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for 20 years.

proportionably as above, shall until extinguished con

tinue to be defrayed by separate taxes in each country. Premiums for It is a part of the compact of union, and this article acto be continueda cordingly provides, that a sum not less than the sum

which has been granted by the parliament of Ireland, on the average of 6 years immediately preceding the 1st day of January, 1800, in premiums for the encouragement of agriculture or manufactures, or for the maintaining institutions for pious and charitable purposes, shall be applied for 20 years after the union to such local pur

poses in Ireland as the parliament of the united kingdom Application of shall direct. And lastly that all public revenue arising to revenue arising from territorial the united kingdom from the territorial dependencies dependencies.

thereof, and applied to the general expenditure of the united kingdom, shall be so applied in the proportions of

the respective contributions of the two countries. Civil list of Having in the preceding parts of this chapter briefly Greel Briluin. adverted to the several branches of the king's reve

nde, which as at present constituted, are more properly to be considered as the revenue of the public, being applicable or appropriated to public purposes : it remains only to consider the king's proper and peculiar revenue, which consists in the civil list establishment created by parliament for the support of his majesty's household and the honour and dignity of his crown. The i Geo. 3. c. 1. Eng. recites several statutes, in farmer reigns, by which certain duties of customs and excise as well as the then aggregate fund were charged with the civil list expenses; and in lieu of this income which was in part casaal and uncertain, the aggregate fund was charged with the payment of an annuity or clear yearly sum of £800,000. to the crown; and by the 17 Geo. 3.c.21. Eng. an additional sum of £100,000. per annum, was also made payable to his majesty during his life, aut of the aggregate fund. These several sums were by the 27 Geo, 3. c. 13. c. 63. Eng. made payable out of and chargeable upon the consolidated fund which was created by this act. And by the 44 Geo. 3. c. 80. the further revenue or yearly rent of £60,000. per annum, is granted to his majesty out of the consolidated fund for the better support of his ma

jesty's

land,

jesty's household and of the honour and dignity of the crown of the united kingdom. By this statute also, which amends the 22 Geo. 3. c. 82. Eng. provision is made for preventing the accumulation of arrears, in the payments directed to be made out of the civil list revenues. A civil list establishment has been also created Civil list of Iree by the 33 Geo. 3. c. 34. Ir. (amended by the 45 Geo. 3. c. 76.) by which statute £145,000. per annum, is made payable out of the consolidated fund to his majesty during his life, to be applied by the high treasurer, vice-treasurer or vice-treasurers of Ireland, or such other person or persons as shall be authorized thereto, in payment of the salaries and other charges of the civil list; pensions excepted. By this act provision is made for reducing the pensions on the Irish establishment to £80,000. a year ;* and it is provided (by s. 4.) that from such time as the pensions shall not exceed the sum of £80,000. yearly, a further sum of £80,000. in addition to the yearly sum of £145,000. shall be payable to his majesty out of the consolidated fund, to be applied in the payment of all salaries, pensions, and other charges of the civil list, according to the provisions of this act; and this act, as well as the 22 Geo. 3. C. 82. Eng. prescribes the order in which those several charges sliall be paid, and imposes salutary restraints upon the issue of secret service money thereout.

CHAP. IX.

Of subordinate Magistrates.

As to the mode of appointing Sheriffs, the 28 Edw. 1.

§ 1. st. 3. c. 8. E. & I. enacted or declared that the king's Mode of appeople should have the election of their sheriffs, in every pointing sheriffs shire where the shrivalty was not of fee: and the same c. 8. E. &. I. statute (c. 13.) further ordain that the people of the county should choose such persons to be sheriffs as would

28 Edw. 1. st.3.

c. 13.

VOL. I.

P

not

* By s. 8. no pension is to exceed £1,200. except to the royal family, or on an address of either house of parliament.

& I.

E. & I.

E. & I.

not overcharge them; and that they should not put any officer in authority, for rewards or bribes, or such as lodge too frequently in one place, or upon poor persons or men

of religion. But these statutes in respect to the election 9 Fxlw; 2. st. 2. of sheriffs were repealed by the 9 Edw. 2. st. 2. E. &. I.

which enacted that sheriffs should be assigned by the chancellor, treasurer, barons of the exchequer and justices; and that none should be sheriff, unless he had sufficient land within the county of which he was sheriff, to answer to the king and his people; and further that no person who was steward or bailiff to a great lord should be made sheriff, unless he was out of such service, so as

to be able to attend the execution of his office as sheriff. 4 Edw. 3. c. 9. The 4 Edw. 3. c. 9. E. & J. and 5 Edw. 3. c. 4. E. & I. 5. Edw. 3. c. 4. also required the sheriffs to have sufficient lands in their

counties to answer the king and his people. The 14 14 Edw.3.st. 1. c. 7. E. & I. Edw, 3. st. 1. c. 7. E. & I. further provided that no sheriff

should tarry in his bailiwick more than one year, and then that another fit person having sufficient land in his bailiwick should be assigned in his place, by the chancellor, treasurer, and chief baron of the exchequer, taking to them the chief justices of the one bench and the other, if they should be present, and that such appointment should take place on the morrow of All-souls in every

year, at the exclicquer. But by reason of the abbreviation 24 Geo. 2.c.48. of the Michaelmas Term by the 24. Geo. 2. c. 48. Eng. the s. 12. Eng.

day of assembling at the exchequer for the appointment of sheriffs, is by s. 12. of this act, directed to be on the

morrow of Saint Martin. By the 12 Ric. 2. c. 2. E. & I: the 12 Ric. 2. c. 2. chancellor, treasurer, keeper of the privy seal, steward of

the king's house, the king's chamberlain, clerk of the rolls, the justices of the one bench and the other, barons of the exchequer, and all others that shall be called to ordain, name, or make justices of the peace, sheriffs, escheators, customers, comptrollers, and other officers of the king, shall be sworn not to ordain, &c. any justices of the peace, &c. for any gift or brocage, favour or affection, or any person that shall sue privily or openly to be put in office, but that they shall make all such officers and ministers of the best, most lawful, and

most

E. & 1.

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most sufficient. The* 10 Hen. 7. c. 1. Ir. enacted that the treasurer of Ireland should have as ample power as the treasurer of England, as to making customers, comptrollers, farmers, and other officers for the increase of the king's revenue; and declared that all acts made in Ireland concerning the election or making of sheriffs and escheators of shires and other officers, &c. contrary to this act, should be void, though it does not appear that there are any Irish acts (at least printed) to which this statute referred. The ancient method of appointing sheriffs in Ireland as far back as can be traced was thus :—The judges of assize on their summer circuits,required the sheriffs in office of the respective counties to return the names of 3 persons in each county proper to succeed them; and at a meeting of the judges in the chancellor's chamber on the morrow of All-souls in the following Michaelmas Term, the lord chancellor used to call on them for their returns, which when received he delivered to the lord lieutenant, who appointed one for each county out of every such return; but the judges had a power before they made their returns to alter the persons, or any of them, nominated to them, in their discretion, which is nearly similar to the custom in England. The modern practice is for the judges of assize of the several counties, to present to the lord lieutenant, the list of names so returned to them, without any previous meeting of the judges upon the occasion. The appointment of pocket sheriffs in England is a similar departure from the ancient custom.

The 3 Geo. 1.c. 15. s. 18. Eng.enacts, that instead of the Their maths of oath usually administered to sheriffs, the following oath qualification. shall be taken by them (except the sheriffs of Wales and s. 18. Eng. Chester) :-“I, A. B. do swear that I will well and truly

serve the king's majesty in the office of sheriff of the county of

--and promote his majesty's profit in all " things that belong to my office, as far as I legally can or

may; I will truly preserve the king's rights, and all that

belongeth to the crown; I will not assent, to [tdecrease,] + Omitted in « lessen, or conceal the king's rights, or the rights of his “ franchises; and whensoever I shall (I have knowledge) Knorr in " that the rights of the crown are concealed or withdrawn,

3 Geo. 1. c. 15.

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12Geo. 1.c.4. Ir.

12Geo. 1.c.4.Ir.

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“ be it in lands, rents, franchises, suits, or services, or in * Have them, in"

any other matter or thing, I will do my utmost to *make 12Gcv.1.c.4. Ir.«« them be) restored to the crown again; and if I may not

“ do it myself, I will certify and inform the king thereof,

or some of his judges; I will not respite or delay to “ levy the king's debts for any gift, promise, reward or “ favour, where I may raise the same without great “ grievance to the debtors; I will do right, as well to

poor as to rich, in all things belonging to my office; “ I will do no wrong to any man, for any gift, reward,

or promise, nor for favour or hatred; I will disturb no “ man's right, and will truly and faithfully acquit at the “ exchequer all those of whom I shall receive any debts “ or duties belonging to the crown; I will take nothing

whereby the king may lose, or whereby his right may “ be disturbed, injured or delayed; I will truly return “ and truly serve all the king's writs, according to the best < of my skill and knowledge; I will take no bailiffs into my

service, but such as I will answer for, and will cause each of them to take such oaths as I do, in what belongeth to their business and occupation; I will

truly set and return reasonable and due issues of them “ that be within my bailiwick, according to their estate “ and circumstances, and make due panels of persons « able and sufficient, and not suspected or procured, as

" is appointed by the statutes of this realm; I have not + Nor, in « sold (tor) let to farm, nor contracted for, nor have I 19Gto. 1.c.4. Ir. « granted or promised for reward or benefit, nor will I

sell or let to farm nor .contract for, or grant for reward

or benefit, by myself or any other person for me or “ for my use, directly or indirectly, my sheriffwick, or “ any bailiwick thereof, or any office belonging thereunto, , « or the profits of the same, to any person or persons “ whatsoever; I will truly and diligently execute the

good laws and statutes of this realm; and in all things “ well and truly behave myself in my office, for the ho“ nour of the king and the good of his subjects, and “ discharge the same according to the best of my skill “ and power.---So help me God.” Which oath is to be administered either by commissioners in the country by

virtue

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