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tory gen., or, as H. calls it, gen. of specification. Z. 425; H. 396, V; A. & S. 211, Rem. 2, Note; B. 631; A. 214, f; 292, a ; G. 359 ; 667, 2.

28. Genus invisum, the hated race of the Trojans; hated on account of her jealousy of Electra, the mother, by Jupiter, of Dardanus, the mythical ancestor of the Trojans. — Rapti, of the stolen. Ganymedles, a beautiful youth, who belonged to a later generation of the royal house of Troy, was stolen by Jupiter from his father Tros, and carried to Olympus, where he received the honor (honores) of being appointed cup-bearer to the gods, from which office Hebe, the daughter of Juno, was deposed to make room for him. 29. His (rebus) is abl. of cause. — Super=insuper, moreover.

The cæsura after super is an argument for translating it adverbially in the first hernistich, rather than as a prep. governing aequore, as doo takes it.-Aeq. toto, H. 422, 1); d. & S. 254, R. 2,6; B.937, 3; A. 258, f.

30. Troas. H. 68; A. 63, f; G. 73. — Danaûm, subjective gen. Rel. Danaum, i. e., who had been left by the Greeks. — Achilli. For this form of the gen., see H. 68; A. & S. 73, Rem.; A. 43, a; G. 72.

31. Arcebat. The imperf. tense finely marks the continued action, at the time the poem opens. — Latio. H. 425, 4); A. & G. 243, a; B. 916.

32. Acti fatis, led by the fates. Their destiny forbids them to rest.

33. Tantae molis erat. A work of so great labor was it. --- Molis. H. 401; A. & S. 211, R. 8, and (3); B. 780; A. 214, b; G. 364, R.

34. Virgil plunges in medias res. — In altum, for the deep.

35. Vela dabant, sc. ventir. Salis = maris. — Aere, lit., with the brass, i. e., with their brazen provo8. — Ruebant, were driving before them. C. More literally, were beating down.

36. Sub pectore Deep in her breast. C.

37. Haec, sc. loquitur.-Mene, etc. 1, conquered, desist from my undertaking, and not be able, etc. ? Me is subject-accus. of the infinitives desistere and posse, and ne is an interrogative suffix, suggesting the ellipsis of a clause on which the infinitives depend, as, Is it possible, or Is it to be imagined, that I, conquered, should desist, etc. H. 553, III.; A. & S. 270, R. 2, (a); B. 1159; A. 274; G. 341. Cf. Cic. Tusc. I. 41, 98.

38. In what case is Italia ? H. 615, Exc. 1; A. S. 294, 1, Exc.; B. 1471, 1; A. 348, 4; G. 704, 1, 1.-39. Quippe, forsooth. Ironical.

40. Argivâm, for Graecorum ; a part for the whole.

41. Unius, (H. 149, 2 ; A. & S. 283, I, Exc. 4,) of one only.-Noxam. The crime of Ajax was his offering violence to Cassandra in the temple of Minerva.—Ajacis Oili, of Ajax, the son of 0-i-leus.—Oili. H. 397, 1; A. & S. 211, R. 7, (1,); A. 214, b. Many editions read Oilei. See note on Achilli, line 30. — Ob noxam. A. 245, b; H. 414, 2, 3), (1).

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42. Jovis rapidum ignem, i.e., the thunderbolt.

44, 45. Him (i. e. Ajax) breathing forth (the lightning) flames from his pierced breast, she (i. e. Pallas) caught up with the whirling blusi (of the thunderbolt), and impaled him upon a pointed rock.

46. Divâm. The student will recognize the mark of contraction indicating the genitive plural.—Regina. H. 362, and 2, 2), (1); A. & S. 210; B. 666; A. 176; G. 324.

47. Loror. Both Jupiter and Juno were children of Saturn. - Conjunx=conjux. See Lex.-Annos. H. 378; A. & S. 236; B. 950; A. 256.

48. Bella. The plural denotes a continuous struggle, in contrast with the single blow of Pallas. — Gero, I am waging for so many years.

48, 49. Et quisquam, eto. And does any one, after this, adore the divinity of Juno, or will any one as a suppliant place an offering on her altars ? Notice the absence of any interrogative particle.

51. Loca. H. 363; A. & S. 204, Rem. 3; B. 625; A. 183. For the form see H. 141; A. & S. 92, I. 2; B. 186; A. 79, c. - Austris. H. 419, III.; A. & S. 250, 2, (1); B. 776; A. 248, c; G. 389, 3.

52. Aeoliam. H. 379, 3, (2); A. 258, n. 2 ; G. 342, 1. Aeolia, one of the Lipări isles, northeast of Sicily. — Antro, poetical abl. of place, with the omission of the preposition in. It is to be taken with ventos luctantes. - Aeolus was the fabled king of the winds.

53. Observe in this line (and often in Virgil) the onomatopæin, or adaptation of the sound of the words, and the rhythm of the verse, to the sense conveyed.-Lactantes, struggling to break loose.

58. Ni faciat. Unless he do (this). We might have expected the imperf. subj. instead of the pres., since the supposition (of his not doing this: ni, if not, or unless) is contrary to fact. But the use of the present makes the sentence more animated, suggesting that it all depends upon his will, whether he control the winds or not. So in the consequent clause, ferant verrantque denote, as L. says, " the possible and probable con sequence, while the imperf. subj. would indicate the necessary consequence.” The imperf. might have been used both in the protasis and in the apodosis: the effect of the use of the present is to make the picture more vivid, and to bring the action before our eyes. ent,” says C., expresses “the greater imminence of that which is prevented or averted.” Bryce, by the use of the fut. indic. in his translation, perhaps comes as near to giving the force of the construction as we can in English : “Unless he do this, they will assuredly (quippe) bear away with them, in rapid course, seas, and continents, and lofty beaven, and sweep them through the air.” Cf. Aen. II. 599; VI. 292; and XI. 912. See H. 504 and 1; A. 307, b; G. 598, R. 2; B. 1271. 61. Molem et montes. Hendiadys for molem montium. H. 704, IL

10- Six Books.

« The preso : 82. Velut agmine facto, “as if formed in column of march; with one accord; lit. a column of march being formed, as it were.

2; A. & S. 323, 2, (3.) The clause introduced by et is epexegetical or explanatory, so that et might be translated even. Compare the use of -que in line 2. — Insuper, above them.

62. Foedere certo, by (or in accordance with) a fixed laro.

63. Qui sciret, that he might know. H. 500; A. & S. 264, 5; B. 1212; 1205; A. 317 ; G. 632. - 64. Vocibus. H. 419, V. and 1; A. & S. 245, and 247, 3; B. 880, 881; A. 249, 248; G. 405, 403.

65. Namque. Kui yap. An ellipsis, rather to be felt than supplied in words, is here implied: and rightly do I call upon thee, for, etc.

67. The Tyrrhene sea lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sar. dinia, and Corsica. Aequor. nav. A bold idiom, used also in English.

69. Submersas obrue=submerge et obrue. H. 579; A. & S. 274, 3, (b); B. 1350; A. 292, Rem.; G. 667, Rem. 1.

71. Corpore. H. 428; A. & S. 211, Rem. 6; B. 888; A. 251, a.

72. How does the metre show that forma is in the abl. and pulcherinia in the nom.? H. 615, and Exc. 1; A. 348, 4; G. 704, and Exc.—Quae, (8C. est,) the one who is. — Forma. H. 429, 1; A. & G. 253 ; B. 889.

73. Connubio. See Metrical Index. Propriam, thine forever.

75. Pulchra prole. Same rule as corpore, line 71. This is substantially the same explanation as that which makes it an abl. absolute of descriptive concomitant. Some take it as abl. of means with faciat.

76. Contra, in reply. - Optes, H. 525; A. & S. 265; A. 334.

78. Quodcumque hoc regni, this realm of mine, whatever it is : “this poor realm of mine," the quodcumque being depreciative, as in Book IX. 287. — Regni. H. 396, III; A. & S. 212, Rem. 3. Gen. of the genus, not of the whole, in the ordinary sense. - Jovem, i.e. Jupiter's favor.

79. Epulis. H. 386; A. & S. 224; B. 826, 827; A. 228; G. 346.

80. Nimborum. H. 399, and 2, 2, (3); A. & S. 213, and Rem. 1, (3.) Virgil probably refers to some physical theory or legend connected with the character of Juno as queen of the air. C.-B. 765; A. 218, a.

81. Haec ubi dicta. Supply dedit, which after ubi is translated as pluperfect. When he had uttered these words.-Cavum — latus. Aeolus, going to the cave, pushed the mountain on the side with his spear turned towards it, and so opened the "claustra,” which are to be conceived of as folding-doors opening inwards. C., following Henry.

83. Qua data (est) porta, where an outlet is given, through the claustra,” so opened.

84. Incubuere mari. “Heavily they are fallen on the sea.” Notico the instantaneous effect expressed by the transition to the perfect, bero and in line 90. C.

i.e.

85. Ruunt, here transitive, governing totum (mare), line 84: upheane. Creber procellis procellosus. W.

87. Notice the fitness of the words and metre to the sense. What is tbe effect of the spondees in the preceding line ?— 89. Oc. A. 229, a.

90. Intonuere poli, lit., the poles have thundered ; i. e., it has thun. dered from pole to pole.

92. Aeneao, dative. Instead of the poet's saying directly, and in a prose-like way, “the limbs of Aeneas,” Aeneas is put in the dative, as the person in relation to whom the action described in the sentence takes place, the person whose interest is affected. A. & S. 222; M. 241, and Obs. 3. Some grammarians would call this simply a use of the dat. for the possessive gen.; but it means more than a genitive, and is best explained by calling it dative of relation or reference, under the spe. cial head of dative of disadvantage. Where in prose the gen. or abl. would be used, as giving the idea simply and directly, the poets often prefer the dative: the dative expressing relations more vaguely and indirectly, and therefore more delicately, than the other cases. From the difference of idiom between English and Latin, we are often obliged to translate such passages in the less subtile, prosaic manner, as here: the limbs of Aeneas are relaxed, etc. — Frigore, with chilling fear. Fear chills, by checking the current of the blood.

95. Quis=quibus, dat. pl. with contigit: whose happy lot it 2008.

97. Tydide, (voc. of Tydides,) Tydens' son, Diomēdes, next to Achilles the bravest of the Greeks at Troy. With him Aeneas engaged in single combat (II. V. 239), and would have been slain but for the intervention of Venus and Apollo. - Mene, etc. That I could not have fallen! etc. See note on line 37. The ellipsis here (which it is unnecessary to supply in the translation) is of some clause like Nonne indignum est ?

99. Aoacidae, Achilles, (grandson of Aeacus,) the hero of the Iliad, bravest of the Greeks, and the foremost champion in the Trojan war.Jacet, lies in death, (as in Greek, keitai.) The present tenso is used, as the scene is still fresh in memory. Cf. II. 275, 663; IIl. 3 ; XI. 172.- Hector, eldest son of Priam king of Troy, was the chief hero of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks.

100. Sarpedon, sc. jacet. Sarpēdon, son of Jupiter and Laodamein, was king of the Lycians and an ally of Troy. He was slain by Achil. les's friend, Patroclus. -- Ingens, the huge, refers to his size. Simõis, a river near Troy. — Ubi — volvit, where the Simois rolls along 80 many shields of heroes, etc., snatched (or hurried away, correpta) beneuth its

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102. Jactanti, sc. ei, to him uttering, (lit. ejaculating.) The pronoun

to be supplied is a dative of the person whose interest is affected, (a dative of disadvantage,) annexed, like Aeneae in line 92, not to a single word, but to the whole predicate (stridens . . . tollit). The present par. ticiple represents the time as contemporaneous with that of the principal verbs, ferit and tollit : whilst he is uttering. “The dat. of a participle is occasionally used to denote when or under what circumstances a thing shows itself or occurs.” M. 241, Obs. 6. H. 578, I.; A. & S. 274, 3; B. 1350; A. 235. Stridens Aquilone, howling with the north wind.

103. Adversa. The force of this adjective agreeing with procella, appears in the translation of velum adversa ferit, “ strikes the sail full in front." 105. Cumulo, in a ma88.

Ablative of manner. C. calls it an adver. bial ablative.

107. Arenis, with the sand. 109, 110. Rocks the Italians call the Arae, which (lie) in the midst of

-- a huge reef at the surface of the sea. So H., W., and L. Arae was a name given to the Aegimūri, some small rocky islands off the coast of Carthage C. omits the commas after Itali and fluctibus, and would translate the passage: Rocks which, rising in the midst of the waves, the Italians call Arae. With our reading, the sense of lines 108 sqq. is : Three ships the south wind has caught and hurls upon hidden rocks, (i.e. hidden in the storm, for in a calm they are visible;) I say rocks, for so, and not islands, the Italians call the Arae, etc. Mari. H. 422, 1; A. & S. 254, Rem. 3; B. 948; A. 258, f. - Summo. H. 441, 6; A. & S. 205, Rem. 17; B. 662; A. 193.

111. Miserabile. H. 438, 3; A. & S. 205, Rem. 8; B. 660; A. 189, d; G. 323. — Visu. H. 570; A. & S. 276, III.; B. 1365; A. 303 ; G. 437.

113. Oronten. H. 68; A. 63; G. 71. The name Orontes was invented by Virgil as that of a leader of the Lycians, one of the companions of Aeneas. Fidus is a natural epithet of an ally who hai followed the fortunes of Troy, not only during the siege, but in exile.”

the waves,

- C.

114. Ipsius, i.e. of Aeneas. A vertice, (=kar' úxpns, Hom. Od. 5, 313,) from above, -“from the point to which the wave has risen, so as to stand vertical to the ship, and to descend perpendicularly, or right down' upon the stern." - F.

115. Ferit, sc. navem. - Magister, the helmeman; i. e. Leucaspis. See VI. 334.

118. Rari nantes, swimming here and there. “Rari is contrasted with “vasto.” Scan the line. The spondees denote effort, while rapid motion is represented by the dactyles in the preceding line.

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