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heres to the old readings, 'decerp- In lib.2,Ode10,1.9,the stereotype tam fronti præponere olivam,' has ósævius' instead of the common probably the true one, authorised reading 'sæpius;' and it seems prefby all the manuscripts and all edi- erable, as Burman and Wakefield tions before the time of Erasmus, think. In line 12 the reading of who proposed the feeble line, most of the manuscripts, 'fulgura,' adopted by the "edition in Usum is followed, though many early Delphini, which has unhappily editions have fulmina.' been most common in our coun- Of the text in Lib.3, Ode 8, line try: So carelessly has that work 19, I know not what to say. Most of Desprez been reprinted, that of the good editions read, Medus its errours have become innumer- infestus sibi luctuosis ;' but Didot able, and in the London copy of has obeyed Bentley and Wakefield. 1727, in line 31st of this same The difference is hardly worth a Ode, the sense and the metre are contest. But in Ode 24, line 24, ruined by the omission of the he adopts the readings of the most word (vino.'

learned criticks, which is more In Ode 9, line 15, 'Camænas' is lively at least, than the common substituted for “amores,' without one. In Ode 26, line 1, the prinany pretence that it is the true read- ter's purity is once more alarmed, ing. The modesty of the French and he substitutes choreis' for press shrunk, forsooth ! from the puellis.' In Ode 27, line 48, he original sentiment, and, lest our has the better reading, cornua morals should be corrupted, adopt- monstri.' ed this new phraseology. What In Lib. 4, Ode 6, line 25, a mancan be more ridiculous, than such uscript, cited by Bentley, is followdelicacy? What, but the omiss- ed, with some reason, against most ion of the four last lines of this of the editions. In Ode 13, line 9, playful poem, the frightful im- having needlessly. omitted four morality, of which Dr. Francis lines, the editor is compelled to (a venerable D. D. proh pudor !) substitute - amor' for ' enim.' has dared closely to translate. In the Carmen Sæculare, line 21,

Didot reads « ut denos decies per The laugh, that from the corner flies, annos,' and he has some of the The sportive fair one shall betray;

earliereditions to countenance bim ; Then boldly snatch the joyful prize ; A ring or bracelet tear away ;

yet the great majority of the learnWhile she, not too severely coy,

ed prefer .undenos decies,' and no Struggling shall yield the willing toy. critick has, I believe, lately assert

ed that these secular games were Again in Ode17, line 24, the true usually celebrated every hundred text is unreasonably altered ; but it

years, but every hundred and ten was rendered necessary, as the four

years. It seems strange, that a succeeding lines are excluded.

chronological fact, of so great imIn Ode 28, line 14, Didot has portance during the most enlightadmitied the reading, • Judice ened period of the Roman empire, me,' proposed by a single critick in should now be disputable. The opposition to all others, which authority of two Sybilline verses is greatly diminishes the force of the brought in by the editor in Usum passage ; but in line 18 he follows Delphini, but they are probably the better authorities avidum' spurious. After much search I in opposition to the vulgar • avi- have ablained no satisfaction upon dis,' and again in line 3 ist. this question ; but I find that the

general suffrage is in favour of the which has occurred to me. - When longer term, and two considera- shall we become as correct in our tions incline me to it. It is less country? In line 197 Didot has probable the dispute would have followed the elegant emendation occurred, as it certainly did among of Bentley, 'Et regat iratos, et athe Romans themselves, for Sue- met pacare tumentes' ; which, tonius mentions the celebration at though opposed by Gesner, is re, a time nothing near the recurceived by the learned ; and the rence of the solemn era, if these reason may be quoted from Franmost solemn ceremonies were to cis, “the expresssion in the combe holden precisely at the end of mon editions would say the same, every hundred years. The Greek as · bonis faveat,' as in the former verses also, though perhaps never line, and even say it more feebly." proceeding from the prophetick In verse 294 he reads præsectum' books, must at least have been with the best criticks. In line 360, forged many hundred years before the more expressive reading of the invention of printing, and may Bentley is adopted. The next line have been cited at the court of is as much improved by a change Augustus.

in punctuation as any passage ever The variations in the Satires and can be, . Ut pictura, poesis ; erit Epistles are less numerous, than quæ,' &c. In verse 443 Didot has the omissions,

and are of little con- adopted sumebat' for insumebat,' sequence. The change in line which seems good enough. but it 107, Sat. 3, of the first book, can- has little support from great names; not be objected to.

and none from manuscripts. In In the Art of Poetry the lines lines 460, 461, he follows the best which are numbered 45 and 46 in editors, who read 'curet' not curthe Delphini edition are transpos. ret.' ed in this stereotype edition, ac- In writing the notes the French cording to the admirable emenda- editor has not, like most others, tion of Bentley,which has generally intruded a load of mythological, been acquiesced in, though it is physical, or historical knowledge, rejected by the text of Foulis. He has not quoted parallel pasDidot has also followed the great sages from Anacreon and AristoEnglish critick in line 101, Ut ri- phunes ; but has only attempted dentibus arrident, ita fientibus ad- to explain his author without in, hent,' which is approved by most creasing the cost of the volume. of the English editions, and stout- Virgil he had published without ly opposed by the German Gesner. a single annotation ; but Horace Though the reading of Bentley in requires explanation in many pasthis place seem preferable, too sages. The notes are never longer much deference has been some. than three or four lines, and more times paid to his boldness of sub- frequently not more than that stitution, as in line 114, where he number of words. In these notes is followed by Foulis and Basker. perhaps even Didot has only eluville, while the old reading is main- cidated what was clear before, but tained by Wakefield, and received this must always be expected from by the French editor. I observe note-makers. Omnibus hoc vithe omission of the point at the tium. The notes of Wakefield, end of the 153d line, the only de- tho' I mean not to depreciate his fect in the printing of this volume, labours, seem written for his par

ticular' edition, and not to explain' neminem editorum, quorum sand Horace. The edition of Gesner proventum uberrimum sibi nacta appears most laudable in this re- est Horatii felicitas, rectam huspect. In the Ode to Varus, lib. jusce loci rationem arripuisse. 1. 18. «Siccis omnia nam dura De. Erat Virgilius scilicet in “fines us proposuit,' hardly meets illus- Atticos” nave deferendus, unde tration, though most of the com- in patriam reditum tutum dilecmentators have told us, that «Sic- tissimo poetæ precatur Flaccus ; cis' is here metaphorically used cui scriptoris scopo manifeste per for sober. Nor do we learn much nostram interpunctionem consulfrom the word 'innocens' in the tum évimus.” “ I cannot sufficientmargin to explain integer vitæ ;' ly admire, that none of the editors, nor from indecore' to illustrate of whom the happy style of Horace “parmulà non bene relicta.' In has raised him a plentiful harvest, Lib 2, Ode 3, near the end, the has rightly apprehended the meanpunctuation must be wrong, foring of this passage. Virgil was after urna' he uses a semicolon, about to sail for Athens, whence while his note interprets it, like Horace prays for this beloved poet former criticks.

a safe return to his own country ; In the explanation of the begin- and to this meaning of the author ning of the third Ode, Lib. 1, is a we have paid attention in our puncphrase that might have confirmed tuation." Wakefield in his strange manner It is strange indeed, that so good of reading. "Reddere incolumem' a writer, as Wakefield,should thus means to deliver or land Virgil safe use the first person of the singular at Athens, not, as Wakefield by al- number in one sentence,and of the tering the punctuation of the pas- plural in the next ; but it is still sage would make it, to return him more strange, that,in opposition to safe to Italy. •Reddo' does not fre. all preceding editors, he should quently mcan to return. We say construe this prayer of Horace to • reddere epistolam' to deliver, not apply to the return of the vessel, to return, a letter. Pliny has 'red- and not to her voyage to Athens. dere fiores' to blossom, and its use it is not very probable, that the in other parts of Horace will be same ship, in which Virgil was learned in Lib. 2, Ode 17, line 30, going to Athens, would wait to and line 75, Sat. 3, Lib. 1. But bring him back ; and from his in his note Didot uses o restituas,' biographer we learn, that, when which, I believe always means, to he left Rome, he intended to have return or restore to a former con- passed three years in Greece and dition. Vide Lib.3, Ode 7, at the Asia in retirement, perhaps to beginning. So that with diffidence have given the last polish to his I believe both of the learned edi. Eneid. But being taken sick at tors have misunderstood the mean- Megara, he hurried back to Italy, ing of that word ; Didot, who uses and died before reaching home. i restituas,' as tantamount to "red- This supposition affixes a later das,' while he maintains the com- date to the composition of this famou reading; and Wakefield, who mous Ode, than is allowed by totally changes the usual inter- Bentley ; but I believe with Dapretation by only shifting a com- cier, that it was composed at the ma. The self-confident English time of the fatal voyage of Virgil. ditor says, “ Mirari satis neque, But if the safe return of his friend be here meant, Horace would not on her return. Mr. Wakefield have supplicated the God of the had forgotten the story of the Irishwinds to restrain every breeze, ex- man, who, crossing St. George's cept the Western ; that, being fa- channel with a contrary wind, vourable to carry the ship to prayed it might change before Athens, would be directly ahead his return.


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Rome, Nov. 16, 1804.

wit to render the notions and prac

tices of the Catholicks ridiculous ; YY DEAR FRIEND,

but one half of the time, spent in YOU well know, that I came to

simple narration, without the aid Europe with as few prejudices for of satire, would have produced or against any particular sect of more effect, and would have saved christians as most men, and that I them the opprobrium of being suswas (and indeed I still am) dispo- pected to be opposers of christiansed to believe, that there are hon

ity itself. est and virtuous men of all per- To point out the errours, or to suasions. It must be admitted, ridicule the absurd superstitions, that all such, however opposed in which have debased the worship articles of faith or modes of wor- of the present system of religion, ship, are equally entitled to our is certainly not only consistent with charity.

a thorough belief of that system, Still this charity does not forbid but is perhaps a duty, which that us to examine and expose the fol- belief requires; but one should be lies or absurdities, which may have extremely careful, lest in the zeal erept into their creed or practice. of reformation, a weapon should be On the contrary our duty, as men afforded to the opponents of reliand christians, requires, that we gion itself. should, as far as may be in our To the Catholicks, I think we power, counteract and oppose with owe no apology for the exposure becoming candour those errours of their failings. The bigotted and abuses, that impede the recep- intolerance and persecution, which tion and usefulness of the religion have marked the footsteps of the we profess. Both of us had formed followers of papacy, from the burnsome opinion of the absurdity of Ca- ing of John Iluss, to the massacre tholic superstition, but I assure you, of St. Bartholomew, give them but that I found it a very imperfeci one. feeble claims on the liberality of No writer, however severe,has hith- Protestants; and the evident conerto, nor, in my estimation, ever tempt for all other Christians, who can do, any thing like justice to are denominated Infidels, which is the subject.

Dr. Moore and oth- still to be perecived at Rome, noters have exerted all the powers of withstanding all their humiliations, give us a fair right to examine the advertize this privilege, one of grounds of their imaginary claim which I also transmit to you. to superiority. I shall devote the present letter

D. O. M. to the narration of such facts as

Defunctorum animæ

in novem dies have fallen within my own obser

in requiem æternam vation only, relative to the super

deprecantur. stitious opinions and observan

“ The souls of the dead during nine ces, and pious frauds, existing in days are prayed into eternal rest. Italy at the present moment. The doctrine of indulgences is

This privilege however is very familiar to you. The pretended rare, and is confined only to such origin is the power given to St. churches as are pre-eminently Peter, and which the papists con- blessed by possessing some relick, tend has descended like a heir- or by having been founded by some loom, or like the mantle of Elijah distinguished saint. In such cases upon his regular, anointed suc- you always find a bull of the pope cessors in the apostolick chair, sculptured on marble,granting this Where this power resided, when favour by virtue of his apostolick there were two rival popes, anath- authority. ematizing each other, and waging I forget, whether I mentioned war with the arm of flesh for the to you the church of St. Suaire, at good of the apostolick church, we the church of the holy handkerare not told. I suppose, at such a

chief at Turin. This building is moment, it must be be considered one of the most magnificent in as the freehold sometimes is in our Italy. It is wholly lined with pollaw in Abeyance, ready to grace ished black marble, which, comthe temples of the victor.

bined with the artificial darkness, At Milan, and in all the great which it is contrived to produce, cities of Italy, you still find in. impresses the firmest minds with scriptions in the churches in which awe, and disposes the lightest to the sale of indulgences is pub- devotion. This edifice was erectlickly advertized. The following ed to inclose the holy handker, I insert as a specimen. It is an chief, with which our Saviour is exact copy of one of these adver- fabled to have wiped his face, as tisements in Italian.

he was bearing the cross to the Indulgenza plenaria tutti i giorni

place of execution.

A writer updella settimana.

on this subject remarks, that he And for the benefit of the more

has found seven different churches, learned it is usually also translated

all of which claim the honour of into Latin.

possessing this valuable relick;

but he gives the preference to the Indulgentiæ plenariæ et aliæ non ple claims of the church at Turin, nariæ quotidianè.

because it has fourteen bulls in its As I understand it in plain En- favour. The veneration, in which glish, they daily grant permissions, this relick is held is astoniehing. either general or more limited, to A citizen of Turin thinks it one commit offences.

of the most solid foundations of There are other churches, which ils superiority over its sister citics, have the exclusive right of praying and the sovereigns of Sardinia and souls out of purgatory. They also Piedmont annually assisted at the

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