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be made of any lands, &c., to the husband and wife, and to the heirs of the husband, or to them and the heirs of their two bodies begotten, or to the heirs of one of their bodies begotten; or to the husband and wife for the term of their lives, or for the life of the wife; or to any other person or persons, and to their heirs and assigns, to the use of the husband and wife, or to the use of the wife, as before rehearsed, for the jointure of the wife; in every such case, every woman married, having such jointure made, shall not have any dower of the residue of the lands, &c., that at any time were her said husband's, nor shall claim her dower against them that have the lands and inheritances of her said husband. But by s. 7. if any woman be lawfully expulsed or evicted from her said jointure, or from any part thereof, without fraud or covin, by lawful entry, action, or by discontinuance of her husband, then she shall be endowed of as much of the residue of her husband's lands, &c., wbereof she was before dowable, as the lands, &c. so evicted shall amount 10. And this act provides (s. 9.) that if any wife shall have s.9. any lands, &c., given and assured unto her after marriage, for term of her life, or otherwise in jointure, and the said wife over-live her said husband, she shall be at liberty, after his death, to refuse the lands, &c., so assured to her during coverture, except such assurance shall be made by act of Parliament, and thereupon to demand and take her dower, by writ of dower or otherwise, according to the common law, of and in all such lands, &c., as lier husband stood seised of any estate of inheritance at any time during the coverture. The 10 Car. 1. 10 Car. 1. .

st. 2. c. 1. Ir. St. 2. c. 1. Ir. is the corresponding statute in Ireland.



Of Estates less than Freehold.

Leap year.

ALL follow Sir W. Blackstone in referring to this 51 Hen, 3.

place the statutes respecting the computation of time, as connected with the duration of estates for years. By the statute de anno bissextili, 51 Hen. 3. st. 1. E. & I. it is enacted, that the day increasing, in the leap year shall be reckoned of the same month wherein it groweth ; and that

day and the next preceding day shall be accounted for 24 Geo. 2.

one day. And for regulating the commencement of the c. 23. Eng. year, and correcting the calendar, the 24 Geo. 2. c. 23.

Eng. after reciting that the legal supputation of the year Alteration of the ole stile.

by which the year used to commence on the 25th March, was attended with divers inconveniencies as differing from the usage of neighbouring nations, and from the method of computation in Scotland ; and further reciting that the Julian calendar (then in use) was discovered to be erroneous, by means whereof the vernal or spring equinos, which at the time of the general council of Nice in the year 325, happened on or about the 21st day of March, now happens on the 9th or 10th day of the same month; and the said error, if not remedied, would in process of time occasion the several equinoxes and solstices to fall at very different times in the civil year from what they formerly did ; therefore enacts, that throughout all the king's dominions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, the supputation according to which the year beginneth on the 25th March shall be no longer used, and the ist day of January next following the last day of December, 1751, shall be deemed the first day of the year 1752; and that each new year shall accordingly commence from the 1st day of every month of January next preceding the 25th day of March on which such year would accord

ing to the present supputation have commenced; and that from the 1st January, 1752, the several days in each month shall be reckoned in the same order; and the feast of Easter, and other moveable feasts thereon depending, shall be ascertained according to the method they then were, 'until the 20 September, 1752; and that the natural day next inmediately following the said 2d day of September, shall be called and accounted the 14th day of September ; omitting for that time only the eleven intermediate nominal days of the common calendar; and the natural days following the said 14th of Septe nber shall be numbered forwards in numerical order from the said 14th of September, according to the order now used in the present calendar; and all acts, deeds, writings, notes and other instruments, executed or signed upon or after the 1st January, 1752, shall bear date according to the said new method of suppatation ; and the two fixed terms of St. Hilary and St. Michael in England, &c., and the courts of great sessions in the counties palatine, and in Wales, and the courts of the general quarter sessions and geveral sessions of the peace, and all other courts, and all meetings of any bodies politic, which by law or usage within this kingdom, &c., are to be holden on any fixed day of any month, or on any day depending on any certain day of any month, (except such courts as are usually holden with fairs or marts) shali after the said 2d of September be holden upon the same respective nominal days whereon the same are now holden, but which shall be computed according to the new method. And by s. 2. the years 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, or any other hundredth year of our Lord except only every fourth hundredth year whereof the year 2000 shall be the first, shall not be bissextile or leap years, but shall be common years consisting of 365 days; and the years of our Lord 2000, 2400, 2800, and every other fourth hundredth year of our Lord from the year 2000 inclusive, and all other years which by the present supputation are bissextile or leap years, shall be bissextile or leap years, consisting of 366 days, By s, 3. the feast of Easter, or any of the movcable fexs s thereon depending, shall be no longer observed in Eugland, or the dominions belonging to tbe crown of Great VOL. 1.


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Britain, according to the method of supputation now used, or the table prefixed to the book of common prayer; and the said table, and also the column of golden numbers as they are now prefixed to the respective days of the month, shall be left out in all future editions of the book of common prayer; and the new calendar table and rules hereunto annexed shall be prefised to all future editions of the said book. And all the fixed feastdays, holy-days and fast-days, now observed by the Church of England, and also the several solegin days of thanksgiving, and of fasting and humiliation, which by virtue of any act of parliament now in being are to be observed, shall be observed on the respective days marked for the celebration of the same in the new calendar; that is to say on the same nominal days on which they are now observed, but which according to the alteration by this act made will happen 11 days sooner than they now do. And the feast of Easter, and all other moveable feasts thereon depending, shall be observed according to the new calendar, tables, and rules hereunto annexed, in England, and the dominions aforesaid, wherein the liturgy of the church of England now is, or hereafter shall be used : and the two moveable terms of Easter and Trinity, and all courts, and all meetings of any bodies politic, and all markets, fairs and marts, and courts thereunto belonging, which are used to be holden at any moveable times depending upon Easter, or any other moveable feast, shall be holden on such days whereon the same happen according to the falling of Easter, or such other moveable feasts, to be computed according to the new calendar. And by s. 4. the meetings of the court of session, and terms fixed for the court of Eschequer in Scotland, (the April meeting of the governor, bailiffs, and commonalty of the company of conservators of the great level of the fens) and the holding of all markets, fairs, and marts, either fixed to certain nominal days of the month, or depending upon the beginning or any certain day of any month, and all courts belonging to such fairs or marts, shall not be continued according to the nominal days of the month, computed according to the new calendar, but shall be holden upon or according to the same natural days, according to which they should have been holden in case this act had not been made. And by s. 5. this act

s. 4.

Old stile contie nued in ccrtain cases.

$5. shall not accelerate the days for opening, enclosing, or shutting up any lands for common of pasture and other purposes, or the days on which any temporary or distinct right in any lands is to commence. Nor by s. 6. shall s. C. this act accelerate the time of payment of any rent, annuity, or sum payable by virtue of any custom, deed, or agreement, or of any act of parliament made before the said 14th day of September, or the time of doing any thing directed by any such act'; or accelerate the payment of, or increase the interest of any sum payable as aforesaid; or accelerate the time of the delivery of any goods or other things; or the time of the commencement or determination of any lease of lands, &c., or of any other agreement, or of the accepting, surrendering, or delivering up possession of any lands, &c.; or the commencement or determination of any annuity or rent, or of any grant for any term of years; or the time of attaining of 21 years, or any other age requisite by any law, custom, deed, will, or writing, by any person born before the said 14th of September; or the time of the expiration of any apprenticeship or other service. The 26 Geo. 2. c. 30. s. 2. Eng. provides, that the time for open- 25 Goo. 2.

1. c. 30. s. 2. ing, using, enclosing and shutting up lands and grounds Eng: used for common of pasture or other purposes, for the

c New stile to bc paying of rents or other payments, and for the doing of used in certain other things, if such times are depending on any move-cases. able feast, shall be computed according to the new calendar. But by s. 3. this act shall not abridge, enlarge, s.3. confirm, or alter the title of any person, or any body politic, to any such lands, except as to the new computation of time when the enjoyment of such right shall commence. All such statutes made in Englaud as concern the stile and calendar, are adopted in Ireland by the 918 926 21 & 22 Geo. 3. c. 48. s. 3. Ir. ;

c. 48. s, 3. Ir. II. The statutes which respect overholding tenants be- $ 2. long properly to this chapter. By the 4 Geo. 2. c. 28. Remely against

over-lolding $. 1. Eng. in case any tenant for term of life, lives, or tenants.

4 Ge) 2. < 25. 2 H 2

years, s. 1. Ing.

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