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accompanied by one of his young men, named Miller. He left the camp on the morning of the 29th, when it was snowing very fast. They passed an island, one rapid and a small lake, and arrived about one o'clock at the falls of Pakagama; the greatest impediment to the navigation of the Mississippi, except the falls of Saint Anthony, between its source and the Gulph of Mexico. They stopped for the night at three Indian lodges, which did not appear to have been left more than three days ; and where they found a fine parcel of split wood. By cutting down three sappine trees, and weaving their branches into the windward side of the lodges, so as to protect them from the storm, they had a tolerable night's lodging. Not being able to find a trail, they had to pass through a dismal cypress swamp in the morning, before they reached the river. They struck it at a small lake, and perceived a track through it, which they knew to be Mr. Grant's by his mark, ' a cut off,' which had been agreed upon before they parted : following this, they got on very well till they arrived at a small lake where the trail was entirely obliterated. After some search on the opposite side they disc it, and passed through a dismal swamp, beyond which was another lake, where the track was again lost. They directed their course for a point about three miles distant, and where they found a Chipeway lodge of one man, his wife, five children, and an old woman. They were received by these savages with great barbarity ; the dogs were set on them, and when they reached the lodge, the Indians endeavoured to thrust their hands into their pockets. This was resented in such a manner as to let them know it would not be borne with through fear, and, that the strangers were Che. wockmen, or Americans. They were then treated more civilly. After ar. ranging their camp, Mr. Pike went into the lodge, where he was presented with a plate of dried meat. He requested Miller to bring about two gills of whiskey which made them all good friends. The old squaw
gave him in retum more meat, and offered some tobacco, the latter of which he declined ; and gave her an order on his corporal for a knife, and half a carrot of tobacco. After Mr. Pike had gone to his own fire, the old man came out, and propo, sed to trade beaver skins for whiskey ; meeting a refusal, he returned, and directly the old woman came out with a beaver skin; she being also refused, he returned to the charge with a quantity of dried meat, which on any other terms would have been acceptable ; a peremptory refusal now, put an end to all farther application. Indeed it appeared, that such was their de. sire of obtaining liquor, that a quart of whiskey would have purchased all the family was worth! The next morning Mr. Pike took his clothes into the Indian lodge to dress, but was received very coolly ; a present to the wife of a little salt, and a dram to the Indian unasked for, appeared to ameliorate their manners ; and they gave directions of the rout to be pursued.
They passed the lake, or morass, and entered on the meadow through which the Mississippi winds its course of nearly fifteen miles ; at the "head of this meadow they discovered that they had missed the river, which they regained by making a turn of two miles. They passed the fork made by the lake Sangsue branch and that from lake Winepic. Taking a west course, they crossed a meadow, or prairie. The river here is only fifteen yards wide. They encamped about a mile above the meadow, where they saw an animal which, from the leaps it took, seemed to be a panther, but of twice the size of the panther on the lower Mississippi. It shewed some * disposition to approach Mr. Pike, which he wished to encourage by squatting down, and desiring Miller to do the same behind him, but without ef. feet. The night was so cold, that the spirits they had in a keg congealed to the consistence of honey. Early in the morning they left the camp, and passed along a continued suite of meadows, until they reached the Sangsue
lake, a little after midday. The sight of this lake was highly grateful to their feelings, it being the main source of the Mississippi ; but the little lake Winepic is navigable to Red Cedar lake, which is the extremity of the navigation, by a communication of five leagues. Across the lake it was twelve miles to the establishment of the North West Company, which they arrived at about ten o'clock in the evening. The gates were locked, but on knocking they were admitted, and received by Mr. Hugh M'Gillis, with great politeness and hospitality ; and bad a supper of biscuit, butter, and cheese !
After remaining a few days within door's, to recover from the fatigue of travelling, Mr. Pike, accompanied by Mr. M'Gillis, went to visit Mr. Anderson, the agent of Mr. Dickson, at the west end of the lake, in a situation favourable for trade. He went in a cabriole, formed to carry one person. It is constructed of boards planed smooth, and turned up about two feet in front, where they come to a point ; the width behind is about two feet and a half, where there is fixed a box covered with dressed skins, and painted. This box is open behind, but covered in front nearly two thirds of the length. When wrapped up in his buffaloe robe, the traveller slides his feet into this box, or boot, horizontally, sitting with his body upright, and his back supported by a cushion. The horse draws in shafts
. Thus seated, and the head and extremities covered by a fur cap, and other warm clothing, he bids defiance to wind and weather.
On returning to the N. W. establishment, they found that some of the Indians had already arrived from their hunting camps ; and a Mons. Boussant, who had been sent from the establishment some time before on business of the company, but who not returning when expected, it was supposed the Indians had killed him. Mr. Grant had been sent in search of, and returned with him, to the great joy of the factory. On the 10th they hoisted the American flag, on the staff on which the English jack was then flying. Some Indians and riflemen, after a few shot, broke the iron pin to which it was fastened, and brought it to the ground.
The 'Sweet,' Buck, Burnt, and other chiefs, came in on the day following. The first of them is a venerable old man. He says that, "when he was made a man, and began to hunt, the Sioux occupied this ground ; that they evacuated it in the same year in which the French missionaries were killed at the river Pacagama.”
Mr. M'Gillis, with two of his men, and Mr. Pike, with a corporal of his corps, left Leech lake on the morning of the 12th of February, and arrived at the company's house, on Red Cedar lake, at sun-set-a distance of thirty miles. This lake is about ten miles long, and six miles wide. From the Straights to where the Mississippi runs out of the lake, is called six miles. The bay at the entrance extends nearly east and west six miles. It is about two miles and a half from the north side to a big point. This may be called the upper source of the Mississippi, being fifteen miles above lake Winepic, and the extent of canoe navigation. It is only two leagues from some of the waters of Hudson's bay.
The next day, Mr. Pike took observations for determining the latitude of the place, and found it to be 47 deg. 42 min. 40 sec. N. Mr. Thompson, in the year 1798, determined the latitude of the company's house here to be in 47 deg. 30 min. N. which he considered as the source of the Mississippi.
On walking about three miles back from the lake, Mr. Pike found twothirds of the country, at least, covered with water.
Here they eat of the white fish, broiled on iron grates, fixed horizontally in the chimney. The entr are left in the fish while dressing! From Vol. IV. Appendix.
hence one of the men walked to lake Winepic, and returned by one o'clock with the stem of the Sweet's pipe : --to him of as much consequence in his affairs with the Sioux, as the credentials of a civilized society to its ambassador.
They left this house, and their hospitable hosts, (a Canadian, and his wife, a Chipeway squaw) who relinquished to their use the only article which might be called a bed, attended them as servants, and could not be persuaded to touch a mouthful until their guests had finished their repasts, and arrived at the factory about sunset ; having been drawn at least ten miles in a sleigh by two dogs, who were loaded with six hundred pounds, and marched so fast, as to make it difficult for men with snow shoes to keep up with them.
On the 16th Mr. Pike held a council with the chiefs and warriors of this place, and of Red lake. It required patience, coolness, and some manage: ment, to attain what he had in view ; which was, that these Indians should make peace with the Sioux, and deliver up their medals and flags; that some of their chiefs should accompany him to Saint Louis, and, that they, as a proof of their pacific disposition, should smoke out of the Wabashar's pipe, which lay before them, on the table. They all smoked, from the head chief to the youngest soldier ; and generally delivered up their medals and flags with a good grace ; the Flatmouth excepted, who said he had left both his at his camp, three days' march from this place. He, however, promised to deliver them to Mr. M'Gillis to be forwarded. The old Sweet thought it most proper to return to the Indians of Red lake, Red river, and Rainy Lake river. The Flatmouth also said, it was necessary for him to return to his young warriors. The other chiefs did not think themselves of consequence enough to offer any reason for not following Mr. Pike to St. Louis ; a journey of such extent, and through hostile tribes.
Mr. Pike then replied, “he was sorry to find that the hearts of the Sau. teaurs of this quarter were so weak. That the other nations would say,
What, is there no soldiers at Leech, Red, and Rainy lakes, who have hearts to carry the calumet of their chief, to their father?” This had the effect of rousing them. The Buck, and the Beau, two of the most celebrated young warriors, rose, and offered themselves for the employ. They were accepted as the children of Mr. Pike, whilst he was installed their fa. ther. The example of these two animated the rest, and it would not have been difficult to have raised a company among them. The Beau is brother to the Flatmouth. He then gave his young soldiers a dance, with a small dram ; they wanted more liquor, but a firm denial convinced them of the folly of the attempt. On the next day, the chief of the land brought in his Aag and medal : Preparations were made for the party to march. The Sweet was instructed how to send the • Parole' to the Indians of Red river. The soldiers then went through their manual exercise, and fired three blank rounds; which not a little astonished the Indians.
On the morning of the 18th of February, the men were marched for Red Cedar lake ; Mr. Pike, and a guide which Mr. M'Gillis had provided for him, were to follow afterwards. They were all provided with snow shoes, and marched off pretty well, amidst the shouts and acclamations of the Indians, who had generally remained for the purpose of witnessing their de. parture,
Mr. Anderson arrived in the night, having concluded to go down the river to Mr. Dickson in company with Mr. Pike and his party." In the morn. ing, Mr. Pike, Mr. L'Rone, and his two 'two young Indians left the hospita hole abode of Mr. M'Gilis. He had presented Mr. Pike with bis dogs and
cabriole, here valued at one hundred dollars. They crossed Leech lake in a south-east direction, twenty-four miles. One of the dogs broke from his harness, and would not suffer them to catch him again on that day ; the other had to draw the whole load, of at least seven hundred and fifty pounds, from lake to lake. On resuming their march the next day, the men set off three hours before Mr. Pike ; but his sleigh dogs brought him up to them before one o'clock. They encamped at half after three, on the bank of Sandy lake, having travelled over lakes almost the whole distance. At the request of Mr. L'Řone, whom Mr. M'Gillis had sent as a guide, the Indians applied for leave for him to accompany the party ; Mr. Pike consented to his continuing as far as Red Cedar lake : on this, he personally expressed his wish to desert from the service of the North-West company, and join the American party. Honour and gratitude forbad such an act on the part of Mr. Pike : the man was immediately sent back, and the party pursued their journey without a guide. Continuing through woods and bushes, they came to White Fish lake, which may be considered as the source of Pine river. The North-West company had once an establishment at this place, here being the nearly consumed remains of a stockade about fifty feet square. From this place Mr. Pike, accompanied by the young Indians, set out in advance of the party to Red Cedar lake. Owing to the badness of the road, the journey was a very fatiguing one. On arriving there, he found Mr. Grant and De Breche (chief of Sandy lake) at the house. From this place one of Mr. Grant's men was dispatched to meet the party, and carry a bag of rice to them. He met them encamped on the Mississippi ; and on the 27th they arrived with a chief called the White Fisher, and sev. en Indians.
De Breche, in a serious conversation with Mr. Pike, informed him, that a string of wampum had been sent to the Chipeways, as he believed, from the British commanding officer at Saint Joseph.
On the 28th of February, the party left Red Cedar lake on their return to Saint Louis. The young Indians staid behind, under pretence of waiting for the chief De Breche, who had returned to Sandy lake for his flag and medals, and was to meet Mr. Pike at his winter station with Mr. Grant, about the 15th of the month following.
Early on the third of March they passed the place of their encampment on Christmas day. Almost immediately afterwards a smoke was discover. ed on the western shore by Mr. Pike, who was ahead of his party in his ca. briole ; he hallooed, and some Indians appeared on the bank ; they proved to be Chipeways who had left Red Cedar lake on the same day the United States party did.
They presented Mr. Pike with some dried meat, which he gave to his sleigh dogs, left their camp, accompanied him down the river some distance, and encamped on the west side. At noon the party came to the place where they had buried a barrel of flour on the 21st of December, and found there a corporal and one of the men from the station. From these men they learnt that those who had been left behind were all well; that one of the sentinels had been fired on by a Sioux whom the serjeant had made drunk ; -and, that this serjeant, contrary to particular instructions, had improperly, and without just cause, dissipated almost all the stores which were intend. ed for the descending voyage. While the travelling party had fared hard, and almost perished with hunger ; and by changing their route had left many very essential articles behind them on Sandy lake, under the expectation of replacing them at the station, it was highly mortifying to find their hopes so disappointed, through the misconduct of him in whose especial
charge they had been left. They took up the barrel of flour, and proceeded to the mouth of a little river which enters the Mississippi from the east
. The next morning they, by a fire, thawed the ground where their two bar'rels were deposited on the 19th of December, and took them up.
They arrived at their station on the morning of the 5th of March, where they found all the men in good health. After noon they were visited by Mr. Dickson, accompanied by the Killien Rouge, his son, and two other Sioux men, and two women, who came to be introduced to the Sauteurs whom they expected had come with Mr. Pike from the head of the river.
While they were here, several Indian chiefs came in to see Mr. Pike. With them he held several conversations. Thomas, the Fols Avoine chief, gave assurances that he would interest himself in obliging the Paunts to deliver up the men who had committed recent murders on the Quinsconsin and Rock rivers ; and, if necessary, he would make it a national quarrel or the side of the Americans. This chief is of a noble and masculine figure, and an extraordinary hunter : as an instance of this it is related, that he killed forty elk and a bear in one day, chasing the former from the dawn till evening. He is animated in the delivery of his speeches. He appears very much attached to the Americans. He gave his pipe to be presented to the Sauteurs on their arrival with assurances of safety on their voyage, and his wish that they would descend the river. The Fils de Killien Rouge also gave his pipe, to be presented to the Sauteur Indians on their arrival"; " to inake them smoke, and to assure them of his friendly disposition, and that he would wait to see them at Mr. Dickson's.”
Thomas made a complaint against a Frenchman by the name of Greignon, who resided on Green Bay, who, he said, abused the Indians, and even beat them, without provocation. Mr. Pike promised to write to the Indian agent at Michlemaekinack on the occasion.
In a long conversation with a Reynard,' he professed not to believe in an hereafter ; but, that the world would be drowned at some future period; and a question with him was, how it was to be repeopled ? Other Indians, however, of his nation, say he is singular in this opinion.
In an hunting excursion on the opposite side of the river to the station, Mr. Pike ascended a mountain which borders on the prairie. Here he found a stone on which the Indians sharpen their knives, and a war club half finished. From this elevated position, the eye wanders over vast prairies, with scarcely any other interruption than scattering clumps of trees, which, at a distance, have the appearance of mountains ; in two or three of those the smoke is perceived curling in its ascent over their tops ; it points out the habitation of the wandering savage, and often leads the blood-thirsty warrior to his defenceless prey.
The voyage of Mr. Pike suspended, for a time at least, this horrid war. fare, through a vast extent of country. Peace followed his steps, from the prairie des Chiens to the lower Redriver! If a subaltern officer with twenty men, at such a distance from the seat of his government, can produce so great a change in the minds of savages, what may not be expected, when s great and independent power, instead of blowing the flames of discord, exerts its whole influence in the promotion of peace ? Such are the reflections which Mr. Pike made on viewing the country below him, and the immediate effects which had flowed from the expedition entrusted to his care.
On returning to the station, he found the Fols Avoine chief, who had come with the intention of passing the night there. In a conversation he mentioned that near the conclusion of the revolutionary war his nation began to look upon him as a warrior. They received a parole' from the En.