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When a harbour is formed by a cluster of R Detached redoubt. islands, it is easily fortified, if the channel between S An arrow. the islands is not too wide for the cannon from one P Small traverses. or both shores; but if it be too wide, the shipping that rides there must be defended from the batteries
5. Blondel's System. on the shore. When the harbour lies in an inlet, I Retired battery. or river, some miles above its mouth, a fort built m Lunettes, at tach point of the entrance, when the passage n Ravelin, with retired bastion. lies strait, and can be commanded from side to o Orillons. side, and two others between them and the barbour, but not directly opposite, unless the breadth lately been proposed by M. Montalambert, called
Another, or new method of fortification, has of the channel requires it, will be a proper security Fortification Perpendiculaire, because the faces of for the shipping in such a harbour; and if the the works are made by a series of lines running in channel or river is winding, the forts should be built where they can command a reach at least, or a zig-zag, perpendicular to one another. be so placed at the bends, as to command two ad- vertical section of a work, serving to shew those
Profile of Fortification, is a representation of a jacent reaches. See Robertson's Treat. of Marine dimensions which cannot be represented in plans, Fort. part ii. Durable Fortification, is that built with design to This profile is constructed in the following man
and are necessary in the building of a fortification. remain a standing shelter for ages. Such are the usual fortifications of cities, frontier places, &c.
ner: provide a scale of equal parts, adapted to the Temporary Fortification, is that erected on some
perpendicular height of the work, e. gr. let a, b,
Pl. 72. fig. 3, be a scale of twenty toises; and let emergent occasion, and only for a little time. Such are field-works, cast up for the seizing those parts of the fortification which are above
AB represent the level of the ground plane, so that and maintaining a post, or passage; those about camps, &c. as circumvallations, contravallations, above or below this line in the profile. Froin the
the surface of the ground, or below it, may be redoubts, trenches, batteries, &c.
There are many modes of fortification that have point A, in the line AB, take AC=4 toises three been much esteemed and used; a small specimen feet, for the interior, talus or slope of the ramof a comparative view of the principal of these is part; at C erect a perpendicular CD of three represented in plate 73, viz. those of count Pagan; through the point D draw an indefinite line DN
toises eighteen feet for the height of the rampart; and Mess. Vauban, Coehorn, Belidor, and Blondel; parallel to AB, in which take DE=5 toises for the the explanation of which is as follows:
breadth of the terre-plein of the rampart: at the 1. Pagan's System
point E erect the perpendicular Ef=2 feet for the A Half bastions.
height of the banquette, and draw fH parallel to B Ravelin and counterguard.
DN, making FG and GH, each equal to three
'feet. Draw the line EG, which will represent the C Counterguards before the bastions, D The ditch.
talus of the banquette, and GH will be the upper E The glacis.
part of it: on the point H erect the perpendicular G The place of arms.
Hl=4 feet for the height of the parapet above H Retired flanks.
the banquette. From I draw the indefinite line IK, a Line of defeoce.
parallel to DN, in which take IL=1$ foot, and
draw HL, which will be the interior side of the pa. 2. Vauban's System.
rapet: take LK= toises for the thickness of the b Angle of the bastion, or flanked angle. para pet, and from the point K let fall the indefic Angle of the shoulder.
nite line KP, perpendicular to the line AB, and d Angle of the flank.
produce it below AB: in this line take KM=2 e Saliant angle.
feet, and draw the line LM for the upper part of s Face of the bastion.
the parapet which is a talus, that the soldier on the & The flank.
banquette may be able to discover the covertt · The curtain.
way and the glacis. On the point N, where DN i Tenailles.
intersects KP, as a center, with a radius of one k Traverses in the covert way.
foot, describe a small semi-circle, which represents 3. Coehorn's System.
the cordon : take NP=6 toises, and from the
point P draw an indefinite line P n parallel to AB, 1 Concave flanks.
which will represent the bottom of the ditch, the 2 The curtains.
depth of which is supposed to be equal to the 3 Redoubts in the re-entering angles.
height of the rampart. Take NO=5 feet for the 4 Traverses.
thickness of the revetement of the cordon, and 5 Stone lodgments,
from the point o draw the indefinite line og pa6 Round faoks.
rallel to NP; this will be the interior side of the 7 Redoubt.
revetement of the point P, where the line Pn Coffers planked on the sides, and above cover
meets the line NP; take PR=7 feet, or about the ed overhead with a foot of earth.
fifth part of its height NP, for the talus of the re4. Belidor's System.
vetement, and draw the line NR, which represents I Cavaliers.
the scarp or exterior side of the revetement; take
RS=1 foot for the jutting of the foundation, and K Rams-borns, or Tenailles.
draw ST perpendicular to Pn, making it equal to L Retrenchments within the detached bastions.
two or three toises for the depth of the founM Circular curtain. N The ravelin.
dation, draw TQ parallel to Pn, and let it intersect P Lunettes with retired batteries.
OQ in Q; and let Y & be drawn parallel to NM, 2 Redoubt.
and at the distance of three feet, for the revetement of the parapet. In order to represent the
profile of the counterfort or buttress, when there a sense of honour and a regard to duty. There is any, take OV=9 feet, and draw VX parallel to may be courage in fighting a duel, though that OQ; vx, lo, will represent this profile, by folly is more frequenily ihe effect of cowardice: means of which the revetement OR is strengthe there may be courage in an act of piracy or ened.
That the terre-plein of the rampart robbery; but there can be no fortitude in permay have a proper declivity, for carrying
Fortitude implies a lore away the water which falls upon it, let dw petrating a criine. be equal to 1f foot, and draw we, which will of equity and of public good ; for, as Plato and represent the upper part of the rampart, and the
Cicero observe, courage exerted for a selfish line AW represents the slope of its interior side. purpose, or without a regard to justice, ought Suppose the breadth of the ditch to be twenty
to be called audacity rather than fortitude. toises, and lay this down from P to n; and on the This virtue takes different names, according as point n erect the perpendicular fim, terroinated by it acts in opposition to different sorts of evil; · the line AB at m, which will be the limit of the but some of those names are applied with concounterscarp. At the distance of three feet from siderable latitude. With respect to danger in this line, and parallel to it, draw zy, which will general, fortitude may be termed intrepidity; give the thickness of the revetement of the coun
with respect to the dangers of war, valour; terscarp; nu=3 feet will be the talus of this revetement, and the line um the exterior side of its patience; with respect to labour, activity;
with respect to pain of body or distress of mind, The foundation may be made to terminate at the with respect to injury, forbearance; with redistance of about six inches from the point u. Let mic=5 toises be the breadth of the covert- spect to our condition in general, magnanimi. way, and at the point c erect a perpendicular cd ty.
The motives to fortitude are many and = 2 feet for the height of the banquette. Draw df powerful. This virtue tends greatly to the parallel to AB, and equal to one toise, in which happiness of the individual, by giving com. take de and ef, each equal to three feet.
posure and presence of mind, and keeping the Draw the line ce for the talus of the banquette, and other passions in due subordination. ef will be the upper part of it: from the point f erect FOʻRTLET. s. (from fort.) A little fort. a perpendicular fl=4 feet for the height of the FO'RTNIGHT. s. (contracted from fourparapet of the covert-way above the banquette. teen night.) The space of two weeks (Bacon). Produce fl till it cuts AB in r; take rg=20 toises FOʻRTRESS. s. (forteresse, French.) A for the breadth of the glacis; and draw ly, which strong hold; a fortified place (Locke). will represent the glacis, or the declivity of the
FORTROSE, a borough in Ross-shire, sirampart of the covert-way: in this line take lh = 1 foot, and draw hf, which will be the interior side
tuate on the Frith of Murray, nearly opposite of the parapet of the covert-way; after which let
Fort George, and nine miles W. of Inverthere be a palisade constructed on the banquette, and the profile is finished.
FORTU'ITOUS. a. (fortuit, French, forOther profiles are given in Plate 73, fig. 2.
tuitus, Latin.) Accidental; casual (Ray).
FORTUITOUSLY.ad. Accidentally; caFOʻRTIFIER. s. (from fortify.) 1. One sually ; by chance (Rogers). who erects works of defence (Carew). 2. One FÓRTU'ITOUSNESS. s. (from fortuiwho supports or secures (Sidney).
tous.) Accident; chance; hit. T. FOʻRTIFY. v. a. (fortifier, French.) FORTUNA, daughter of Oceanus, accord1. To strengthen against attacks by walls or ing to Homer, or one of the Parcæ according works (Shakspeare). 2. To confirm; to en- to Pindar, was the goddess of fortune, and from courage (Sidney). 3. To fix; to establish in her hand were derived riches and poverty, plearesolution (Locke).
sures and misfortunes, blessings and pains. She To Foʻrtify.v. n. To raise strong places. was worshipped in different parts of Greece. FORTILAGE. s. (from fort.) A little fort; Bupalus was the first who made a statue of a blockhouse (Spenser).
Fortune for the people of Smyrna, and he reFORTIN. s. (French.) A little fort, whose presented her with the polar star upon her Aanked angles are generally 120 fathoms dis- head, and the horn of plenty in her hand. The tant from one another.
Romans paid particular aitention to the goddess FORTISSIMO, in music, very loud or of Fortune, and had no less than eight different strong.
FORTITUDE, a virtue or quality of the Tullus Hostilius was the first who built hera mind, generally considered as the same with temple. Her most famous temple in Italy was courage; though in a more accurate view they at Antium. She was worshipped among the seem to be distinguishable. Courage may be Romans under different names, such as Female a virtue or a vice, according to circumstances; Fortune, Virile Fortune, Equestrian, Peaceful, fortitude is always a virtue : we speak of des- Virgin, &c. The goddess is generally repreperate courage, but not of desperate fortitude. sented blind-folded, and holds a wheel in her A contempt or neglect of danger, without re- hand as an emblem of her inconstancy. Somegard to consequences, may be called courage; times she appears with wings. and this some brutes have as well as we: in FOʻRTUNATE. a. (fortunatus, Latin.) them it is the effect of natural instinct chiefly; Lucky; happy; successful (Dryden). in man it depends partly on habit, partly on FORTUNATE ISLANDS, in ancient geograstrength of nerves, and partly on wani of con- phy, certain islands concerning the situation sideration. But fortitude is the virtue of a ra- of which authors are not agreed. They were Lonal and considerate mind, and is founded in famous for the golden apples of the Hesperides.
Profile of the body of the Place Skavelin with demi Revetement .
Metlow So. Regrell lo?
Published by G.Kearsley Ficot Street. Manch 12810.
The common opinion is, that they are the Ca- or improvement (Swift). 2. To patronise ; nary islands.
to advance. FORTUNATELY. ad. (from fortunate.) FO'RWARDER. s. (from forward.) He Happils; successfully (Prior),
who promotes any thing. FURTUNATENESS. s. (from fortunate.)
FORWARDLY. ad. (from the adjective.) llappiness ; good luck ; success (Sidney). Eagerly; hastily; quickly (Atterbury). FORTUNE. s. (fortuna, Latin.) 1. The
FOʻRWARDNESS. s. (from forward.) 1. power supposed to distribute the lots of life ac- Eagerness; arduur; readiness to act (Bacon). cording to her own humour (Shakspeare). 2. 2. Quickness ; readiness (Wotton). 3. EarliThe good or ill that befalis man (Bentley). 3. ness; early ripeness. 4. Confidence; assurThe chance of life; means of living (Swift). ance; want of modesty. 4. Success, good or bad; event (Temple). 5. FOSS-WAY was anciently one of the four Estate ; possessions (Shakspeare). 6. The great Roman highways of England : so called, portion of a man or woman (Otway). 7. Fu- according to Camden, because it was ditched iurity; future events (Corley).
on both sides, which was the Roman method To FO’RTUNE. v. a. (from the noun.) To of making highways. It began at Totness in befall; to fall out; to happen ; to come ca- Devonshire, and ended at Barton upon Humsually to pass (Knolles).
ber: being still visible in several parts, though FORTUNED. a. Supplied by fortune of more than 1400 years standing. (Shekspeare).
FOSSA. ( fossa, from fodio, to dig.) Fovea. FORTUNEBOOK. s.
s. (fortune and book.) A little depression or sinus. A book consulted to know fortune (Crashaw). Fossa OVALIS. The depression in the
FOʻRTUNEHUNTER. s. (fortune and right auricle of the human heart, which in the hurt.) A man whose ernployment is to inquire fetus opens into the other auricle, forming the after women with great portions, to enrich foramen ovale. himself by marrying them (Spectator).
Fossa, in our ancient customs, was a ditch T. FOʻRTUNETELL. 2. n. (fortune and full of water, where women committing felony tell.) 1. To pretend to the power of revealing were drowned; as men were hanged. futurity (Waltor). 2. To reveal futurity FOSSANO, a strong town of Piedmont, (Cleareland).
with a bishop's see, seated on the Sture. Lat. FORTUNETELLER. s. (fortune and 44. 45 N. Lon.7. 56 E. teller.). One who cheats common people, by FOSSARII, in antiquity, a kind of officers pretending to the knowledge of futurity in the Eastern church, whose business was to (Dappa).
inter the dead. By stat. 9 Geo. II. c. 5. fortunetellers are FOSSE, in fortification, a ditch or moat. punishable with a year's imprisonment, and It lies between the scarp and counterscarp bestanding four times in the pillory.
low the rampart. FORTY. a. (Feopertiz, Saxon.) Four FOʻSSIL. a. (fossilis, Lat. fossile, French.) times ten.
That is dug out of the earth (Woodward). FORUM, in antiquity, is used in divers ac- Fossil fossilis, from fodio, to dig.) Any ceptations : sometimes for a place of traffic, thing dug out of the earth. answering to our market-place; in which Native fossils, according to Dr. Hill, subsense it has usually some adjective added to it, stances found either buried in the earth, or as forum boarium, the beast market. Some- lying on its surface, of a plain simple structure, times for any place, where the governor of a and shewing no signs of having contained vesprovince convenes his people, io give judg- sels or circulating juices. These are subdivided ment, according to course of law. At others, by the same author, 1. Into fossils naturally for a public standing place in the city of and essentially simple. Of these, some are neiRome, where causes were judicially tried, and ther inflammable, nor soluble in water ; as simorations delivered to the people.
ple earths, talcs, fibrariæ, gypsum, selenitæ, FORUM, among casuists, is used for juris- crystals, and spars : others, though uninfamdiction.
mable, are soluble in water ; as all the simple T. FORWA'NDER. v. a. (for and wan- salls : and others, on the contrary, are intamder.) To wander wildly and wearily (Spenser). mable, but not soluble in water; as sulphur,
FOʻRWARD. FO'RWARDS.ad. (forpeano, auripigmentum, zarnich, amber, ambergris, Saxon.) Toward a part or place before; on-. gagates, asphaltum, ampelites, lithanthrax, ward; progressively, straight before (Hooker). naphtha, and pisasphalta. 2. The second ge
FORWARD. a (from the adverb.) 1. neral subdivision of fossils,comprehends such as Warm; earvest (Galations). 2. Ardent; are naturally compound, but unmetallic. Of eager; hot; violent (Prior). 3. Ready; con- these, some are neither inflammable, nor solufident; presumptuous (Dryden). 4. Not re- ble in water; as compound earths, stones, sepserved ; not over modest (Shakspeare). 5. tariæ, siderochita, semi-pellucid gems, &c:: Premature ; early ripe (Shakspeare). 6. Quick; others are soluble in water, but not inflammaready; hasty (Locke). 7. Antecedent; ante- ble; as all the metallic salts: and lastly, some rior (Shakspeare). 8. Not behindhand; not are inflammable, but not soluble in water; as inferior (Shakspeare).
marcasites, pyritæ, and phlogonia. 3. The To PO'RWARD. v. a. (from the adverb.) 1. third and last general division of fossils, com. To hasten; to quicken; to accelerate in growth prehends all the metallic ores; which are bo