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J. H. RAYMOND, M. D., Health Officer, Port of New York. Prof. LEWIS SWIFT, Warner Observatory, Rochester, N. Y. Fumigation.

WILLIAM REED, Fall River, Mass.

Fall River.

Prof. M. B. RIDDLE, D. D., Professor of New Testament
Exegesis, Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa.
Hebrews, Epistle to.

Prof. C. V. RILEY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
D. C.

Hessian Fly.

Prof. J. T. ROTH ROCK, M. D., West Chester, Pa.


*S. P. SADTLER, Professor of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania.

Dumas, J. B. A.,

and articles on chemical subjects.


and other astronomical articles.

Prof. WILLIAM H. THORNE, Franklin Institute, Philadelphia.


WILLIAM R. THAYER, Cambridge, Mass.

Hugo, Victor.

*Prof. ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, D. D., University of Pennsylvania.

Articles in biography, history, political economy, etc.

Rev. CHARLES F. THWING, Cambridge, Mass.


Rey H. G. WESTON, D. D., President Crozer Theological
Seminary, Pennsylvania.

F. B. SANBORN, Concord, Mass., Secretary of the American H. C. WOOD, M. D., University of Pennsylvania.
Social Science Association.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo.

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chester town-hall illustrating the history of that city.
Four are finished, representing The Romans, The Bap
tism of Eadwin The Expulsion of the Danes, and The
Establishment of the Flemish Weavers by Queen Phi
lippa. Others are to represent Crabtree observing the
Transit of Venus and The Edict of the Court-Leet for
the Testing of Weights and Measures in 1556. Ilis
son, Oliver Madox Brown (1855-1874) was noted for
precocity as a painter and author.
(W. J. C., JR.)

BROWN, GEORGE (1818-1880), a leader of the
Reform party in Upper Canada (now Ontario), born in

BROWN, FORD MADOX, an English painter, was born at Calais, France, in 1821. He is a grandson of Dr. John Brown of Edinburgh, the founder of the Brunonian theory of medicine. He secured his education on the Continent, and his art-studies were made in the schools of France and Belgium. In 1844 and 1845 he contributed cartoons of The Finding of the Body of Harold, Justice, and other subjects to the competitive exhibition in Westminster Hall for the frescoes of the houses of Parliament. Brown, thanks to his continental schooling, was a much better trained artist than almost any of his English professional Edinburgh, Scotland, Nov. 29, 1818. He was edubrethren of that day. Haydon was one of the few to cated at the High School and Southern Academy in perceive the merits of his designs, and he was generous that city. In 1838 he emigrated with his father to enough to pronounce cordially in their favor. The de- New York, where he first became known to the public signs also excited the warm admiration of Dante Ga- as publisher of the British Chronicle, a journal estabbriel Rossetti, then a boy of about seventeen years of lished by his father in 1842. Visiting Canada in 1843 age. Rossetti, recognizing in Brown's pictures sin- in the interests of that paper, Mr. Brown made a very cerity of purpose and the faculty of penetrating to favorable impression upon the minds of leading memthe heart of a subject, applied to him for instruction. bers of the Liberal or Reform party, and, as the result Brown, who had always refused pupils, offered Rossctti of overtures made him, the publication of the British the freedom of his studio. Thus began a firm friend- Chronicle was given up, and the Banner shortly after ship and a close intimacy which lasted until the death established in Toronto. In 1844 the first number of of Rossetti. A few years later, when the Pre-Raphael- the Globe was issued, a paper with which Mr. Brown's ite Brotherhood was organized under Rossetti's lead name was associated to the last, and which became the for the avowed purpose of bringing English art back chief instrument of his power and one of the most to the paths of sincerity and truth, Brown was solicited potent factors in Canadian politics. Commencing as a to connect himself with it, but declined to do so on the weekly, it became in 1846 a semi-weekly, in 1849 a triground that he had a dislike for coteries. But the weekly, and in 1853 a daily. By means of it the young public almost from the first rated Brown as a Pre- Liberal threw himself with immense energy into the Raphaelite, and was justified in doing so, not only by conflicts in which his party was engaged. The years his peculiar selection and treatment of subjects, but by immediately following its establishment were years of his manner of painting, though he never indulged in constitutional crisis in the Canadas, and his trenchant the extravagances which marked the performances of and powerful articles defended responsible government some of the reformers themselves. His work was at and representation by population, and opposed whatall times serious, dignified, and really learned, while ever savored of State-Churchism. occasionally it was powerful or profoundly pathetic. Mr. Brown was frequently solicited to enter ParliaSoon after the Westminster Hall competition Brown ment, and did so in 1851 as member for Kent. He went to Italy. On his return to England he painted continued to represent this or another constituency Wycliffe reading his Translation of the Scriptures, until 1867, with an interval of a year or two after 1861. which was exhibited in 1848. The year following he He seems, however, never to have been eager for parexhibited King Lear, and in 1851 Chaucer reciting his liamentary honors, believing he could better serve his Poetry at the Court of Edward III. His Christ wash- party by devoting his whole strength to the Globe, ing Peter's Feet was exhibited in 1852. In 1865 he Having, in the general election of 1867, been defeated opened in London a special exhibition of his works, in a chivalrous effort to wrest a doubtful constituency composed of about one hundred pieces, half of which from a very strong Conservative candidate, he declined were finished pictures and the rest cartoons and all the many offers made him of other safe constitusketches. This collection included some of his import- encies, and steadily refused all subsequent solicitations ant performaces, such as The Last of England, Autumn to re-enter Parliament. While in Parliament he exAfternoon, Wilhelmus Conquistator, and a composition erted a marked influence; he was at first tacitly, and entitled Work, upon which he had been engaged for then formally, recognized as the leader of the Upper several years. This exhibition found the public better Canadian reformers. This position he continued virprepared to judge with appreciation than it was at the tually to hold until his final retirement. time of the Westminster Hall competition. Among In 1873 he was offered and accepted a seat in the more important of Brown's recent works are The the Dominion Senate. In 1874 he went to WashingCoat of Many Colors, Cordelia's Portion, Elijah and ton as plenipotentiary of the Canadian Government the Widow's Son, Romeo and Juliet, The Entomb- to aid Sir Edward Thornton in negotiations for a new ment, Don Juan, Jacopo Foscari, and Cromwell dic treaty of reciprocity. Mr. Brown was cordially received tating his Despatch to the Duke of Savoy against the by the Government and public men of the United States, Cruelties to the Vaudois Protestants. For some years but the draft treaty agreed to by him and his colleague, Brown has been engaged on the frescoes of the Man- and by Mr. Fish on behalf of the United States, fell


through, in consequence of the refusal of the U. S. Senate to consider it. The valuable paper entitled Memorandum on the Commercial Relations of the Brit ish North American Provinces with the United States was written by Mr. Brown. In 1875 he declined the position of lieutenant-governor of Ontario.

humble lot of a shepherd-boy and attained a high rep. utation for learning. His Dictionary of the Bible and other helps to the study of the Scriptures were long held in high esteem. His son, Rev. John Brown of Whitburn, and especially his grandson, Rev. John Brown, D. D., of Edinburgh, followed in the footsteps In 1880 he was shot in the thigh by a former employé of the founder of the family, and helped to maintain of the Globe office who had been discharged for neglect the scholastic and theological reputation of the Seces of duty. His death, on May 9th, after weeks of linger- sion (afterwards the United Presbyterian) Church. ing, called forth demonstrations of respect and sorrow Rev. Dr. Brown's son, John, turned aside from the from people of all classes and all parties. (J. E. W.) usual career of the family to enter the medical profes BROWN, HENRY KIRKE, an American sculptor, sion. He received his education at the High School was born at Leyden, Mass., in 1814. He for some and University of Edinburgh, where he also pursued three years studied painting with Chester Harding, the his medical studies and received his degree in 1833. portrait-painter. While with Harding he had occasion For a year he was assistant to a surgeon at Chatham, to model a bust, and this experiment inspired such a where his courage and faithfulness during an epidemliking for sculpture that he decided to apply himself ic of cholera are said to have attracted the notice of mainly to that art. He never, however, entirely relin- Charles Dickens. Settling in Edinburgh, he was abunquished work with the brushes, and is accounted a dantly occupied in the practice of his profession, yet painter of more than common excellence. Brown stud- some of his leisure he devoted to literature, sketching ied anatomy in Cincinnati, where he went in 1837, and with the hasty touch of genius humorous and pathetic while in that city he achieved his first inarble bust. In scenes and characters. In this way Rab and his Friends 1840 he came East again, and, residing chiefly in Al- was written when the author was forty-eight years old, bany and Troy, N. Y., made a great number of busts. and but little known outside the circle of his personal He went to Italy in 1840, and remained there four years, friends. The sketch, taken from his own experience, during which time he modelled his ideal statues of was read first to a rustic audience, upon whom it fell Daniel, Ruth, Rebecca, David, and so on. Brown's flat. Immediately upon its publication, however, the first really important performance, however, was the power and pathos of the narrative and the homeliness equestrian statue of Washington in Union Square, New and sympathy of the style gave it general popularity. York City. This statue was modelled in Brooklyn, and From the North British Review, Good Words, and is a very superior performance. It was cast at the Chico- other periodicals Dr. Brown now gathered some of his pee foundry, Mass., and is notable for being the first contributions into a volume under the title Hora Subimportant piece of bronze statuary made in the United seciva (1858), which has been wittily translated "Brown States. If the Washington is a success, the bronze Studies." More being called for, a second series folstatue of Lincoln by Brown, also in Union Square, sins lowed in 1861, while an American edition appeared against the first law of sculpture by being out of poise. with the title translated Spare Hours. In all of Dr. But, apart from this, the artist has found the ungainly Brown's writings shrewd observation and practical philpersonality of Mr. Lincoln an artistic problem beyond osophy are mingled with warm and tender feeling. He his powers. He has aimed at a certain conventional was a passionate lover of Nature and humanity, and dignity, but he has achieved anything but a dignified delighted to portray dogs and children. His sketch result. The equestrian statue of Gen. Scott, which has of Marjorie Fleming, the child-friend of Sir Walter been erected on a prominent site at Washington, is Scott, is his most popular and pathetic piece, except treated in a very different manner from the Union Rab. He was also accomplished in art, and his crit Square Washington, and at first glance it is somewhat icisms in that department are considered valuable. In disappointing on account of a certain suggestion of 1874 the University of Edinburgh conferred on him the stiffness in both horse and rider; but it is assuredly one honorary degree of LL.D., and in 1876 he received a of the very few pieces of sculpture at the national capi- pension of £100 from the civil list. Prior to this his tal which satisfy high artistic requirements. Brown is health had failed, and, his mind having suffered from the maker of another statue of great merit at Washing- attacks of melancholy, he had ceased to write, but his ton-that of Gen. Greene in the Hall of Statuary in the wants were supplied by generous friends, who placed to Capitol. This is one of the very few fairly sufficient his account the sum of £6000. In his last year his forworks which that hall up to the present time contains. mer brightness returned, and he revised for publication In 1858, Brown was engaged by the State of South Caro- a third collection of his writings, called John Leech, and lina to make a group for the pediment of the State-House Other Papers (1882). Scarcely had the volume appearat Columbia. He was employed upon this commission at ed when his health again failed, and he of pleurisy, the time of the breaking out of the Civil War, and when May 11, 1882. As a practising physician he was Columbia was burned near the close of the war all of friend to his patients, both poor and rich; his kindly his properties, including several completed statues, were heart gave him an insight of sympathy into the dark, destroyed. This calamity was a severe blow to the ar- sad problems of humanity. His conversation evinced tist. He, however, returned to his home in the North, deep thought and earnest sensibility; his wit was keen, and, applying himself diligently to work, executed a but genial. Among his biographical sketches there is number of commissions, the most important of which none more interesting than that of his father in his have been referred to above. He died July 10, 1886. Letter to Rev. Dr. Cairns. His notice of Thackeray's Death is a truly touching obituary. The American edition of his writings in three volumes, under the title Spare Hours, does not correspond in arrangement with the Edinburgh edition.

BROWN, JOHN, LL.D. (1810-1882), a Scotch physician and essayist, best known as the author of Rab and his Friends, was born at Biggar, in Lanarkshire, Sept. 22, 1810. He was the great-grandson of Rev. John Brown of Haddington, a minister of the Secession Church, who had risen by his own exertions from the

BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT (1815-1882), an English book-illustrator and caricaturist, who signed him

self "Phiz," was born in 1815. He first came prominently into public notice as the illustrator of Pickwick Papers after the death of the artist Seymour, who made the designs for the opening chapters of the work. A disagreement between Dickens and Cruikshank after the publication of Oliver Twist led to a re-engagement with Browne, and to his supplying the illustrations for most of the novels written by Dickens during his best period. Cruikshank accused Browne of being an imitator of his style; but there is an appearance of spontaneity about the best designs of Browne which seems to forbid the idea that he was a deliberate imitator of anybody. In the treatment of coarse subjects he goes beyond the coarseness of Cruikshank, and he frequently carries the grotesque into the regions of burlesque. In the handling of serious themes Browne is in every way Cruikshank's inferior. Browne's happiest performances are his representations of the humorous scenes and the humorous characters of Dickens and Lever. The rollicking humor of Lever and the eccentric characterizations of Dickens secured in him a sympathetic interpreter, and his reputation chiefly rests upon the designs which he contributed to the works of these two writers. Browne contributed designs to the Abbotsford edition of Scott's novels, to an illustrated edition of Byron's works, and to many other publications. Most of Browne's best illustrations were made by the aqua-fortis process, which he managed with a skill sufficient for his purposes. Died at Hove, Sussex, July 8, 1882. (W. J. C., JR.) BROWNELL, HENRY HOWARD (1820-1872), an American lyric poet, was born at Providence, R. I., Feb. 6, 1820. He was the son of Dr. Pardon Brownell, and a nephew of Bishop Brownell. He graduated at Washington (now Trinity) College, Hartford, in 1841, and studied law, but engaged in teaching and authorship. In 1847 he published a volume of poems which was well received. He afterwards composed some popular histories, as Pioneer Heroes of the New World and & History of the War of 1812. He entered the army in 1861 as a volunteer, and his varied experience brought his true genius to light. He wrote several spirited lyrics, which were collected and published under the title Lyrics of the Day; or, Newspaper Poetry by a Volunteer in the United States Service. In 1863 he entered the navy, and served as ensign on Admiral Farragut's staff, and after the war accompanied the admiral to Europe. He resigned in 1868 and returned to Hartford. His last publication was War Lyrics, and Other Poems. He died at Hartford, Oct. 31, 1872. BROWNELL, THOMAS CHURCH, D. D., LL.D. (1779-1865), bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, was born at Westport, Mass., Oct. 19, 1779. He was educated at Rhode Island College (now Brown University) and Union College, where he graduated in 1804. He continued at Union College after graduation as tutor and professor of belles-lettres and moral philosophy, and in 1809 was chosen professor of chemistry and mineralogy. He visited Europe to procure the necessary apparatus and appliances, and returned after a year's absence. In 1813 he became an Episcopalian, began to study for the ministry, and was ordained by Bishop Hobart, April 11, 1816. He still continued to act as professor in Union College, and performed missionary labors in the country adjoining. In 1818 he be came assistant minister in Trinity Church, New York, where he was ordained. He was consecrated bishop of Connecticut, Oct. 27, 1819, and entered vigorously on his work. He was founder of Washington (now

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Trinity) College, Hartford, and its first president from 1824 to 1831. On the death of Bishop Chase of Illinois in 1852 he became presiding bishop. He died at Hartford, Conn., Jan. 13, 1865. He wrote The Fam ily Prayer Book, a complete commentary on the service of the Episcopal Church, and also compiled several volumes of extracts on devotional and practical piety under the title of Religion of the Heart and Life.

BROWNING, ROBERT, an English poet, was born at Camberwell, a suburb at the south of London, on May 7, 1812. His father was a clerk in the Bank of England and a dissenter. When only eight years old the boy made humorous translations in verse from Horace, and four years later was trying in vain to find a publisher for some poems that were remarkable only for their Byronic fervor. His enthusiasm for Byron soon waned before the influence of Keats and Shelley, with whose works he first became acquainted in 1825. During all this time he had been attending a day-school at Peckham; in his fourteenth year he began to study with a tutor, and then entered the former London University (now University College), but did not remain to take a degree. Browning's father, who never learned to take unmixed delight in his poems, had yet been greatly impressed by his powers of mind, and now left to his discretion the entire direction of his future life and relieved him from any necessity of choosing a profession. For some time young Browning was occupied with poetical plans, noticeably with one for a series of epics illustrating the "life of typical souls," but without any immediate result. In 1832 he wrote Pauline, a strained and immature poem that, with some autobiographical touches, described the progress of a philosophic life; it was published anonymously in 1833, and not included among his authorized works till 1868. In 1834, Mr. Browning travelled for the greater part of a year on the continent of Europe, making a stay of some months at St. Petersburg, and lingering long in Italy, where his explorations in the monastic libraries of Lombardy and Venice furnished him with the intimate knowledge of medieval thought and history that appears in Sordello and "The Bishop Orders his Tomb at St. Praxed's Church." His peculiar genius was first shown in this year in two lyrics contributed to Fox's Monthly Repository under the title of "Madhouse Cells," and now reprinted in Dramatic Lyrics with the sub-titles "Johannes Agricola in Meditation" and "Porphyria's Lover." In "Porphyria's Lover" is found that intensely vivid description, in the form of a semi-dramatic soliloquy, of intellectual or emotional perversion, that Mr. Browning so often attempted, but never with more perfect performance. In the winter of 1834, in London, Paracelsus was written, and in the following year published. An accidental acquaintance with Macready the actor led to the writing of Strafford, which was produced with considerable success in May, 1837, at Covent Garden Theatre by Macready, supported by Vandenhoff and Helen Faucit. During the three years following, Pippa Passes, King Victor and King Charles, The Return of the Druses (which was at first called Mansour, the Hierophant), and Sordello were composed, and in 1840 Sordello was published. Between 1841 and 1846 the series known as Bells and Pomegranates appeared in a cheap pamphlet form in eight numbers, beginning with Pippa Passes and ending with Luria and A Soul's Tragedy. Of Mr. Browning's plays, The Blot on the Scutcheon was acted in 1843 at Drury Lane Theatre, and Colombe's Birthday, with Miss Faucit in the

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