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gardening. It is the deficiency here that is filling our country with such multitudes of ill-designed, incongruous, and unsightly masses of masonry and wood-work, under the semblance of the fine mansion, the cottage orné, or the miniature palace; selected according to the prevailing fashion, and stuck down at hazard, without the least regard to the situation, the nature of the ground, or the surrounding objects. To look well, a house must be in keeping with the scenery about it. But this is a principle seldom thought of by those who copy designs out of books, or draft models for buildings without inspecting the ground.

In another class of society, marked not only by wealth, but by education and refinement, considerable attention begins to be paid to painting and statuary. To this, under proper restrictions, we have no objection; and yet we beg leave to suggest that these are not the objects of taste the best adapted to the character and condition of our country. They are very expensive. A single collection of the best paintings is itself a fortune. Very few people among us can afford to indulge their taste in this form, and still fewer can in justice to their families invest so large a portion of their property in a manner so unproductive. It answers better in a country having an hereditary aristocracy, and entailed estates. Besides, painting and statuary, like architecture, are the branches of the fine arts adapted to a state of only municipal civilization. Hence they flourished amid the wars, distractions, and despotisms of the ancients, and amid the darkness and barbarities of the feudal ages; and they still flourish in several of the present continental nations of Europe, amid the oppressions, the ill-divided wealth, the squalid poverty, and utter degradation of one class, and the heartless, selfish arrogance, and indolent indulgence of another. Gardening has great advantage in all these respects. The rich man, it is true, may lay out his extensive grounds at what cost he will; but in no other way can an inconsiderable sum be expended to secure an equal amount of tasteful and elegant gratification. You may satisfy moderate desires simply by saving a portion of what other persons in like circumstances would expend on the dwelling and its superfluous decorations. And even the poor man, though he may not create around him an artificial landscape, yet may he plant his flowers before his window, and train the honeysuckle and eglantine over his door, and see the rose-bush and wax-berry flourish in his court-yard. And why should he not? Why should he consider his home only as a place to eat, drink, and sleep in? May he not render his humble dwelling redolent with nature's perfume, and make it attractive to the eye, by simple, economic beauty? Can he not pay a little to nurture a sentiment, to awaken humanizing sensibilities, and add the charms of external beauty to the comfort, affection, and tranquillity that reign within ? Surely no country possesses facilities for this purpose equally with our own. In no other country is land so abundant and cheap, property so equally divided, or labor so well remunerated. If ever there was a country capable of making an approximation to the visions of Arcadian beauty and innocence, it is our own highly favored, peaceful, prosperous, and happy land.

We must then be allowed to express the wish that this beautiful art will find special favor among us. It is a pursuit at once innocent and healthful, improving to mind and manners, a producer of neatness, order, and simple elegance. It is so well adapted to the character of our nation and our political institutions, it tends so much to make the country attractive, and abate the unhealthy, injurious love for pent-up city life, the rage of monetary speculation, and the stimulating, pernicious pleasures that always spring from crowded population, that we cannot but consider landscape gardening as destined to become THE AMERICAN BRANCH OF THE FINE ARTS. And when this comes to pass, we shall see our country everywhere bearing the marks of general comfort, well-diffused intelligence, and an all-pervading refinement and civilization ; for of these gardening is the legitimate and inevitable offspring.

“O friendly to the best pursuits of man,

Friendly to thought, to virtue, and to peace,
Domestic life in rural pleasures pass'd !
Few know thy value, and few taste thy sweets ;
Though many boast thy favors, and affect
To understand, and choose thee for their own.
But foolish man forgets his proper bliss,
E'en as his first progenitor, and quits,
Though placed in Paradise, (for earth has still
Some traces of her youthful beauty left)
Substantial happiness for transient joy:
Scenes form'd for contemplation, and to nurse
The growing seeds of wisdom ; that suggest,
By every pleasing image they present,
Reflections such as meliorate the heart,
Compose the passions, and exalt the mind.”—The Task.

7. G. Hibbard

ART. IV.-1. The Catholic Doctrine of Redemption vindicated;

or Modern Views of the Atonement, particularly those of Dr. Wardlaw, examined and refuted. By ANDREW MARSHALL,

D.D. LL.D. Glasgow, 1844. 2. Of the Moral Principle of the Atonement. Also of Faith, and of

its two Sorts, Conviction and Confidence, and of the Connection between them. By the Rev.John PENROSE, M. A. Formerly of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Author of the Bampton Lecture

Sermons for 1808, &c. London, 1843. 3. Christ the only Sacrifice: or Atonement in its Relations to God

and Man. By Nathan S. S. BEMAN, D.D., Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Troy, N. Y. With an Introductory Chapter by SAMUEL HANSON Cox, D.D., Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. Second edition. New York, 1844.

It has been well said, that, “in its simplest form, the problem of a religion may be expressed thus :given a supreme Deity, the Creator and Governor of all things, and an intelligent creature in a state of alienation and estrangement from his Creator to determine the means whereby a reconciliation may be effected, and the creature restored to the favor and service of his God."

That the world is under a providential government which partakes distinctly of a moral character is proved from the constitution and course of things, and is a belief in which all people in all ages have participated. The progress of civilization, of ethical science, of public morality and political freedom, has tallied, in every age, with the advance of theological science. We make this statement with our eye resting clearly upon the annals of the past, and upon the influence which religious opinion has always exerted upon individuals and upon nations. Theology has always held the foremost rank in the sciences of every people, whether pagan or Christian; and thus will it continue to be regarded, while the constitution of the human mind remains as it is. Co-extensive with the belief in a moral government is the conviction, more or less distinct, of having offended against the supreme Administrator. A consciousness of guilt produces dread of punishment, and the unhappy delinquent betakes himself to measures whereby the apprehended vengeance of Heaven may be averted, and reconciliation attained. Meantime, by an eternal law of our moral nature, conscience appropriates each temporal calamity, or natural evil, as an omen of vindictive wrath.


The state of theological knowledge among any people has been distinguished by nothing more than by their views respecting the placability of the divine nature. The lowest type of the Gentile superstition invested the gods with a malicious and turbulent disposition toward mankind, « το θειον παν φθονερον τε και ταραχώδες;,

;" and, if we may believe Herodotus,* this was the sentiment, and these the words, of the wise and good Solon. From the gloomy horrors of such a faith, the heathen mind arose by degrees to a more distinct idea of the divine benevolence, and to the hope that penitence might be accepted, and the divine Being be disposed to regard again with favor the offending creature. From the lips of the great Cicero we hear the almost inspired statement that piety and holiness will render the gods propitious : Deos placatos pietas efficiet et sanctitas:"t-a declaration which calls to mind the beautiful words of David: “The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.” Some idea of the principles of reconciliation the heathen mind attained; still, after the lapse of four thousand years, the melancholy fact of pagan ignorance was confessed by Porphyry, that learned and bitter enemy of the Christian faith, “that there was wanting some universal method of delivering men's souls, which no sect of philosophy had ever yet discovered.”

From the nature of the case, if ever the human mind attains to just views of the plan of reconciliation, it must be by explicit revelation from God, and we turn to the Bible as to the only authentic source of information on the subject. But in approaching the sacred volume to deduce from it the true moral theory of the universe, the reader must be premonished that it is a book of facts, rather than of philosophy. All the great truths connected with our well-being are, indeed, clearly stated; but they are stated as facts. Nor are even these collected and arranged in any topical order, so as to present us with a regular system, but lie scattered over a vast field, falling out, rarely in set discussion, generally in an easy, matter-of-course way, in narrative, or song, or familiar colloquy, or hortatory address, as the particular occasion might suggest. To arrange these subjects in natural order, and illustrate and defend them by appropriate argument, is the business of systematic divinity,—if we would reduce theology to a science, in the proper sense of that word, we must advance a step further, we must offer the rationale of these facts. The atonement presents itself to us in

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• Lib. 1, cap. 32.
| De Offic., lib. 2. See also Horace, Odes, b. 3, od. 23.

these two aspects--as a fact, and as a scheme of government. To prove the fact, we appeal to the text of Scripture explained by the common laws of language; to understand the theory, we burst from the mere exegetical (we had almost said chrysalis) state of the inquiry, and advance to those generalizations by which the facts of revelation are explained, appealing to the principles of abstract truth. The text itself must never be lost sight of, must never be contradicted, must be implicitly followed without addition or diminution. The object is not to improve upon the sacred oracles-to proceed to new discoveries in religion-nor to alter the plain, practical bearing of Bible statements, but to adduce those general principles of which the facts of revelation are predicated, and by which the reasons of the divine conduct may be, in some humble sense, disclosed to the admiration of intelligent creatures. The fact of atonement is proved when it is shown by fair, defensible exegesis of the sacred text, that the mediation of Christ, including his active obedience, his sacrificial death, and his intercession, has the efficacy to procure pardon to the guilty: the philosophy of atonement is concerned with the question, On what principles does this mediation avail to this end?

Full well we appreciate the magnitude and awful sanctity of this stupendous theme. It extends through all time, stretches through eternity, and loses itself from our view in the unfathomable counsels of the only Wise. The greatest minds have stood awe-struck at the contemplation of those heights and depths which the human intellect can never adequately reach. The great Butler stood here, as Moses before the Mount of Horeb: we, too, will "take off our sandals." “ Angels desire to look into this;” not into the factthat a little child understands—but into the only mystery which belongs to it—the reasons of this wonderful plan. We imitate the celestial example. It is not inquiry that is prohibited, but only irreverent inquiry. The whole analogy of providence and of revelation authorizes the belief, that somewhat of the reasons of the divine conduct may be sought out and comprehended by us. God has revealed to us somewhat of the philosophy of this subject. All men have had theories of atonement, and of moral government, just as of natural philosophy, and so will they have to the end of time. The question is not, Shall we have a theory? but, Shall we have the right one? Two errors we should avoid. We have no right to deny an authenticated fact, because we cannot explain all its relations to all other facts; nor should our inability to discover all the connecting links of cause and effect, nor the manifest impiety of an attempt to penetrate into the secret counsels of the Almighty,

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