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which philosophy became established on a sure flowers will coagulate boiling milk; and they foundati in, he made surprising discoveries in are said to be employed for this purpose in the heavens by means of his telescope; and making Cheshire cheeses. The plant is found thus made ihe evidence of the Copernican sys- wild in our fields. tem more sensible. He was the first who de- 2. G. mollugo: found wild in our hedges, monstrated that the spaces described by heavy with leaves in eights, elliptic, rather than obfalling bodies are as the squares of their times tuse, mucronate, rough at the margin; flowers of motion ; and that a bódy projected in an in spreading panicles. There is another variety oblique direction describes a parabola. He in- with the stem and leaves rough. The expressa veuted the cycloid; likewise the simple pen- ed juice of this and several other species was dulum; and ihought of applying it to clocks, formerly in high repute for the cure of epilepsy: but did not execuie that design. He discovered but it has long lost its character. that air had yravity, and endeavoured to com- 3. G.asparine, Clivers ; Goose-grass. Found pare it with water. In short, he will ever be in our hedges with leaves in eights, lanceolate, admired by true philosophers, as the great man carinate, rough, prickly, backwards ; stem who opened vast' fields for their enquiries, and flaccid. The expressed" juice was formerly atly assisted them therein by his inventions and used in cataplasmis for discussing glandular discoveries.

tumours; but is now no longer known in the Galileo wrote a number of treatises, many pharmacopæias. Rabbits and some other cf which were published in bis life-time. Most quadrupeds are fond of the leaves. of thein were also collected after his death, and GALL. S. (geala, Saxon.) 1. The bile, or pablished by Níendessi in 2 vols. 410., under animal juice remarkable for its supposed bitterthe title of L'Opere di Galileo Galilei Lynceo, ness. (See Bile). 2. The part which contains in 1630. Some of these, with others of his the bile (Brown). 3. Any thing extremely pieces, were translated into English and pub- bitter (Shukspeure). 4. Rancour; malignity lished by Thomas Salisbury, in his Mathe- (Spenser). 5. A sore or hurt occasioned by matical Collections, in 2 vols. folio. A vo- rubbing off the skin (South). la ne also of his letters to several learned men, To GALL. v. a. (galer, French.) 1. To and solutions of several problems, was printed hurt or make sore by rubbing off the skin. 2. at Bologna in 4to.

Figuratively, to impair, to wear away. 3. To A correct translation of the sentence passed vex; to fret; to teaze; to harass ; to disturb. mon Galileo, and of his abjuration of the GALL (St.), or St. GALLEN, a town of <trots and heresies which he held respecting Swisserland, in Thurgau, with a rich abbey. the earth and sun, is given in the Monthly To the valuable library belonging to this abbey, Magazine, for Feb. 1802.

which contains several MSS. of the classics, GALINACEUS LAPIS. See Galli- we are indebted for Petronius Arbiter, Silius NACEUS.

Italicus, Valerius Flaccus, and Quintilian, GALINSO'GEA, in botany, a genus of the copies of which were found here in 1413. Ai class syngenesia, order polygamia superfua. this town are good manufactures of linen, Riceptacle chatly; down many-leaved, chafry; muslin, and embroidery. Lat. 47. 26 N. Lon. calyx imbricate. Two species; natives of 9. 20 E. Peru.

GALL-BLADDER. Vesicula fellis. An GA'LIOT. s. (galiotte, Fr.) A little galley oblong membranous receptacle, situated under or sort of brigantine, built very slight and fit the liver, to which it is attached in the right for chase (Knolles).

hypochondrium. It is composed of three GALI'PEA, in botany, a genus of the class membranes : a common, fibrous, and villous. diandria, order monogynia. Calyx four, or Its use is to retain the gall, which regurgitates five-sided; four, or five-toothed; corol salver- from the hepatic duct, there to become thicker, snaped, deeply four or five-parted; stamens more acrid, and bitter, and to send it through four, two of them barren; pericarp. One the cystic duct, which proceeds from its neck species: a Guiana shrub about six feet high, into the ductus communis choledochus, to be with sınall flowers in a terminal, few-flowered sent on to the duodenum. It is deficient in cynie.

some animals, as for example the horse, ass, GALIPOT, or Barras, a white brittle and antelope. substance, which, in the winter, is found to GALL-FLY, in entomology. See CYNIPS. incrust the wounds of fir-trees, from which GALL-NUT. (noix de galle, French; gallapturpentine has been extracted; it consists of fel, German.). An excrescence on various sperosin united to a small portion of oil.

cies of the oak-tree, produced, as naturalists afGALIUM. Bed-straw. In botany, a genus firm, by a puncture made on the leaves, bark, or of the class tetrandria, order monogynia. Corol buds, by various species of the cynips, or gall-fly. one-petalled, flat, superior; seeds two, round-. The puncture is affirmed to be made by the féish. Fitty-three species ; chiefly European male insect, which deposits at the same time an plants; and thirteen common to the moun- larve or grub; and in the situation to which it is

that progressively becomes hatched into a tains, mealows, hedges, or walls of our own entrusted, tinds abundance of food as well as a country. Those chietiy of notice are:

nest duly prepared for it. The perpetual stimu1. G. verum. Yellow lady's bed-straw; lus, which, as a foreign body, it excites from the with leaves in eights, linear, grooved, very first, and continues to excite in a still greater deentire, rough ; flowers in closc panicles. These gree after it has acquired sensation and motion, gradually increases the gall-nut to the size in ably flattened, and a quarter of an inch or more which it generally reaches us, and accounts for in length: it is of a brown cream colour, and an its being hollow.

even very minutely granular fracture like a comThe two species of the oak that afford the most mon hazel-nut; it breaks down between the useful gall-nuts, and consequently those most ge. teeth like all the oily farinaceous seeds when dried: nerally sought for in commerce, are, the quercus it is insipid, but, after being chewed, leaves a ægilope, and quercus cerris; both which trees faint sweetish flavour like that of a bad almond; are natives of the Levant. The former kind of it is often found mouldy, and then is of a bright gall is principally employed by tanners, though chocolate colour. When laid on a hot iron it by no means so extensively either in our own becomes somewhat moist, and gives a pungent country or abroad as it deserves to be : the latter empyreumatic acid in great quantity, but without is the officinal gall-nut, and is used for a great faining, and is probably little else than au amyvariety of purposes: it is found adhering to the laceous fecula. This kernel no doubt it is which soft annual shoots of the tree, and in short, in its invites the depredation of insects; and in all those original situation and general appearance, is con- gall-nuts, the kernels of which have been devoursidered by naturalists as precisely similar to those ed, may be perceived a small tubular passage excrescences on our English oaks, vulgarly called from the outside to the centre, and in the place oak apples. There are two kinds of gall-nuts of the kernel is generally left a little web, and distinguished in commerce; the inferior is of a some minute black grains which probably are pale brown colour, and about the size of a nut. the excrements of the insect. Gall-nuts that are meg, and is procured from Spain, France, and unperforated are sometimes, however, found hoithe northern Mediterranean countries; the supe- low; but this may be inferred to be owing to the rior sort is of a deep olive colour, approaching to destruction of the kernel by spontaneous decomblack, is smaller than the other, and its specific position, on account of the mouldy and discolourgravity is considerably greater: it is produced ed state of the remaining shell. in Asia Minor, but more especially in Syria, and No chemical analysis has been made of any one is hence called the Aleppo gall, this town being of the four parts of the gall-nut separated from the principal seat of the foreign Syrian com- the rest, although what we have called the resiamerce.

ous portion seems to be particularly interesting: Notwithstanding, however, the concurrent tes- the gall-nut in general, however, has been suhtimony of naturalists, as to the original of the gall. jected to several curious enquiries by Scheele, nut, any person who will give himself the trouble Deyeux, Proust, Davy and others, of which the to break half a dozen sound unperforated Aleppo following are the principal results. galls, may readily convince himself that this is When bruised galls are infused in distilled water at one of those vulgár errors which are repeated and the temperature of about 60° Fahr. a dark brown believed from generation to generation, because fluid is obtained in the space of a few hours, this in philosophy and natural history, it is easier to being poured off, and another portion of water bebelieve than to examine. Gall-nut consists of ing added, a second infusion is procured of a somefour parts. The external or cortical covering what lighter colour than the former; after bav. is of a dense fibrous texture, a pale yellowish ing thus employed four or five separate parcels of white colour, is very thin, and separable without water, the succeeding infusion exhibits a yellowmuch difficulty fron the part which it encloses: ish green tinge, which by degrees becomes more to the taste it is highly astringent, with a slight, and more faint, till all that portion of gall-nut soand sometimes a scarcely perceptible bitterness : luble in this menstruum at the above temperawhen laid onared hot iron it smokes and blackens, ture is taken up. According to Deyeux, it reand finaliy becomes ignited, but without any quires 96 quarts of water divided into 20 different Name : the smoke is slightly pungent, accompa- macerations, to exhaust all the soluble matter of nied by a peculiar and ind(scribable odour, which, a single pound of galls. The brown infusion achowever, chiefly characterises the resinous part quires a deep black colour by red sulphat of iron, of the gall-nut. Immediately beneath the cortic indicating the presence of gallic acid; a solution of cal part lies that which, merely from its external isinglass in water occasions in it a copious preciappearance, we shall call the resinous part, and pitate, indicating tan, and muriat of alumine which constitutes by far the greater portion of throws down a precipitate denoting the prethe gall-nut: the colour of this is dark yellowish sence of extract.

This brown infusion seems brown, it has a fibrous texture, and shows a great to be furnished almost entirely by the retendency to a conchoidal fracture : it has a glim- sinous part of the nut. The light green inmering resinous lustre, and is very brittle: it is fusion gives a deep blue precipitate with red nut only astringent to the taste, but nauseously sulphat of iron, but is hardly at all affected bitter, and appears almost entirely soluble in sa. by the other two reagents; it appears to conliva: when laid on red hot iron it becomes black, tain litt'e else than gallat of lime, and is proand in a state of semifusion, and exhales very bably furnished by the cortical covering of the copiously that peculiar odour which we have al. gall-nut. A few drops of moderately strong sulready mentioned ; in a short time it is ignited phuric or muriatic acid change the green tinge and reduced to ashes, but without producing any of this infusion to red, after which the original flame. The central cavity of the gall-nut is lined colour may be restored by the addition of an alwith a very pale yellowish brown shell, adhering kali, and deepened if it is added to excess. pretty firmly to the resinous part; it is of a concentrated nitric and oxygenated muriatic fibrous texture, without lustre; to the taste it is acids destroy the colour of the infusion, nor can almost wholly insipid like common ligneous fibre, it be restored by any alkali. By, loog continued and, like this, when laid on a red hot iron it slow evaporation, the green colour is changed burns with a yellowish flame, and a copious into a dirty yellow, and then neither acids nor alproduction of very p netrating pyroligneous acid. kalies act on it in the same manner as before. The Within the shell is contained the kernel, which strongest brown infusion that can be made by is a small egg-shaped body, sometimes considere macerating pounded galis with distilled water at

The

55° Fahr. is of the specific gravity of 1.068, and acid, and when incinerated it yields carbonated yields by evaporation a little more than 1 of solid alkali. matter. The solution is nearly transparent, of a The alkaline earths, when added in substance yellowish brown colour, and a sour and highly or in solution to the brown infusion of galls, comastringent taste; it strongly reddens litmus, and bine with the whole of the tan, and throw down a shows other proofs of a disengaged acid. When green precipitate: the supernatant liquor is also sulphuric acid is poured into the infusion, dense of a green colour, which becomes more intense by white precipitate is thrown down, and the super- exposure to the air: it is made turbid by suinatant liquor becomes of a deeper colour than be- phuric acid, and gives a black precipitate with the fore: it is not, however, by this process, freed salts of iron, and consists of gallic acid, and proentirely from any of its ingredients, since it still bably some extract, combined with part of the alcontinues to give a deep black with the oxygenat. kaline earth. The green precipitate, by repeated ed salts of iron, and to afford a precipitate with washing with water, gives out nearly the whole of gelatin. The sulphuric precipitate, when sepa- its gallic acid, and the residue is little else than rated by the filter, slightly reddens vegetable tan with the alkaline earth. The artificial carbobloes, yields gallic acid by distillation, and when nats of these earths produce the same effect as dissolved in warm water, gives a copious precipi- the pure earths, tate with isinglass. Muriatic acid produces a si- If alumine is boiled with the infusion it becomes toilar effect on the infusion to that of sulphuric of a yellowish grey tinge, and combines with the acid. Strong nitric acid, when first added to the whole of the tan and extract, and nearly the infusion, renders it turbid, but the separating mat- whole of the gallic acid; the supernatant liquor ter is soon dissolved with effervescence, and the being clear and colourless, and giving a very faint liquor becomes clear and of an orange colour: purple with red sulphat of iron : if only a very the excess of acid being saturated by an alkali, small proportion of alumine be employed, the liboth the tan and gallic acid of the infusion are quor consists of gallat of alumine with excess of found to be destroyed, for no precipitate is occa- acid. sioned by a solution of gelatin, nor any change of The perfect oxyds of tin and zinc prepared with colour by red sulphat of iron. By evaporation, a nitric acid, when boiled with the infusion, be. soft yellowish brown substance is procured, which come of a dull yellow colour, and reduce the sufrom its decomposing nitro muriat of tin and ni- pernatant fuid to mere water; the yellow oxyds trat of alumine, appear to be a kind of extract. are soluble in muriatic acid, and then give a coIf a very diluted nitric acid is employed, its ef- pious precipitate with gelatin, and a dense black fects on the infusion are similar to those of the with salts of iron. sulphuric and muriatic acids,

The compound earthy and alkaline salts also A solution of either of the fixed alkalies, in a decompose the infusion of galls, but the precipiperfectly caustic state, occasions a temporary tate is not pure tan as has been supposed, for it turbidness in the infusion, and changes its colour contains besides some gallic acid, extract, and to brown red; in this state it gives no precipitate the precipitant salt. The same may be observed with gelatin till the addition of an acid, when a of most of the metallic salts. copious sediment is prucured. Caustic ammonia, When the brown infusion is exposed to gentle evaat a moderate temperature, has the same effect as poration, it first becomes turbid by the deposition fixed alkali; but when the mixture is exposed to of part of its extractive matter, and at length acthe heat of boiling water, part of the ammonia is quires the consistence and appearance of a tough volatilized, and the remainder reacts on the tan brown extract, which, while it is warm, may be and gallic acid of the infusion, converting them moulded like Chio turpentine, but, when it be. almost entirely into a substarce precipitable by comes cold, is dry and hard, and very easily pulmariat of tin and aluminous salts.

verizable. By exposure in close vessels to a heat If instead of a perfectly caustic fixed alkali, one superior to that of boiling water, the mass first that is only partially so be employed, a precipi- softens, then swells and gives out a prodigious tate is thrown down from the infusion, the quan- quantity of carbonic acid; there sublimes at the tity of which varies in proportion to that of the same time a white salt in needles and scales, carbonic acid united with the alkali. That the which is pure gallic acid; soon after a fuid formation of this precipitate depends on the pre- arises in which the gallic acid disolves, and this sence of carbonic acid is manifest from this cir- is succeeded by a thick black oil; at this period cumstance, that if carbonic acid gas is passed the gas, which hitherto has been carbonic acid, through the residual clear liquor, consisting of becomes inflammable, and so continues till nocaustic alkali and infusion of galls, an immediate thing but a dry coal is left in the retort. precipitate is occasioned, which exhibits the same An exact analysis of galls is for the present at properties as that produced by carbonated alkali least impracticable, since we are not acquainted in the infusion. The following are the characters with any reagents that will separate any of its of the precipitate: it has not the astringent taste of component parts unmixed with the others: upon uncombined tan; it is but imperfectly soluble in the whole, perhaps, the best mode of proceeding cold water or alcohol; when digested in a large is as follows: Take any quantity of galls and requantity of bot water it is separated into an inso- duce them to powder, then by means of repeated Juble and a soiuble part; the former of these is infusions with water at a temperature less than not acted on by alcohol, it is partially soluble in that of ebullition, extract every thing that is solu. muriatic acid, and the solution precipitates gela- ble. The residue being thoroughly dried will intin and the salts of iron; when incinerated it af- dicate with considerable exactness, by means of fords a considerable proportion of lime, but no its loss of weight, the amount of soluble matter. alkali; bence it appears to be a compound of All the different infusions being mixed together lime, gallic acid, tan, and perhaps a little extract: are to be evaporated at a very gentle heat to a the part soluble in hot water is incapable of pre- small bulk, during which some reddish brown excipitating gelatin, till the alkali is saturated by an tract will be deposited, and must be carefully

12 31 12

separated and dried; the residual fuid, by subse. tirely conquered, and settled there in the year quent evaporation, is to be brought to a solid state, 1537. Another division, having taken a westand then digested in pure alcohol, by which the erly course, spread themselves in a seinieircle tan, gallic acid, and extract, will be taken up, along the banks of the Nile; surroumling the while the mucilage mixed with some impurities country of Gojam, and passing eastward behind will remain insoluble, and may thus be separated. the country of the Agows, extended their posThe alcoholic solution being again evaporated, sessions as far as the territories of the Gongas the residue is to be dissolved in water, and a

and Gafats. Since that time, the Nile has strong solution of isinglass is to be poured in as long as any precipitation takes place: this preci- been the boundary of their possessions; though pitate when well washed consists of tan, and gela- they have very frequently plunderer, and tin, with a very little extract and gallic acid, and sometimes conquered, the Abyssinian procontains about 46 per cent. of tan. The rest of vinces on the other side of the river, but have the solution is gallat of lime with excess of acid, never inade any permanent settlement in these and a little extract. According to Davy, 500 parts.

A third division has settled to the grains of good Aleppo gails contain 185 grains of southward of the low country of Shoa, which matter soluble in water, and this consists of

the governor of that province has permitted, in Grains,

order to form a barrier betwixt him and the Tan......

...130

territories of the emperor, on whom he scarceMucilage and extract deposited during

ly acknowledges any dependence. evaporation

The Galla are below the middle size, of a Gallic acid with a little extract Lime and saline matter

brown complexion, and have long black hair; For further particulars concerning gall-nut, sec

but some of then, who live in the vallers are GALLIC ACID, Ink, and TANNING.

entirely black. At first their common food The uses of this substance are very important. was milk and buiter; but, since their interIt is employed largely in dyeing not only blacks course with the Abyssinians, they have learnand various kindred colours, but is also an essen- ed to plough and sow their land, and to make tial ingredient in the composition of the finest bread. They seem to have a predilection for madder reds: it is a necessary part of all the the number seven, and each of the three diviblack writing inks: it is employed in the labora- sions already mentioned are subdivided into tory as a useful test for the salts of iron, and is

seven tribes." In their behaviour they are exoccasionally used in medicine.

tremely barbarous, and live in continual war GALL-STONES. Biliary concretions. Hard with the Abyssinians, whom they murder concrete bodies, of which there are great va- without mercy' as often as they fall into their rieties, formed in the gall-bladder of animal hands. They cut off the privities of the men, bodies.

and hang them up in their houses by way of In general, they proceed from a superabun- trophies; and are so cruel as to rip up women dance of the resinous oil of the secreted bile in with child, in hopes of thus destroying a male. comparison with its water and coagulable Yet, notwithstanding their excessive cruelty lymph, in consequence of which it crystal- abroad, they live under the strictest discipline lizes; and hence chemical analysis has gene- at home; and every broil or quarrel is instantrally found these calculi to consist of nothing ly punished according to the nature of the ofmore than an oily concrescible resinous mat- fence. Each of the three divisions of the ter, yet, when lodged in the pores or paren- Galla above mentioned has a king of its own; chymatous substance of the liver and gall- and they have also a kind of nobility, from stones, are often productive of various and vin- among whom the sovereigns can only be cholent diseases.

sen: however, the commonalty are not exGALLA, an Abyssinian nation, originally cluded from rising to the rank of nobles, if dwelling, as Mr. Bruce supposes, under the they distinguish themselves very much in batline, and exercising the profession of shepherds, tle. which they still continue to do. For a num- GALLÆ. (from Gallus, the river in Byber of years, our author tells us, they have thinia from whose banks they were first been constantly migrating northwards, though brought.) Galls. The nut-gall of the oak, the cause of this migration is not known. At is an excrescence produced on different parts first they had no horses ; the reason of which of the tree, the young branches, leaves and was, that the country they came from did not buds, in consequence, as is said by naturalists, allow these animals to breed : but, as they pro- of the deposit of the egg of the insect called ceeded northward and conquered some of the CYNIPS (which see); many varieties of which Abyssinian provinces, they soon furnished make for this purpose a puncture into the tree themselves with such numbers, that they are with their pointed snout, and then deposit the now almost entirely cavalry, making little ac- egg, whose acrimony, by exciting a new action count of infantry in their armies. On advanc- in the vegetable vessels, produces the excrcing to the frontiers of Abyssinia, the multi- scence of the nut-gall

. tude divided ; and part directed their course GALLAM, the capital of a kingdom of the towards the Indian Ocean; after which, hav- same name, in Africa, on the river Senegal. ing made a settlement in the eastern part of Lat. 14. 25 N. Lon. 9. 55 W. the continent, they turned southward into the GA’LLANT. a. (gelunt, French.) 1. countries of Bali and Dawaw, which they en- Gay; well dressed ; shuwy; splendid; magnificent (Isaiah). 2. Brave; high spirited ; GALLEOT. See GALEOT. daring; magnanimous (Digly). 3. Fine; GALLERY, in architecture. 1. A kind of noble; spacious (Clarendon). 4. Inclined to walk along the floor of a house into which the courtship (Thomsun).

doors of the apartments open (Sidney). 2. Ga'LLANT. S. (from the adjective.) 1. A The seats in the playhouse above the pit, in gay, sprightly, airy, splendid man (Dryden). which the meaner people sit (Pope). 2. A whoremaster, who caresses women to de- Sarot, in his Architecture, derives the word banch them (Addison). 3. A wooer; one gallery from Gaul, as supposing the ancient who courts a woman for marriage.

Gauls to have been the first who used them. GALLANTLY. ad. (irom gallant.) 1. Nichod fetches it from the French aller, to go; Gayly; splendidly. 2. Bravely; nobly; ge- allerie: others bring it from galere, galley; uerously (Swifi).

because it bears some resemblance thereto in GA’LLANTRY. s. (galanterie, French.) respect of length. In the corrupt Latin we 1. Splendour of appearance; show; magnifi- meet with galilæa, for the gallery of a monascence (Wallet). 2. Bravery; nobleness; ge- tery. perosity (Glunville). 3. A number of gallants The galleries of the Louvre are magnificent; (Shahspeare). 4. Courtship; refined address a gallery of painting; a complete aparıment is to woinen. 5. Virious love; lewdness; de. to consist of a hall, anti-chamber, chamber, bauchery (Scift).

cabinet, and gallery. GALLATS, a genus of salts formed by the GALLERY, in fortification, a covered walk union of gallic acid with different substances. across the ditch of a town, made of strong A small number only has been noticed, and beams, covered over head with planks, and these are but imperfectly known.

loaded with earth ; sometimes it is covered GALLAT OF ALUMINE, is formed by mix- with raw hides to defend it from the artificial ing a small portion of alumine with the infu- fires of the besieged. Its sides should be mussion of nut-galls, and suffering the water to quet proof. escape by evaporation. This is the only gallat GALLERY OF A Mine, is a narrow passthat has yet been obtained in the state of cry, age, or branch of a mine carried on undersials. The quantity of alumine is too small ground to a work designed to be blown up. completely to disguise the properties of the Both the besiegers and the besieged also carry acid.

on galleries in search of each other's mines, GALLAT OF IRON is produced in the and these sometimes meet and destroy each making of ink, and other similar processes, other. when the acid unites with and precipitates GALLERY, in ship-building, a balcony, the metal.

projecting from the stern or quarter of a ship GALLATS (Alkaline and Earthy). If an of war, or of a large merchantman: the sternalkali or an alkaline earth be dropped into a solu- gallery is wholly at the stern of the ship, and is tion of gallic acid in water, or into a solution usually decorated with a balustrade extending containing that acid, the compound assumes a from one side of the ship to the other; the green colour, and the acid enters into combina- fore-part is limited by a partition, in which tion with the earth employed. But it is im- are framed the cabin windows, and the roof of possible to procure any one of these gallats in it is formed by a sort of vault termed the cove, a separate state; for during the process of era- which is frequently ornamented with sculpporation the green colour disappears, and the ture. Quarter-gallery is that part which proacid is decomposed.

jects on each quarter, and is generally fitted GALLEASS. s. (galeas, French.) A heavy up as a water closet. Ships of twenty guns low-built vessel, with both sails and oars (Ad. and upwards, on one deck, have quarter galledison).

ries, but no stern gallery; two and three deck. GA’LLEON. s. (galion, French.) A large ers have quarter galleries, with their proper ship with four and sometimes five decks (Ra- conveniences, and one or two stern galleries. leigh).

GALLEY, a kind of low flat-built vessel, Galleon, in naval affairs, a sort of ships furnished with one deck, and navigated with employed in the commerce of the West Indies. sails and oars, particularly in the MediterrraThe Spaniards send annually two fleets; the nean. By the Greek authors under the eastern one for Mexico, which they call the flota; and empire this kind of vessel was called yancace and the other for Peru, which they call the gal- yenece, and by the Latin authors of the same leons. By a general regulation made in Spain, time, galea ; whence, according to some, the it has been established, that there should be 12 modern denomination. Some say it was called men of war and five tenders annually fitted out galea, on account of a casque or helmet which for the armada or galleons. They are appoint- it carried on its prow, as Ovid attests, de Trised 10 sail from Cadiz in January, that they tibus. The French call it galere; by reason, may arrive at Porto Bello about the middle of they say, that the top of the mast is usually cut April ; where, the fair being over, they may in the form of a hat, which the Italians call take aboard the plate, and be at Havannah galero. Others derive both galea and galere with it about the middle of June; where they from a fish, by the Greeks called godswins or are joined by the flota, that they may return to čopias, and by us the sword-fish, which this Spain with the greater safety. Galleons have vessel resembles. Lastly, others derive the generally four, and sometimes five, decks. galleo, galea, galere, galeasse, &c. from the

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