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FO'RMER, a. (from forma, Saxon, first.) (or rather those commonly called neuters) 1. Before another in tine (Shakspeare). 2. armed with a concealed sting; males and feMentioned before another (Pope). 3. Past: males with wings; neuters wingless. This is as, this was the custom in former limes. a gregarious and proverbially industrious fa

FOʻRMERLY, ad. In times past (Add.). mily, consisting, like bees, of males, females, FORMIAT. See FORMIC ACID.

and a ibird kind which are yet called neuters. FORMIC ACID. Acid of auts. There These last are the well-known little insects can be no doubt that the strong acid smell who construct the nests or ant-hills, who which is observed to arise from the atmosphere labour with such unremitting assiduity for of an ani-bed, after being disturbed, must have the support of themselves and the idle males been known to the ancients, but from their and females, and who guard with such fewant of chemical knowledge, it is not very ex. rocity the larves, or what are commonly called traordinary that they should have been ignorantants eggs. They wander about all day in that this smell proceeded from an acid of a pe- search of food or materials for the nest; and asculiar kind. In more modern times, the .ex- sist each other in bringing home what is too istence of this acid was first made known by cumbersome for such as have atteinpted it. Mr. Ray, in a correspondence with Dr. Hulse. They every day bring.but of the nest and expose The doctor informed him that these insects, to the warmth of he sun the newly hatched when irritated, give out a clear liquid, which larvæ, and feed them till they are able to protinges blue flowers red; a fact which had been vide for themselves. In the evening they conobserved by others. Hence it was found to be sume together whatever has been collected an acid, which was obtained by bruising the during the day, and do not, as is commonly insects, by distilling them, and by intusing supposed, lay up any store for the winter, but them in water. The French chemists obtain- probably against that season become torpid or ed the acid by bruising ants, and macerating die. They are peculiarly fond of plant-lice, them in alcohol. When the alcohol was dis- and are themselves eagerly sought after by the tilled over, an acid liquor remained, which sa- ant-eater and various birds. A very grateful turated with lime, mixed with sulphuric acid, acid is procured from them by maceration and and distilled, yielded a liquid that possessed all distillation. See FORMIC ACID: as also Nat. the properties of acetic acid. This acid has Hist, Plate CXVI. been thought by some chemists, and especially 1. F. cæspitum. This is the common ant by Margraaf, to be acetic acid, or at least to or emmet: black in colour, petiole of the abhave a great analogy to vinegar; and by others domen with two tubercles : scutel two-tooth. to be a mixture of acetic and malic acid. A ed. Inhabits Europe in dry meadows under minute examination of it, however, sufficient- moss. The males and females Ay abroad in ly proves, that it differs very essentially from large swarms in a serene day, like ihe day fly. boih, whether separate or in conjunction, quite 2. F. herculanea. Herculanean ant. So as much, indeed, as these differ from each called from being the largest species of the other; it differs in its specific gravity, in its genus : in colour black; abdomen ovate; legs effects with alkalies, in its metallic salts, and ferruginous. Found chiefly in dry woods of in its affinities.

pine or fir, where it inhabits a large conical Thouvenel, on the contrary, contended, that nest or hillock, composed of dry vegetable fragit is very closely related to the phosphoric, or, ments, chiefly of fir-leaves; the nest is interas he calls it, the microcosmic; but he has not nally divided into distinct roads or avenues constated in what the relation or analogy consists. verging towards the centre, and opening exLister affirmed that he had extracted a similar ternally: in the centre are placed the young acid from wasps and bees ; but Arvidson and larvæ under the care of the neutrals. Fouud Oehrn failed in making the attempt after him, in our own country, and in Europe in general. nor has any one been able to succeed since. 3. F. omnivora. Thorax rough, with raised

The formic acid, therefore, is an acid sui dots; petiole with two tubercles; body tesgeneris: it is extracted from ants, either by taceous; abdomen very minute. Inhabits distillation or expression with water; in the Surinam; and in such swarnis that a sheep living insect it reddens blue flowers; Aies off killed and left abroad in the evening will be in the form of a vapour smelling like musk: found entirely devoured by the morning. destroys animals under this gasseous form; is · FORMICATION, in building, arched capable of serving economical purposes like yaulting. vinegar; is decomposed by a great heat; takes FORMIDABLE. a. (fermidabilis, Lat.) oxygen from oxygenated' muriatic acid; and Terrible; dreadful; tremendous; terrific. forms salts with alkalies and earths, which are FO'RMIDABLENESS. S. (from formidcrystallizable and not deliquescent.

able.) 1. The quality of exciting terror or "These salts are called formiats.

dread. 2. The thing causing dread (D. of P.). FORMICA. Ant or emmet. In zoology, FOʻRMIDABLY. ad. (from formidable.) a genus of the class insecta, order hymenop- In a terrible manner (Dryden). tera. Feelers four, unequal with cylindrical FO'RMLESS. a. (from form.) Shapeless; articulations placed at the tip of the lip which wanting regularity of form (Shakspeare), is cylindrical, and nearly membranaceous ; an- FORMOSA, a large island in the Eastern tennas filiform ; a small erect scale between ocean, between 119° and 1220 E, lon. and 229 the thorax and abdomen; females and neuters and 25° N. lat, about 100 miles E. of Canton




in China. It is subject to the Chinese, who, tricle, over the third ventricle, and below the notwithstanding its proximity, did not know septum lucidum. of its existence till the year 1730. It is about FORRAGE, among military men, denotes 255 miles long and 75 broad. A long chain of hay, oats, barley, wheat, grass, clover, &c. mountains, running from N. to S. divides it brought into the camp by the troopers, for the into two parts, the E. and W. The Dutch sustenance of their horses. built the fort of Zealand in the W. part in FORRES, a town of Murrayshire, seated on 1634. This secured to them the principal port an eminence, 2 miles E. of the river Findhorn. of the island. They were driven thence in 1661 Here are manufactures of linen and sewing hy a Chinese pirate, who had made himself thread; and east froin the town is a remarkmaster of all the W. part. But in 1682 the able obelisk 23 feet high, said to be the most whole island submitted to the emperor of stately monument of the Gothic kind to be China. It contains extensive and fertile plains, seen in Europe. watered by a great number of rivulets that fall T. FORSA'KE. v. a. preter. forsook ; part. from the mountains. Its air is pure and whole- pass. forsook or forsaken. (versarken, Dutch.) some; and the earth produces abundance of 1. To leave in resentment or dislike (Cowley) corn, rice, &c.

2. To leave; to go away from (Dryden). 3. FORMULA, or FORMULARY, a rule or To desert; to fail (Rowe). model, or certain terms prescribed or decreed FORSAKER. s. (from forsake.) Deserter; by authority, for the form and manner of an one that forsake: (Apocrypha). act, instrument, proceeding, or the like. FORSKOLEA, in botany, a genus of the

FORMULA, in church history and theology, class octandria, order tetragynia. Calyx four or signifies a profession of faith.

five-leaved, longer than the corol; petals eight Formula, in medicine, a little form of or ten, spatulate pericarpless ; seeds four or five, prescription, such as physicians direct in ex- connected by wool. Three species; Egypt, temporaneous practice, in distinction from the Tenerifle, and the Cape. greater forms in pharmacopæias, &c.

FORSOOTH. ad. (forsoðe, Saxon.) In FORMULA, in mathematics, a theorem or truth; certainly: very well (Hayward). general rule or expression for resolving certain FORSTER (John Reinhold, LL.D.) proparticular cases of some problem, &c. So fessor of natural history in the university of d

Halle, member of the academy of science at is a general formula for the greater Berlin, and of other learned societies, was of two quantities whose sum is s and difierence born at Dirschau, in West Prussia, in the d

month of October, 1729, and was formerly a d; and is the formula, or general value Protestant clergyman at Dantzick. He had a

numerous family, and the emoluments of his for the less quantity. Again v dr--.22 is the office were slender. He therefore quitted formula or general value of the ordinate of a Dantzick, and went, first to Russia, and ihence circle whose diameter is d and absciss r. to England, in quest of a better settlement than

FORNAX, a goddess at Rome, who pre- his own country afforded. In the Socinian sided over the baking of bread. Her festivals, academy at Warrington, he was appointed called Fornicalia, were first instituted by Numa. tutor in the modern languages, with the oce (Ovid).

casional office of lecturing in various branches FORNAX CHEMICA, in astronomy, the of natural history. For the first of these he chemist's furnace, a new southern constellation, was hy no means well qualified; his extraorconsisting of 14 stars of the first six magnitudes, dinary knowledge of languages, ancient and i. e. 0.0.0. 1. 2. 11.

modern, being unaccompanied by a particle of FORNICATE. (fornir, an arch or vault.) taste. As a natural historian, a critic, geoIn botany, ARCHED or VAULTED, which grapher, and antiquary, he ranked much

higher. But these were acquisitions of comTo FO'RNICATE. v. a. (from fornix, Lat.) paratively little use to him in that situation. To commit lewdness (Brown).

At length he obtained the appointment of FORNICATION. s. (fornication, Fr.) naturalist and philosopher (if the word may be 1. Concubinage, or commerce with an unmar- so used) to the second voyage of discovery ried woman (Graunt). 2. In scripture, some- undertaken by captain Cook; and from 1772 times idolatry (Ezekiel).

to 1775 he accompanied that immortal naviFORNICA’TOR. s. (fornicateur, French.) gator round the world. On his return he reOne that has commerce with unmarried wo- sided in London, till the improper conduct of men.

himself and his son made it expedient for them FORNICA

TRESS, s. A woman who with- both to leave the kingdom. Fortunately he put marriage cohabits with a man (Shaks.). received an invitation to Halle, where, för 18

FORNIX. (fornix, an arch or vault. A years, he was a member of the philosophical part of the corpus callosum in the brain is so and medical faculties. Among his works are: called, because, if viewed in a particular direc- An Introduction to Mineralogy, or, An accution, it has some resemblance to the arch of an rate Classification of Fossils and Minerals, &c ancient vault.) The medullary body, composed London, 1768, 8vo. A Catalogue of the Aniof two anterior and two posterior crura, situat- mals of North America, with short Directions ed at the bottom and inside of the lateral ven, for collecting, preserving, and transporting all

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kinds of Natural Curiosities, London, 1771, such a manner as to be quite inclosed with it; 8vo. Observations made during a Voyage and in some places the fusion has been so perround the World, on Physical Geography, &c. fect, that ihe ruins appear like masses of coarse Loodon, 1778. He was the author of a great glass. many productions in English, Latin, or Ger- In the Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society of man, and of several papers in the Philosophical London for 1777, Part II, No. 20. is an acTransactions. He translated into English, count of Creck Faterick, there termed a volBourgainville's Voyage round the World, and canic hill near Inverness, in a letter from ThoKalm's, Bossu's, and Reidsel's Travels. He mas West, esq. to Mr. Law, F.R.S, in which was employed likewise, when in England, in the writer does not hesitate to pronounce this the Critical Review; and he wrote various de- hill an extinguished volcano: and having sent tached papers on different subjects, which have specimens of the burnt matter for the inspecbeen inserted in foreign journals and the trans- tion of the Royal Society, the secretary subactions of learned academies. He died at Halle joins a note to the paper, intimating that these on the 16th of December 1798, in the 70th specimens, having been examined by some of year of his age.

the members well acquainted with volcanic FORSTERA, in botany, a genus of the productions, were by them judged to be real class gynandria, order diandria. Calyx double; lava. Such was likewise the opinion of the late the outer inferior, three-leaved; inner, su- Andrew Crosbie, esq. who, in an account perior, six-cleft; corol tubular; berry inferior, which he gave to the Philosophical Society of one-celler, one-seeded. One species: an as- Edinburgh in 1780, offered some very curious cending herbaceous plant of New Zealand, conjectures with regard to that process of nahaving white Aowers with a red throat. ture, by which he supposed the whole of this

TO FORSWE'AR. v. a. pret. forswore; hill to have been thrown up from the bottom part. forsworn. (forfpærian, Saxon.) 1. Tó of the sea by the operation of intestine fire. renounce upon oath (Shakspeare). 2. To deny Mr. Tytler agrees with those who think the upon oath (Shakspeare). 3. With the reci- vitrified structures to be artificial works; but procal pronoun: as, to forswear himself; to he differs from Mr. Williams and others, who be perjured; to swear falsely (Smith). think that they were vitrified on purpose for

To FORSWEAR. v. n. To swear falsely; to cementing the materials together. "His reason commit perjury (Shakspeare)

for this is, that the number of forts that show FORSWEARER. s. (from forsu'ear.) One marks of vitrification is inconsiderable when who is perjured.

compared with those that do not. He there. FORT, in the military art, a small fortified fore considers the vitrification as accidental, place, environed on all sides with a moat, rani. and describes the manner in which he conceives part, and parapet. Its use is to secure some it must have been accomplished. Among high ground, or the passage of a river, to make other observations of his opinion, he urges, good an advantageous post, to defe:id the lines that, in the fortification on Craig Phadrick, a and quarters of a siege, &c. Forts are made of large portion of the outward rampart bears no different figures and extents, according as marks of vitrification. Mr. Cordiner, on the the ground requires. Some are fortified with other hand, is of opinion, that the vitrifications bastions, others with demi-bastions. Soine in question cannot have been the works of art, agaio are in form of a square, others of a pen- and ridicules the contrary hypothesis, though tagon. A fort differs from a citadel, as this without adducing any argument against it. last is built to command some town.

Mr. Tytler concludes his dissertation with a PORTS (Vitrified), a very singular kind of conjecture, which indeed seems well supportstructure found in the Highlands and north- ed, that the forts in question were constructed, ern parts of Scotland, in which the walls have not only before the Roman invasion, but bethe appearance of being melted into a solid fore the introduction of the rites of the Druids mass, so as to resemble the lava of a volcano, into Britain; as “there appears no probability fur which indeed they have been taken by seve- that the inhabitants either lived under such a ral persons who have visited them.

government as we know to have prevailed unThese walls were taken notice of by Mr. der the influence of the Druids, or had any acWilliams, an engineer, who wrote a treatise quaintance with those arts which it is certain upon the subject, and was the first who sup- they cultivated.” On a view of the disputes posed them to be the works of art; other which have agitated the learned on this obscure naturalists having attributed them to a vol- subject, we can only observe, that their argucanic origin. These works are commonly ments seem to have placed it in a state of equisituated on the tops of small hills, commanding ponderance, and that the fact remains open to an extensive view of the adjacent valley or low ihe investigation of future speculators. country. The area on the summit, varying, as FORTE, a musical term, directing the peris supposed, according to the number of cattle former to sing or play loudly; its superlative is the proprietor had to protect, or the dependents F. F. or fortissima. he was obliged to accommodate, is surrounded FOʻRTED. a. (from fort.) Furnished or with a high and strong wall, of which the guarded by forts: out of use (Shakspeare). stones are melted, most of them entirely; while FORTMENT, a musical term, implying others, in which the fusion has not been so strength and energy. complete, are sunk in the vitrificd matter in FORTESCUE (Sir John), an English

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