrence; the condition of being tals regarded little whether or no they wrote often seen or done (Atterbury). 2. Concourse ; and talked politely, provided they could but full assembly (Ben Jonson). fight valiantly.

FREQUENT.a. (frequent, French; freBut Francis I. who was the restorer of quens, Latin.) 1. Often done; often seen; learning and the father of the learned, changed often occurring (Pope). 2. Used often tó the face of things; and, after his time, Henry practise any thing (Swift). 3. Full of conStevens printed his book, De la Precellence du course (Milton). Langage François. The change was become TO FREQUE'NT. v. a. (frequento, Latin.) very conspicuous at the end of the 16th cen- To visit often ; to be much in any place (Batury; and under Henry IV. Amyot, Coeffe. con). teau, and Malherbe, contributed towards FREQUE'NTABLE. a. (from frequent.) bringing it to its perfection; which the cardi- Conversible; accessible (Sidney). iial de Richelieu completed, by the establish- FREQUÉNTATIVE. a. freguenlatirus, ment of the French academy.

Latin.) A grammatical term applied to verbs One of the characters of the French language signifying the frequent repetition of an action. is, to be natural and easy. The words are FREQUENTER. s. (from frequent.) One ranged in it much in the same order as the who often resorts 10 any place (Swifi). ideas in our minds ; in which it differs exceed- FREQUENTLY. ad. frequenter, Latin.) ingly from the Greek and Latin, where the Often ; commonly; not rarely (Swift). inversion of the natural order of words is con- FRESCATI. See FRASCATI. sidered a beautv. Indeed the Hebrew sur- FRESCO. s.

s. (Italian.) 1. Coolness; shade; passes even the French in this point; but then duskiness (Prior). 2. Á picture not drawn it comes short of it in copiousness and variety. in glaring light, but in dusk (Pope).

It must be added, however, that as to the Fresco, in painting, an Italian word now analogy of grammar, and the simplicity where- universally adopted, signifying paintings perwith the moods of verbs are formed, the Enge formed on the walls of palaces and churches lish has the advantage not only over the French, There cannot be a doubt, that this was the ori

« PreviousContinue »