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age : in the second period of the world—the decisive crisis between ancient and modern times—he will discover, in the Christian religion, the sole principle of the subsequent progress of mankind; and the distinctive character and intellectual importance of the third or last epoch of the world, he will find only in that light, which, emerging from the primitive revelation and the religion of love established by the Redeemer, has shone ever clearer and brighter with the progress of ages, and has changed and regenerated not only government and science, but the whole system of human life. Here is the principle which furnishes the plan of classification for all the great epochs of history.”—Philosophy of History, vol. i, pp. 81, 270; vol. ii, pp. 39, 40.
The restoration of the divine image in man, or progress toward that restoration, can be effected only by a successful warfare of good against evil. Hence, the condition of humanity is a continual struggle, in which, as Schlegel says, man is exposed to the influences of two contending powers, and which commences with the first earthly mission of Adam. “That man only who recognizes the permission of God given to evil, in its at first inconceivably wide extent, is capable of understanding the great phenomena of universal history, in their often strange and dark complexity, so far at least as human eye can penetrate into those hidden and mysterious ways of Providence.” This warfare is waged simultaneously both in the natural and spiritual world ; between physical good and physical evil in the one, and between moral good and moral evil in the other. In the conflict of physical good and evil, the most powerful allies of good and faithful coadjutors of humanity are science, the mother of arts, and industry, their handmaid. With these, man protects himself from the excessive and destructive forces of nature, and even makes them obedient to his commands, and subservient to his necessities. With these, he teaches the sterile rock to teem with food, and extracts health from poisonous drugs; with these, he unlocks the treasures of air, earth, and waters, and compels the stars to guide him when he goes forth on his ocean path to gather in the harvests of every clime; and with these he curbs "the lightning's fiery wing," or bids it speed, the messenger of his intelligence, the herald of his will.
On the contrary, for the triumph of moral good and the subjugation of moral evil, the armory from which humanity draws its most effectual weapons is Christianity. The warfare was, indeed, commenced at the earliest era of man's history, long before Christianity was promulgated in the world; but the hostilities were only preliminary and preparatory,-a skirmishing of outposts which usually precedes the shock of dense battalions; or rather, the contest, during the first forty centuries, resembled the early movements of a campaign, by which the way is cleared to place the main force in an impregnable position and commanding attitude. Of the invading army, which comprises all the elements of moral good, and which is destined to achieve the conquest of our world, Christianity is the base line ; the centre and pivot of operations; the rallying point in disaster; the unfailing source of supply and reinforcement. No assault of the enemy can carry it, no stratagem surprise it; for its fortress is the Rock of ages; Omniscience, its sentinel ; Omnipotence, its champion.
“ Christianity is the emancipation of the human race from the bondage of that inimical spirit, who denies God, and, as far as in him lies, leads all created intelligences astray. Since this divine era in the history of man, since the commencement of his emancipation in modern times, this spirit can no longer be called the prince of this world, but the spirit of time, the spirit opposed to divine influence, and to the Christian religion, apparent in those who consider and estimate time and all things temporal, not by the law and feeling of eternity, but, for temporal interests or from temporal motives, change or undervalue, and forget the thoughts and faith of eternity.
"It is only with sentiments of grateful admiration, of amazement, and awe, we trace in the special dispensations of Providence for the advancement of Christianity, and the progress of modern society, the wonderful concurrence of events toward the single object of divine love, or the unexpected exercise of divine justice long delayed. With this faith in primitive revelation, and in the glorious consummation of Christian love, I cannot better conclude this Philosophy of History, than with the religious hope I have more than once expressed, and which is more particularly applicable to these times—the dawn of an approaching era :--that by the thorough religious regeneration of the state, and of science, the cause of God and Christianity may obtain a complete triumph on the earth."- Philosophy of History, vol. ii, pp. 300, 302.
The reviewer, to whom we have several times alluded, and for whose opinions we entertain the highest respect, makes “the history of redemption the basis and nucleus of the history of the world. The great central point is the cross of Christ—the great central fact the manifestation of God in the flesh." If he refers only to the moral and spiritual regeneration of the world, this is unquestionably true; but the theory does not embrace all the elements of humanity, and therefore does not solve the problem in its utmost generality. There must be a physical and an intellectual, as well as a moral and spiritual, progression; and it is not clear that the latter necessarily includes the former. It is conceivable that the war against physical evil might have been successfully prosecuted, even though Christianity, by which the conflict with moral evil is not only made possible, but the victory over it
certain, had never been introduced into the world. While, therefore, we believe that Christianity is incomparably the most important fact in history, and the most powerful element of human renovation and progress, we must still contend that it is but an element, and not the soul and centre of history. We must still believe that the propter quam of humanity is the gradual, but effectual triumph of every species of good, over every species of evil. In short, we must believe that Christianity exists for man, and not man for Christianity.
If the subjugation of evil and the consequent restoration of the divine image in man, is the true solution of the complex enigma of history, we are presented with a plan worthy of its Author, and a work worthy of man. Every individual, whatever sphere of life he occupies, has a part assigned him, which, if rightly and faithfully performed, will help forward this glorious consummation. He that stands idle in the market-place and says, “No man hath hired me," is false to his nature, deaf to his vocation, traitorous to humanity, unprofitable to his Master. He defeats the purpose of his existence, and, so far as in him lies, the destiny of the human race which is implicated with his own. But the work which he has neglected, must and will be accomplished. The wicked and slothful servant will be cast into outer darkness, and his work and its wages will be given to another. Humanity has need of all her children. Every member of the countless brotherhood has the power, and is required to do something for its interests ;-something to elevate himself and others a little higher on the ascending scale, whose limit is the highest attainable perfection.
Toil on, then, whoever thou art, man of thought, or man of action, for Heaven has endowed thee with energy for an immortal work. Toil in faith; for thou canst hasten the times foretold by ancient seers," when the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord; and when they shall not hurt nor destroy in all his holy mountain.” Toil in hope; for in the darkest storms of life the clouds are spanned by the bow of promise, to which the weary and desponding may look up and “hail its sacred sign.” Toil with courage; for high above the dust and din of the conflict, streaming in light, “the harbinger of victory,” thou beholdest
A banner with the strange device,
And thou, poor brother, unpitied, perhaps down-trodden, with sweat and pain delving in the dingy mine for scanty bread, or poisoned by the noxious fumes of the factory, or scorched by the hot breath of the furnace, let thy dim eye brighten; for thou art not man's hireling, but God's coadjutor. As a gleam of unwonted hope lights up thy countenance, from which the image of thy Creator is not yet effaced, listen with joy, and learn “ The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior." And thou, unfriended son of genius, who starvest in Otway's garret, or pinest in Tasso's prison, while thy full soul travails with thoughts that echo through eternity, though misunderstood or unknown by the little men around thee, yet fear thou not; for thy communion is with beings of nobler mold, and on thine ear, also, strikes the music of that voice which sounds
“Through the startled air,
Excelsior.” And thou, great humanity, that toilest, like a bewildered child, along thy mysterious path, and strugglest, ever, with the foes that feed on thy Promethean vitals, despair not. Upward an unseen hand guides thy steps ; and upward shall guide them, evermore. And from the throne of the universe, which is thy Father's, "A voice falls, like a falling star,
Excelsior." Dickinson College, April 15th, 1846.
ART. VI.-1. A Sketch of the History of Wyoming. By the
late Isaac A. CHAPMAN, Esq. To which is added, an Appendix, containing a Statistical Account of the Valley and adjacent Country, by a Gentleman of Wilkesbarre. 12mo., pp. 209.
Wilkesbarre: Sharp D. Lewis. 1830. 2. The Poetry and History of Wyoming : containing Campbell's
Gertrude, and the History of Wyoming, from its Discovery to the beginning of the Present Century. By William L. STONE, author of “The Life of Brant,” “Life and Times of Red Jacket,' &c., &c. Second edition, enlarged. 12mo., pp. 398. New
York : Mark H. Newman. 1844. 3. History of Wyoming, in a Series of Letters, from Charles Miner, to his Son William Penn Miner, Esq. Royal octavo,
With an Appendix, pp. 104. Philadelphia : J. Crissy. 1845.
WYOMING is a beautiful vale on the Susquehannah, in the state of Pennsylvania, and is situated about one hundred and twenty miles north of west from New York, and the same distance west of north from Philadelphia, and east of north from Harrisburg. “The valley” is about twenty-five miles in length, and three in breadth, environed by mountains, generally covered with oak, chestnut, and pine, and here and there studded with peaks and cliffs of rocks. The height of the eastern range averages about one thousand feet, and that of the western about eight hundred. These mountains are variegated with forests, bald rocks, and deep gorges : and though they do not present a view so sublime and picturesque as portions of the Allegany, yet nothing can surpass their beauty and grandeur. The valley is formed of flats and plains, the latter being diversified with small elevations. The noble Susquehannah takes a serpentine course through the vale, and is fringed with a luxuriant growth of maple, elm, buttonwood, and willow. From all points you have a view of some portion of the beautiful plain, the river, and the surrounding mountains. From Prospect Rock, above Wilkesbarre, on the east, you have open before you a view of the old and flourishing town of Wilkesbarre; the new and rising village of Kingston, immediately opposite; New-Troy, six miles above; the rich and highly cultivated farms of the valley, with their elegant houses and barns, and the Kingston Mountain, which is fast yielding to the process of cultivation, and presents a prospect, from this point, of a lovely ascending plain, varied with luxuriant forests and cultivated farms. From