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· not behind (Bacon). 2. That is first in a pro- fend.) 1. To prohibit; to arert (Dryden). gressive motion (Cheyne).

2. To provide for ; to secure (Shakspeare). Fore. ud. 1. Anteriourly. (Raleigh). FOREFI'NGER. s. (fore and finger.) 2, Fore is a word much used in composition to The finger next the thumb; the index inark priority of time,

(Brown). FORE AND AFT, is used by seamen for the FOREFOOT. s. plur. forefeet. (fore and whole ship’s length, or from end to end. foot.) The anteriour foot of a quadruped

FORE-LEGS OF A HORSE, the fore-legcon- (Peacham). sists of the arm, fore-thigh, and shank, which T. FOREGO'. v. a. ( fore and go.) 1. To should be large, broad, and nervous.

quit; 10 give up; to resign (Locke). _2. To FORE-SKIN. See PREPUCE.

go before; to be past (Raleigh). 3. To lose T. FOREADVISE. v. n. (fore and ad- (Shakspeare). rise.). To counsel early; to counsel before FOʻREGOER. s. (from forego.) Ancestor ; the time of action, or the event (Shak- progenitor (Shakspeare). speare).

F'OREGROUND. s. (fore and ground.) T. FOREARM. v. Q. (fore and arm.) The part of the field or expanse of a picture To provide for attack or resistance before the which seems to lie before the figures (Drytime of need (South).

den). To FOREBOʻDE. v. n. (fore and lode.) FOʻREHAND. s. (fore and hand.) 1. The 1. To prognosticate; to foretell (Dryden). part of a horse which is before the rider. 2. To'foreknow; to be prescient of 2. The chief part: not in use (Shak(Pope).

speare). FOREBO’DER. s. (from forebode.) 1. A FOʻREHAND. Q. Done too soon (Shak. prognosticator; a soothsayer (L'Estrange). 2. speare.) A foreknower.

FOʻREHANDED. a. (from fore and hand.)

NDE FOREBY', prep. (fore and by.) Near; 1. Early; timely (Taylor). 2. Formed in hard by; fast by (Spenser).

the foreparts (Dryden). T. FORECAST. v. a. (fore and cast.) FOʻREHEAD. s. (fore and head.) 1. That 1. To scheme; to plan before execution part of the face which reaches from the eyes (Danie!. 2. To adjust; to contrive antece- upward to the hair (Dryden). 2. Impudence ; dently (Dryden). 3. To foresee; to provide confidence ; assurance Collier). against (L'Estrange).

FOREHEAD OF A HORSE. This should be To FORECAST. v. n. To form schemes; somewhat broad; some would have it a little to contrive beforehand (Spenser).

raised; but a flat one is most beautiful. A FORECA'St. s. (from the verb.) Contri- horse should have in his forehead what is called vance beforehand; antecedent policy (Addi- a feather. (See FEATHER). It is also to be son).

desired that he should have a star or blaze in FORECASTER. 6. (from forecast.) One his forehead. who contrives beforehand.

FOREHOʻLDING, s. (fore and hold.) PreFOʻRECASTLF. s. (fore and castle.) dictions; ominous accounts (L'Estrange). In a ship, is that part where the foremasi FOʻREIGN. a. (forain, French; foruno, stands.

Spanish.) 1. Not of this country; not domesFORECHO'SEN. part. (fore and chosen.) tic (Addison.) 2. Alien; reniote; not alPre-elected.

lied (Swift). 3. Excluded ; not admitted FORECITED. part. (fore and cite.) held at a distance (Shakspeare). 4. (In law.) Quoted before, or above (Arbuthnot).

A foreign plea, placitum forinsecum; as being T. FORECLOSE. v. a. (fore and close.) a plea out of the proper court of justice, 5. 1. To shut up; to preclude; to prevent. 2. Extraneous; adventitious in general (Philips). T. FORECLOSE a Mortgage, is to cut off the FOʻREIGNER. s. (from foreign.) A man power of redemption.

that comes from another country; not a native; FOREDECK. s. (fore and deck.) The an- a stranger (Addison). teriour part of the ship (Chapman).

It has long been the wise policy of the T. FOʻREDESIGN. v. a. (fore and de. British government to encourage emigration sign.) To plan beforehand (Cheyne). from foreign countries, with a view to introduce

RTÓ FOREDO. v. a. (from for and do, not the various manufactures peculiar to them; and fore.) 1. To ruin; 10 destroy: obsolete perhaps the encouragement to aliens to settle (Skakspeare). 2. To overdo; io weary; to among us ought to be extended and increased, harass (Shakspeare).

at a moment when some of the most wealthy T. FOREDOOM. v. e. (.fore and doom.) parts of Europe are a prey to the horrors of war, To predestinale; to determine beforehand and when thousands must be anxious to meet (Pope).

with an asylum for themselves, their families, FORE-END. s. (fore and end.) The an- and property. terioar part (Bacon).

It appears that there are domesticated among FOREFATHER. s. (fore and father.) us at present (1807) about 11,400 foreigners, Ancestor ; one who in any degree of ascending and that 16,000 others are engaged in our ra. genealogy precedes another (Raleigh). rious military or naval services, &c., chiefly

T. FOREFEND. v, a. (for or fore and abroad.

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Foreign troops in British pay, FOʻREMAN. s. (fore and man.). The mostly Germans..

12,500 first or chief person (Addison). 2 Foreigners of different nations,

FOREMAST of a ship, a large round intermixed in our army and piece of timber, placed in her forepart, or forenavy...: 3000 castle, and carrying the fore-sail

and fore-top-sail 3 In the merchant service, as sea- yards. Its length is usually of the main-mast. men

500 And the fore-top-gallant-mast is, the length

of the fore-top-nast. See Mast.

16,000 FOREMAST-MEN, are those on board a 4 Emigrant French clergy. 250 ship that take in the top-sails, fling the yards, 5 Italians and Swiss..

800 furl the sails, bowse, trice, and take their turn 6 French...

5,000 at the helm, &c. 7 Germans

2,500 FOREMENTIONED. a. ( fore and men8 Dutch

500 tion.) Mentioned or recited before. 9 Americans

700 FOREMOST. a. (from fore.) 1. First in 10 Russians

150 place (Sidney). 2. First in dignity (Dryji Spaniards ..

300 den). 12 All other nations.

1,200 FORENAMED. a. (fore and name.) No

minated before (Ben Jonson).

Total 27,400 FOʻRENOON. s. (fore and noon.) The Of the class No. 1, above one half are either time of day reckoned from the middle point, in Ireland, or abroad on various services, between the dawn and the meridian, to the

No. 2, are interspersed in every regiment in meridian (Arluthnot), the army, and ships of the line.

FORENOTICE. s. (fore and notice.) In4. Mostly kept on charity.

formation of an event before it happens 5. Mostly vagabonds, travelling the country (Rymer). with images and pictures, and persons escaped FORENSIC. a. (forensis, Latin.) Bee from the conscription of France.

longing to courts of judicature (Locke). 6. The greater part are valets, teachers in 7. FORÉORDAIN. v. a. (fore and ore schools, &c.

dain.) To predestinate; to predetermine ; to 7. The greater part are sugat-boilers and preordain (Hooker). other labourers, including above 700 Jews. FOʻREPART. s. (fore and part.) 1. The

8. Mostly employed in trade and commerce. part first in time (Raleigh). 2. The part an (Monthly Mag.)

teriour in place (Ray). FOʻREIGNNESS. s. (from foreign.) Re- FORE'PAST. a. (fore and past.) Past be moteness ; want of relation to something foré a certain time (Hammond). (Locke).

FOREPOSSESSED. a. (fore and possess.) FOREIMA’GINE. v. a. (fore and ima- Preoccupied ; prepossessed (Šanderson). gine.). To conceive or fancy before proof FOʻRERANK. s. (fore and rank.) First (Camden).

rank; front (Shakspeare). T. FOREJUDGE. v. a. (fore and judge.)

FORE REACH, in the sea language: a ship To judge beforehand; to be prepossessed. is said to fore reach upon another, when both

TO FOREKNO'W. v. a. (fore and know.) sailing together, one sails better, or outgoes To have prescience of; to foresee (Raleigh). the other.

FOREKNO‘WABLE. a. (from foreknow.) FOREREĆITED, a, (fore and recite.) Possible to be known before they happen Mentioned or enumerated before (Shaka (More).

speare) FOREKNOʻWLEDGE, s. (fore and know

ence FORERUN. v. a. (fore and run.) ledge.) Prescience; knowledge of that which 1. To come before as an earnest of something has not yet happened (Milton.)

following (Dryden). 2. To precede; to have FORELAND, or FORENESS, in naviga- the start of (Graunt). tion, a point of land jütting out into the sea. FORERU'NNER, S. (from forerun.) 1. A In England, there are two promontories or harbinger; a messenger sent before to give noheadlands, called North and South Foreland tice of the approach of those that follow (Stil. respectively. The former is the N.E. point of ling fleet. Dryden). 2. A prognostic; a he Isle of Thanet in Kent, and is situated in sign foreshowing any thing (South). Lon, 1. 17 E. Greenwich, and Lat. 51. 23 N. TO FORESAY. a. (fore and say.) The latter forms the east point of the Kentish To predict; to prophesy; to foretell (Shakcoast, but is called South in respect to its bear. speare). ing from the former : its Lon. is 1. 17 E. and To FORESE'E. v, a. (fore and see.) To its Lat. 51. 12 N.

see beforehand; to see what has not yet hapo To FORELA'Y. v.a. (fore and lay.). To pened (Taylor). lay wait for ; to entrap by ambush (Dryden). TO FORESHAME. a. (fore and

TO FOʻRELIFT. •v. a. (fore and life.) To shame.) To shamo; to bring reproach upon Taise aloft any anteriour part (Spenser). (Shakspeare).

FOʻRELOCK. s. (fore and lock.) Thę FORESHIP. s. (fore and ship.) The anhair that

grows from the forepart of the head teriour part of the ship (Acts). (Milton).

Po FORESHORTEN, a. (fore and


skorten.) To shorten figures for the sake of see. it is said, that there is no record or history ing those behind (Dryden).

which unakes any certain mention of their To FORESHOW. v. a. (fore and show.) erection. 1. To discover before it happens; to predict ; Forest (Beasts of the), are the hart, hind,. 10 prognosticate (Denham). 2. To represent buck, doe, boar, wolf, fox, hare, &c. before it comes (Hooker).

FORBST-COURTS, courts instituted for the FOʻRESIGHT. s. ( fore and sight.) 1. Pre- government of the king's forests in different science; prognostication; foreknowledge (Mil- parts of the kingdom, and for the punishment ton). 2. Provident care of futurity (Spen- of all injuries done to the king's deer or venis ter).

gon, to the vert or greensward, and to the coFORESIGHTFUL. a. (foresight and vert in which such deer are lodged. full.) Prescient; provident (Sidney).

FOREST-LAW8, are peculiar laws different T. FORESIGNIFY. v, a. (fore and sig- from the common law of England. Even to nify.) To betoken beforehand; to foreshow; this day, in trespasses relating to the forest, von to irpify (Hooker).

luntas reputabitur pro facto; so that if a man FORESKIN. s. (fore and skin.) The pre- be taken hunting a deer, he may be arrested puce (Cowley).

as if he had taken a deer. FOʻRESKIRT. s. (fore and skirt.). The Forest-TOWNS, in geography, certain pendulous or loose part of the cuat before towns of Suabia in Germany, lying along the (Shakspeare).

Rhine, and the confines of Switzerlaud, To FORESLA'CK. v. a. (fore and slack.) and subjret to the house of Austria. Their To neglect by idleness (Spenser).

names are Rhinefield, Seckingen, Lausenburg, T. FORESLOW. v. a. (fore and slow.) ayd Waldshut. 1. To delay; to hinder ; to impede (Dryden); FORESTS (Plantation of), This of late 2. To neglect; to ounit (Fletcher),

has been too much neglected in our own To FORESLO'w. v. n. To be dilatory; country; whence the high and enormous to loiter (Shakspeare).

price of timber of every kind, and the extreme T. FORESPE'AK. v. n. (fore and speak.) difficulty of obtaining it during war. Even 1. To predict; to foresay (Camden). 2. To those who are possessed of extensive tracts of forbid." (Shakspeare).

woodlands are inore generally disposed to conFORESPE'NT. a. (for and spent.). 1, vert them into arable than to maintain them Wasted ; tired; spent (Shakspeare). 2. Fore- upon their existing use. It is a national passed; past. (fore and spent.) (Spectator). eril; but will always be found to accompany 3. Bestowed before (Shakspeare).

a population that demands a larger proportion FORESPUʻRREŘ. s. (fure and spur.) of grain than the soil actually cultivated proOne that rides before (Shakspeare).

duces, and where landed estates are perpetually FOREST, in geography, a huge wood'; or. Aitting from hand to hand. a large extent of ground covered with trees. The trees that answer best for fresh planta. The word is formed of the Latin foresta, tion are such as grow to a large size, and lofty. which first occurs in the capitulars of Charle- height, whether deciduous or evergreen: those magne, and which itself is derived from the chiefly employed are the oak, ash, elm, beech, Gerinan frost, signifying the same thing. chesnut, inaple, birch, alder, poplar, larch, Spelman derives it from the Latin foris restai, and pine. Many of these are as ornamental by reason that forests are out of towns. Others as they are useful, and where ornament is derive foresta from feris, 4. d. Poresta, quoad principally the object, they may be intermixed sit tata statio ferarum, as being a safe station with mountain-ash, lime, horse-chestrut, wila or abode for wild beasts. The Caledonian and low, and all the varieties of fir, box, holly, Hercynian forests are famous in history. The yew, cypress and cedar. first was a celebrated retreat of the ancient In forming plantations of this kind, the fole Picts and Scots : the latter anciently occupied lowing rules may be found useful. the greatest part of Europe ; particularly Ger- Great care should, in the first place, be taken many, Poland, Hungary, &c.

to adapt the trees as much as possible to the FOREST, in law, is defined by Manwood soils and situation, as some sorts succeed best a certain territory of woody grounds and fruita on a.soil of one kind, and other sorts on a soit ful pastures, privileged for wild beasts and of another kind. Thus the oak, elin, maple, fowls of forest, chase, and warren, to rest and and birch, answer well on all the decper kinds abide under the protection of the king, for his of soil; while those of the aslı, beech, chesprincely delight; bounded with unreinoveable nut, mountain-ash, larch, pine, box, holly, marks and meres, either known by matter of and yew thrive most perfectly where the soils, record or prescription ; replenished with wild are light, dry and friable; at the same time beasts of venery or chase, with great coverts of that the 'alder, willow, and poplar demand a soil sert for the said beasts, for preservation and where there is a considerable degree of moistcontivyance whereof, the vert and venison, ure; and the beech, mountain-ashi

, and larch there are certain parricular laws, privileges, and succeed well in exposed situations. officers. Forests are of such antiquity in Eng- The manual labour required in laying out a, land, that, excepting the New Forest in Hamp- forest, nearly the same as that for fruit trees shire, erected by William the Conqueror, and and shrubs; and though plantations of forest Hampton-Couri, erected by Henry VIII, trees need not be so nicely attended to as fruit trees, yet the better the work is performed, come tu fair timber, or may be thinned at pleathe fairer is the prospect in growing good tim- sure; and even among these, a small crop of ber: a check by an error at first planting is a underwood might be had, which would shelter loss of time, and a damage done to trees which the timber plants, and help to draw them up is sometimes never recovered. To give an in- straight. stance: the mould is often thrown on the roots As to little plantations, of thickets, cofpices, of a forest tree in lumps, when if a little sifted clumps, and rows of trees, ihey are to be set carth was used, so as just to cover them with close according to their nature, and the partifine mould, the trouble would be amply repaid cular view the planter has, who will take care by the quick striking, and future strength of to consider the usual size they attain, and their the tree.

be con

mode of growth. An advantage at home for Ground designed for planting should be pre- shade or shelter, and a more distant object of pared as long as it can beforehand, by the use sight, will make a difference. For some imof the plough or spade; and if some sort of mediate advantage, very close planting may previous cultivation, either in corn or vegeta- take place, but good trees cannot be thus ex: bles, was adopted, the soil would be better pected; yet if thinned in time, a straight tall fitted to receive the trees. At any rate, the stem is thus procured, which afterwards is of places where the trees are to be set should be great advantage. previously dug somewhat deep, and cleared of For little clumps or groups of forest trees rubbish, perennial weeds, couch, &c. If wet, (as elms), these may be planted three or four let it be properly drained, for none but aqua- in a spot, within five or six feet of one another, tics can do well in a cold and very moist soil. and thus be easily fenced; having the air free

In open planting for timber, to make only ly all round, and a good soil, such clumps prothe holes good where the trees are set, is suffi- duce fine timber. cient, if the soil be not strong (which, generally Single trees of every sort grow off apace, speaking, however, it should be); and in such and are more beautiful than when in the plantations, the plough being used for corn, neighbourhood of others, and particularly firs, or some sort of crop to be carried off, the whole pines, larches, limes, walnuts, and chesnuts : soil will be prepared for the tree's roots to the edible fruited chesnut is exceedingly good spread. A plantation of this sort may for timber; but the horse is only ornamental, siantly under the plough, till the trees shade Aourishing most on high dry ground. As to too much; and then it may be sown down rows of trees, whether single or double, when for grass, which lying warm, and coming ear- planted for a screen, they may be set about ly, would be found useful. The opportunity seven or eight feet asunder, upon an average, giren to improve a soil by this cultivation according to their nature, taking care to prune would insure very fine timber. But a planta- them occasionally from too galling an intertion of trees being made (as suppose of oaks) ference. at due distances, and the ground ploughed for Avenues are now seldom planted; but when two or three years, while they get a little a they are, two good rows of 'elms, limes, cheshead, then it might be sown profitably with nuts, &c. should be set at the width of the nuts, keys, and seeds for underwood, observing, house, at full thirty feet distance in the rows : to thin ihe plants the second year, and again to thicken which, intermediate plants may be the third, till iwo or three feet asunder in poor set; and also an inner row, to be removed ground, and to three or four feet distance if rich. when the principal trees are full grown. AveIn fourteen or fifteen years (or much sooner nues to prospects should be fifty or sixty feet for some purposes), the ash poles, &c. will be wide. The best season for planting deciduous fine, and ineet with a ready sale as useful stuff: kinds of forest trees is toward the end of Ocafterwards the underwood will be fit to cut, in tober, and for evergreen sorts, the end of a strong state, every eleven or twelve years. March; though the soil, whether light and In the management of underwood, some have dry, or heavy and wet, should somewhat dithinned the plants while young, to three feet, rect; evergreen trees being to be planted geneasunder, and cut them down at three years, to rally with safety, early in autumn, if the soil is about six inches, in order to form stools, which warm ; but in all cases trees should be planted in about ten years are cut, having produced se-, in dry weather, that the mould may be loose veral stems from each. Some persons have cut to drop in, and lie close between the roots, seedling trees down at this age to three inches which is a material thing: trees planted in rain for timber, leaving only one strong shoot to or mists are injured by the moisture moulding grow from each stool ; and thus finer trees are the roots. frequently (or rather certainly) produced, than Forest trees for planting are generally prefrom seedlings not cut down. The distances ferred rather large, and being so, should not be of the timber plants may be from twenty-five taken up, carelessly, but with as much of an to thirty-five feet, according to the soil, or op;- uninjured spread of roots as possible; yet free nion of the planter. If no view to underwood, growing plants, of about three or four feet high, the above open planting may be made close, promise in the end to make finer trees than by setting first the principals (which should be those that are planted larger. Some say they fine plants), and then filling up with others are best at this size from the seed bed; and that are worse, to within about eight or nine others, to have been once planted out, having feet of one another. They will at this distance had their tap roots then cut: and generally


peaking, this is the case, as they have a more also called the cross-staff, because it consists of bushy and horizontal root. In the act of several pieces set across a staff. planting, let every thing be done as for fruit The fore-staff is formed of a straight square trees; i. e. the hole dug wide and deep, the staff, of about three feet long, having each of ground well broken, or rather sifted, to lie im- its four sides graduated like a line of tangents, mediately about their roots, &c. Let the and four crosses, or vanes, sliding upon it, of trees be made fast by stakes, and litter laid unequal lengths, the halves of which represent about their roots to keep out frost and drought. the radii to the lines of tangents on the different It is of much consequence to take care that sides of the staff. The first or shortest of these roots (especially of evergreen trees) do not get vanes is called the ten cross, or ten vane, and withered before planted. Evergreens do best belongs to the 10 scale, or that side of the inma dry, but deciduous forest trees (generally) strument on which divisions begin at 3 degrees, in a moist soil, if it is not wet. Oaks in parti- and end at 10. The next longer cross is called cular, though at first they may appear to do the 30 cross, belonging to that side of the staff poorly, grow well in strong moist ground, and where the divisions begin at 10 degrees, and make the best timber.

end at 30, called the 30 scale. The third vane Fencing is the last thing to be considered. If is called the 60 cross, and belongs to thas side trees be planted where cattle go, their stems where the divisions begin at 20 degrees, and must be protected from barking and rubbing. end at 60. The last or longest vane, called the The common way of small posts and little rails 90 cross, belongs to the side where the diviis well known; but if large cattle be not fed sions begin at 30 degrees, and end at 90. where the trees are, good thorns stuck round The chief use of this instrument is to take them, and tied to them, are sufficient, and in- the height of the sun, and stars, or the distance deed this might do in almost all cases. There between two stars; and the 10, 30, 60, or 90 are various ways, ordinarily known; but what. cross, is to be used, according as the altitude is Eyer mode is used, let it be at first well execut- more or less; that is, if the altitude be less el, and afterwards repaired in time, as often than 30, the 30 cross is to be used ; and so as there is need.

Whoever plants forest trees, should take care To observe an Altitude with the Forestati to dress them by proper pruning, and suffering Apply the flat end of the staff to the eye, and no suckers to remain about their roots. Their slide one of the crosses backwards and forwards lops should be kept equal, and not permitted upon it, till over the upper end of the cross be to spread too much in heavy branches, but just seen the centre of the sun or star, and over trained in a light and spiral way, always pre- the under end the extreine horizon; then the serving the leading shoot, to encourage mount- degrees and minutes cut by the cross on the ing, which is the perfection of a forest tree. side of the staff proper to the vane in use, gives The stems of all irees designed for timber the altitude above the horizon. should be constantly and timely attended to, In like manner, for the distance between as it is necessary to rub off buds, or cut off the two luminaries; the staff being set to the eye, side shoots, except here and there a small one, bring the cross just to subtend or cover that which may serve to detain the sap to the swell- distance, by having that luminary just at the ing of the trunk; but branches being left on one end of it, and the other luminary at the of any strength, keep the tree from mounting, other end of it; and the degrees and minutes, and draw it crooked; and such branches, if cut in the distance, will be cut on the proper side of a when large, occasion knots, and sometimes the staff, as before. decay at the part.

7. FORESTA’LL. v.a.(forestallan, Sax.) Plantations growing thick should be thinned 1. To anticipate; to take up beforehand. in time, but not too much at once, especially 2. To hinder by preoccupation or prevention in hilly situations; for those trees which re- (Pope). 3. To seize or gain possession of bemain come suddenly to be exposed (after hav, fore another (Spenser). ing been brought up under the shelter of FORESTÀÄLLER. s. (from forestall.) One others), and suffer much; getting crooked, that anticipates the market; one that purstunted, and bushy, instead of having their de- chases before others to raise the price (Locke). sirable form, without which they are not FORESTALLING, is the buying or baradapted for superior uses, or agreeable to the gaining for any corn, cattle or other merchanefe.

dize, by the way, before it comes to any marOmamental trees, as the crab, black cherry, ket or fair, to be sold; or by the way, as it Tisountain ash, &c. may prove profitable, as comes from beyond the seas, or otherwise, towell as agreeable, one being here and there wards any city, port, haven, or creek of this acattered amongst forest trees, and should there- realm, to the intent to sell the same again at a fore not be omitted: the wood is good.

higher price. FORE-STAFF, an instrument used at sea, At the common law, all endeavours to enfor taking the altitudes of the heavenly bodies; hance the common price of any merchandize, being so called, because the observer, in using and all things which have an apparent tendenit, torns his face forward, or towards the ob- cy thereto, whether by spreading false rumours, ject, in contradistinction to the back-staff, with or by purchasing things in a market before the which he turns his back to the object. It is accustomed hour, or by buying and selling

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