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of these fanatics, named, from the feats at which they are expert, the howling and the dancing dervishes. The howler plays wolf and hyena in holiest mood; and his brother, the dancer, spins out inspiration in dizzy spirals.

By means of a firman, obtained through the kindness of Mr. Brown, of the American legation, our author was permitted to visit the imperial mosques of Achmet, Suliman, and St. Sophia. The following extracts will convey a clear conception of these structures:

“ The traveler in Asia Minor, and in the provinces near the capital, will notice the uniformity in structure of all the great mosques, which are distinguished by a principal centre dome, supported by two or more semi-domes at its base, with a greater or less number of lower domes or cupolas over the aisles and angles, according to the means of its founder and the magnificence of his plan. Thus an imperial mosque is a vast edifice between two and three hundred feet square, finished with a mountain of cupolas and domes, increasing in size as they ascend, and converging until the principal one, as a vast semiglobe, crowns the whole. These are all relieved by round or narrow windows, adorned by delicate tracery and fretwork cut in stone, which indeed spreads like network over most of the exterior of the domes and cupolas, each of which is surmounted by a gilded crescent that glitters in the sun. The Mosque of Achmet alone has more than thirty cupolas and domes. Each of the seven hills on which Constanlinople is built, and of the heights on the opposite sides of the Bosphorus and Golden Horn, is crowned with one of these edifices, the more grand and imposing by reason of the elevation of nearly the whole mass of the building above the surrounding houses. It is this that makes the cour d'æil of Constantinople superior to any other city view on earth.

“ Adjoining each mosque in front is a large court, several hundred feet square, around the sides of which, in the interior, run open arcades, covered by low, closed domes, with leaden roofs, and supported oftentimes by pillars of precious marble, the rare remains of the ancient city.”

"At each corner of the court rises a slender minaret, which pierces the clouds like a gilded needle, and has two or three galleries of fine fretted stonework girding it at different heights. To these the muezzins ascend by interior spiral staircases, and call the people to prayers at the appointed times. The Moslems abhor bells, and hence the belfry of the church has given place to the minaret of the mosque ; and the voices of a thousand muezzins, simultaneously proclaiming throughout the city, There is but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet ; come to prayers, come to salvation, fall as agreeably on the ear of the Mohammedan as the chimes of the church bells on the ear of the Christian."

“Surprise, admiration, and awe are the first emotions which the stranger feels upon stepping into the mosque. The idea of vastness and vacuity predominates, and the impression is irresistibly made that the invisible God alone dwells here. The impression is deepened by

the gilded inscriptions proclaiming the fact from the cold stone walls, and the majestic dome impending at the height of two hundred feet over head. The quiet and reverence with which all present move over the flagged pavement, or prostrate themselves on mats or carpets, heighten the impression still more, and it is some minutes before the mind recovers itself sufficiently to notice and be offended at the minor details of the interior."-Vol. ii, pp. 202, 203, 204, 205.

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Travelers have lavished a great deal of commiseration upon the beautiful Circassian and Georgian females who are offered for sale in the bazars of this city. It appears, however, from our author's statements, that all this sympathy is thrown away. These women are in the market by their own choice and the consent of their parents, and have been educated in view of becoming the wives of Turkish gentlemen who may happen to be rich enough to purchase and maintain them. Their matrimonial speculations generally turn out according to their wishes; and though the modus operandi of the bargain, sale, and transfer is somewhat different from the fashionable style in similar transactions among us, the same motive and principle lie at the bottom in both countries. Here, as well as there, the fascinating fortune-hunter anticipates “an improvement in her condition by being domesticated in the family of a rich man."

Two chapters are devoted to the history, condition, and prospects of the Turkish empire. The first presents a melancholy picture of the weakness of the government at home and abroad, the decay of trade, manufactures, and every branch of productive industry; and the appalling decrease of population. The second contains a history of the efforts of the present sultan to engraft upon the decaying trunk of Moslemism some of the vigorous shoots of Christian civilization. He has proposed a general reform in the laws for the security of property, liberty, and life; the establishment of a system of public instruction; and the creation of an imperial parliament. These prescriptions show the hand of a bold practitioner; but Dr. Durbin thinks the patient is too far exhausted to bear such vigorous treatment. The dissolution of the empire is retarded by the Great Powers of Europe, who are trying to keep the breath of life in it through sheer jealousy of each other, and dread of the scramble which will follow its

last gasp

The book closes with three chapters on “Christianity in the East." These have been prepared with the care and caution which the importance of the subject demands, and will be read with deep attention and solemn interest by every Christian and philanthropist into whose hands the book may fall. The author believes that not less than fifteen millions of Christians of different sects are distributed, like leaven, through all parts of the Ottoman empire, and that their numbers and influence are steadily increasing. The Christian civilization of the West is also reacting upon the East, and is making itself felt and respected, not only in the palace of the Othmans, but in the remotest corners of the provinces. The proud Mussulman silently acknowledges its superiority, exclaims “ God is great,” and resigns himself to his destiny and his pipe.

In addition to these powerful elements of renovation, the Roman, Anglican, and American missionaries are prosecuting their work with untiring activity, though with widely different purposes and views. In giving the history of their operations Dr. Durbin stens upon delicate ground.

“Periculosæ plenum opus aleæ
Tractas, et incedis per ignes

Suppositos cineri doloso." But having carefully examined the whole subject, he expresses his convictions with an independence which does honor to his character. He has stated with scrupulous fidelity what he believed to be truth, yet in such courteous phrase that even those who may take exceptions to his views will give him credit for gentlemanly delicacy and Christian candor.

We must now take leave of our traveler and his interesting volumes. In the language of oriental benediction, “May he live a thousand years;' and as often as he shall come to our table in the shape of a book, as elegantly illustrated and as readable as the present, so often we promise him a cordial greeting and a hearty welcome.

Carlisle, Nov. 15, 1845.

Art. VII.-Sermons on Important Subjects. By Rev. SAMUEL

Davies, A. M., President of the College of New-Jersey. With an Essay on the Life and Times of the Author, by ALBERT BARNES. In 3 vols., 12mo., pp. 497,556, 499. Second edition. New-York: Dayton & Saxton. 1843. The author of these volumes was a Congregational minister, and, in some respects, was a most remarkable man. As a pulpit orator, this country has furnished but few equals. For persevering industry and toil in his Master's service, he has left an example worthy the imitation of the pious in all ages. For great success in his labors, as a Christian minister, he was singularly successful. Few men, perhaps, in any age have been more highly honored, than was our author, in accomplishing the great objects contemplated in the Christian ministry.

President Davies was born on the 3d of November, A. D. 1724, in the county of Newcastle, state of Delaware. He was probably of Welsh descent. His father was a farmer, of great plainness and simplicity in his mode of living, but honest and pious. He died while Samuel (our author) was young. His mother was distinguished for her natural talents, and eminent piety. He was an only son, and a great favorite of his parents. His mother had long prayed for the bestowment of such a blessing, and when he was born, she could not but look upon him as a token of the divine favor, and given in express answer to her prayers. In writing to a friend, our author adverts to this fact, as follows :-“I cannot but mention an anecdote known to but few; that I am a son of prayer, like my namesake Samuel, the prophet; and my mother called me Samuel because, she said, I have asked him of the Lord." 1 Sam. i, 20. He was early dedicated to God by his parents, and this, he informs us, had a great influence on his mind in his early consecration to his Master's service. There being no school in the vicinity where his father resided, he was kept at home and taught by his mother; and such were his sprightliness, his propriety of conduct, and his remarkable progress in study, that when a boy he exhibited indications of great promise.

At the age of about ten years he was sent to an English school, at some distance from his father's house, where he continued two years, and made great proficiency in his literary acquisitions ; although, during this period, partly for the want of proper religious instruction, he became somewhat careless as to his spiritual interests. He, however, attended to the duty of secret prayer, especially in the evening. The reason he assigns for this was, "he feared lest

he should die before morning.” It is said, that he prayed ardently, about this time, that he might be "introduced into the gospel ministry," a calling to which his youthful mind seemed to have a strong predilection.

The precise time of his conversion is unknown, though it is supposed to have taken place when about twelve years of age. Being early dedicated to God by his parents, he was now led to consecrate himself to God, through faith in the atoning merit. For a time he was exercised with perplexing doubts respecting his divine acceptance but by constant prayer, and impartial and repeated self-examination, he obtained a satisfactory assurance of his adoption into the divine family, which he happily retained to the end of his life.

He was not favored with a collegiate education, though he was blessed with some of the advantages which the country at that time afforded for literary pursuits. His pecuniary means were limited; and this probably accounts for the fact of his not passing through a regular collegiate course. Being naturally endowed with an extraordinary intellect, and being ardently zealous to accomplish whatever he took in hand, he prosecuted his studies with astonishing success. All subjects within his investigations were mastered with apparent ease. By his indefatigable labors, his scholarship became quite extensive.

From what has been said, it appears that he early selected the Christian ministry as a calling for life. Whether the prayers and instructions of his parents had any influence on this early selection, is not necessary here to inquire At what age he entered upon his long-desired vocation is uncertain; though it is highly probable that he commenced his ministry when about twenty. At twentyone, it is supposed that he was engaged as a minister, in a revival of religion in Virginia, an interesting account of which he gives in a letter to the Rev. J. Bellamy. In 1747, being twenty-three years of age, he was sent by the presbytery of Newcastle to Virginia, then a colony, and noted for profaneness and immorality. He preached to several congregations, which formed a kind of circuit, and in the discharge of his duties he was frequently under the necessity of traveling sixty miles. Such were his patience, perseverance, and piety, together with his powerful ministrations, that his labors were attended with great success. The "wilderness and solitary places” bloomed and blossomed before him. Many sinners were converted through his instrumentality, and among them were many slaves, who, no doubt, will furnish additional jewels in his “crown of glory."

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