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cations is what chiefly distinguishes only to be patient of toil, and cowman from other animals. What ardly in spirit. It prohibits all inwas luxury in savage life becomes tercourse with their neighbours, convenience in the first stages of but is a feeble barrier against the improvement, and seems absolute- barbarians. ly necessary in more cultivated As in the prime of manhood we society. Barbarism is content with look back with wonder on the carethe lowest enjoyments; but after lessness and ignorance of youth, inciustry is excited, uneasiness a with the same emotions may we wakens more refined desires, and reflect, that though six thousand the mind is occupied with desig- years have rolled over us since the nating improvements in the de- creation, only three hundred have lights of sense. The useful arts added half of our globe to the inare then soon transplanted into all tercourse of the rest. With pity, countries, and are perpetuated in almost approaching to contempt, all. Before the knowledge of com we regard such caution and timidmerce a season of drought or of ity in former ages. To the invenmildew was invariably followed by tion of printing has often been asa season of famine, while regions cribed the transformation of sociat a distance of less than two days ety; but to another art we think sail might be blessed with unusual may be attributed most of the fertility ; but an Egyptian barren. change in the moral habitudes of ness of seven years continuance man, produced by touching the may now be mitigated, under the chief springs in the machine. The ordinary government of Provi. experience and reflection of all dence, by the art, which supplies preceding ages had never supplied the wants of one nation by the su such improvement to political sciperfluities of another.
ence, as it gained in the fifteenth The gradations in the advance- century from the enterprises of ment of society are almosi innume- commerce. rable, and the progress is slow,and sometimes imperceptible. When
• The genius then a' people, proud of their present Had slumber'd on the vast Atlantick
Of Navigation, that in hopeless sloth attainments, resolve to rest satis
deep fied, and permit their competitors for idle ages, starting, heard at last to outstrip them in refinement, The Lusitanian Prince, who, heav'n contempt, no less than wonder, inspir'd, will arise at such conceited impol- To love of useful glory rous'd man
kind, icy and contented ignorance. Chi
And in unbounded commerce mix'a na, though instructed in many of the world.' the most noble arts, we cannot consider more than half civilized, be Some have seriously regretted cause her notions of religion and that America has interfered in formaxims of government, her con eign trade, but we believe that na. tempt of coinmerce and ignorance ture intended the inhabitants of of philosophy, have encouraged our sea coast for the merchants of the folly of thinking herself supe- the world ; and that every navigariour to all other nations. That ble river, every bay, and every inmost stupendous monument of hu- dentation on our shore, confirms man labour, the wall of fifteen her intention. In a country fertile hundred miles, proves the Chinese as ours, only one third of the pop
ulation need be employed in agri- society for ferocious independence culture to raise sufficient for the in a floorless cabin, and to enjoy sustenance of the whole. If for- true luxury by throwing away our eign commerce were interdicted, downy pillows to rest our heads we should have an immense sur upon a lock till morn.' plus of useless commodities, and In coincidence with these vain most of the incitements of indus- lectures against individual luxury, try would be lost. The whole the poetical politicians, who build time of half our citizens might their system on a surer foundation then be wasted in the indolence of than experience, alarm us by repindependence, or all of them might resentations of the instability of waste half of it. But if all are national grandeur, supported only constrained to daily labour with by wealth. That by commerce a their hands, there can be no culti- people are not unfitted for war is vation of mind : and without in- however hardly necessary to be protelligence there will be few delights ved to any, who can weigh the eviof society and little interchange of dence from history. Switzerland has benevolence. Man in such a state lost her independence as well as ceases to be sociable, and becomes Holland. Cicero informs us it only gregarious. So that from was a maxim of Themistocles, one gradual degeneration to barbarism of the most profound statesmen of we shall best be preserved by antiquity, that the nation, which commerce.
possessed the sea, must enjoy erTo declaim in general terms ery thing. The polished Atheniagainst luxury, and against trade, ans were not less brave, than the as the parent of luxury, has been barbarous subjects of Sparta. If a favourite employment of poets. these were too poor, as they boastWith equal ardour they have ed, to tempt an enemy, riches and praised the days of happy igno- arts rendered Athens too powerrance and simple manners. Fan- ful to be subdued, except by cy has lavished on the description faction. of an age, known only to fancy, Of all our poets Goldsinith most her gaudy hyperboles and incon- abounds in these false conceits, gruous fictions. Disgusted for a and he seems to have spread the moment with the artificial modes delusion among his contemporaof modern life, one cries " the ries. The conclusion of his state of nature was the reign of Traveller,' written by a greater God,' and his brother bards unite than Goldsmith, assures us, in the exclamation with careless
“That trade's proud empire hastes to credulity and incurable infatuation.
swift decay, But who has marked the distinc As ocean sweeps the labour'd mole tion between an age of ignorance
away : and an age of ferocity? Which While self-dependent power can time of these same poets has willingly As rocks resist the billows of the sky.'
defy, foregone his warm raiment and his delicate viands for the shiver- Who is so insensible to the charms ing nakedness of an Indian with of fiction, as in this passage to lahis meagre , meal of hips and ment the absence of truth? But haws ? By their own example the author of the same lines has they would best persuade us to in Rasselas atoned for his momenexchange our subordinations of tary heresy. By what means,'
said the prince, are the Euro. wind that carries them back would peans thus powerful : or why, bring us thither. They are since they can so easily visit Asia more powerful, sir, than we,' anand Africa for trade or conquest, swered Imlac, because they are cannot the Asiaticks and Africans wiser. Knowledge will always invade their coasts, plant colonies predominate over ignorance, as in their ports, and give laws to man governs the other animals.' their natural princes? The same
TWO ORIGINAL LETTERS OF MRS. MONTAGU, CONTAINING ACCOUNTS
OF TWO SUCCESSIVE TOURS IN SCOTLAND, IN 1766 AND 1770.
their structure and ornaments; Mrs. Montagu to Mr. William but convenient and noble ; so that Robinson.
modern elegance arranges and
conducts antique strength ; and Denton, Northum. Dec. 4, 1766. grandeur leaves its sublimity of **** You will see, by the date character, but softens what was of my letter, I am still in the north- rude and unpolished. eru regions; but I hope in a fort
My next day's journey carried night to return to London, We me to Edinburgh, where I stayed have had a mild season, and this ten days. I passed my time there house is remarkably warm; so very agreeably, receiving every that I have not suffered from cold. polite attention from all the people Business has taken up much of of distinction in the town.
I nev. my time ; and, as we had farms to
er saw any thing equal to the hos. let against next May day, and I pitality of the Scotch. Every one was, willing to see the new collie- seemed to make it their business ry begin to work, before I left the to attend me to all the fine places country, I had the prudence to get in the neighbourhood, to invite - the better of my taste for society. me to dinner, to supper, &c.
I spent a month in Scotland this As I had declared an intention summer, and made a further pro- to go to Glasgow, the Lord gress than Mr. Gray did. An old Provost of Glasgow insisted on friend of Mr. Montagu's and mine, my coming to his villa near the Dr. Gregory, came to us here, town, instead of going to a noisy and brought his daughter the end inn. I stayed three days there to of July ; and summoned me to see the seats in the environs, and keep a promise, I had made him, the great cathedral, and the colof letting him be my knight-er- lege and academy for painting ; rant,and escort me round Scotland. and then I set out for Inverary. I
The first of August we set for should first tell you, Glasgow is ward. I called on the Duke and the most beautiful town in GreatDuchess of Northumberland at Britain. The houses, according Alnwick Castle in my way : it is to the Scotch fashion, are large the most noble gothick building and high, and built of freestone ; imaginable ; its antique form is the streets very broad, and built at preserved on the outside ; within, right angles. All dirty. kinds of the apartments are also gothick in business are carried on in separate
districts ; so that nothing appears storm-struck tree or blasted shrub, but a noble and elegant simplicity from whence no lark ever saluted
My road from Glasgow for In- the morn with joyous hymn, or verary lay by the side of the fa- Philomel soothed the dull ear of mous lake called Lough-Lomond. night : but from thence the eagle Never did I see the sublime and gave the first lessons of flight to beautiful so united. The lake is her young, and taught them to in some places eight miles broad, make war on the kids. in others less ; adorned with ma In the vale of Glencirow we ny islands, of which some rise in a stopped to dine by the stream of conical figure, and are covered Cona, so celebrated by Ossian. I with fir-trees up to the summit. chose to dine amid the rude magOther islands are flatter ; and deer nificence of Nature, rather than in are feeding in their green mead- the meanest of the works of Art ; Ows : in the Lontananza rise the so did not enter the cottage, which
called itself an inn. From thence Mountains, on whose barren breast The labouring clouds do seem to rest.'
my servants brought me fresh
herrings and trout ; and my lord The lake is bright as crystal, and provost's wife had filled my maid's the shore consists of alabaster peb- chaise with good things ; so very bles.
luxuriously we feasted. Thus I travelled near twenty I wished Ossian would have miles, till I came to the village of come to us, and told us a tale of Luss, where I lay at an inn, there other times.' However imaginabeing no gentleman's house near tion and memory assisted ; and we it. The next morning I began to recollected many passages in the ascend the Highland mountains. very places that inspired them. I I got out of my chaise to climb to stayed three hours, listening to the top of one, to take leave of the the roaring stream, and hoped beautiful lake. The sun had not some ghost would come on the been long up, its beams danced blast of the mountain, and shew on the lake ; and we saw this love us where three grey stones were ly water meandring for twenty- erected to his memory. five miles.
After dinner we went on about Immediately after I returned fourteen miles, still in the valley, to my chaise I began to be en- mountain rising above mountain, closed in a deep valley between till we ascended to Inverary. vast mountains, down whose fur- There at once we entered the vale, rowed cheeks torrents rushed im- where lies the vast lake called petuously and united in the vale Lough-Fine ; of whose dignity I below. Winter's rains had só cannot give you a better notion, washed away the soil from some than by telling you the great leviof the steep mountains, there ap- athan had taken his pastime therepeared little but the rocks, which, in the night before I was there. like the skeleton of a giant, ap. Though it is forty miles from the peared more terrible than the per- sea, whales come up there often fect form.
in the herring season. At InveraOther mountains were covered ry, I was lodged at a gentleman's with a dark brown moss; the shag- house ; invited to another's in the sy goats were browzing on their neighbourhood ; and attended sides; here and there appeared a round the Duke of Argyle's Poli
cy;(such are called the grounds agreeable companion. He came dedicated to beauty and ornament.)
back to Denton with me ; but I went also to see the castle built soon left us. I detained his two by the late Duke. It appears daughters ; who are still with me. small by the vast objects near it ; They are most amiable children; this great lake before ; a vast they will return to their papa a mountain, covered with fir and few days before I leave this place. beech, behind it ; so that relatively I was told Mr. Gray was rather the castle is little.
reserved, when he was in ScotI was obliged to return back to land ; though they were disposed Glasgow the same way, not having to pay him great respect. I agree time to make the tour of the High perfectly with him, that to endealands. Lord Provost had an ex vour to shine in conversation, and cellent dinner, and good company to lay out for admiration is very ready for us. The next day I paltry ; the wit of the company, went to Lord Kames's near Stir- next to the butt of the company is ling, where I had promised to stay the meanest person in it ; but at a day. I passed a day very agree the same time, when a man of cel. ably there, but could not comply ebrated talents disdains to mix in with their obliging entreaties to common conversation, or refuses stay a longer time ; but was oblig- to talk on ordinary subjects, it beed to return to Edinburgh. Lord trays a latent pride. There is a Kames attended me to Stirling much higher character, than that Castle ; and thence to the Iron of a wit, or a poet, or a savant ; Works at Carron : there again I which is that of a rational and sowas on classick ground.
ciable being, willing to carry on I dined at Mr. Dundas's. At the commerce of life with all the night I got back to Edinburgh, sweetness, and condescension, dewhere I rested myself three days ; cency and virtue will permit. The and then on my road lay at Sir great duty of conversation is to Gilbert Elliot's ; and spent a day follow suit as you do at whist : if with him and Lady Elliot. They the eldest hand plays the deuce of facilitated my journey by lending diamonds, let not his next neighme relays, which the route did not bour dash down the king of hearts, always furnish : so I sent my own because his hand is full of honours. horses a stage forward. I crossed I do not love to see a man of wit the Tweed again ; dined and lay win all the tricks in conversation ; at the Bishop of Carlisle's at Rose nor yet to see him sullenly pass. Castle, and then came home, much I speak not this of Mr. Gray in pleased with the expedition, and particular ; but it is the common grateful for the infinite civilities I failing of men of genius, to exert a had received.
proud superiority, or maintain a My evenings at Edinburgh prouder indolence. I shall be vepassed very agreeably with Dr. ry glad to see Mr. Gray, whenerRobertson, Dr.Blair, Lord Kames, er he will please to do me the faand divers ingenious and agreea
I think he is the first poet ble persons. My friend Dr. Gre- of the age ; but if he comes to my gory, who was my fellow-travel- fire-side, I will teach bim not only ler, though he is a mathematician, to speak prose, but to talk nonhas a fine imagination, an elegant sense, if occasion be. I would taste, and every quality to make an not have a poet always sit on the