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banks of a great lake, inhabited by In which the rays of the sun give to talc, dians, of a peculiar nature, known un the effect of which is still more strik. der the name of Omegas, living under ing, and tends far more to the illusion laws deliberately made by themselves, of the spectator, who casts his eye principally in a large city, the buildings over a great extent covered with this of which were covered with silver. fallacious stone ? It is probably,' not to That the heads of the government and say, infallibly, the source of all the religion wore, when discharging the stories that have been related.' p. 288. duties of their offices, habits of massy gold ; that all their instruments, all

Without the profound speculatheir" utensils, all their furniture, were ţion of the politician, or the perseof gold, or at least of silver. p. 275. vering inquiry of the man of sciNumberless expeditions were un

ence, the author has in these voldertaken in search of this new land umes collecled much, information of Ophir. The delusion was pro

of value on the topicks of geogram pagated in England by the marvel phy, trade, agriculture, natural culous falsehoods of that heroick im- riosities, climate, religion, natural postor, Sir Walter Raleigh, and and moral diversities of the inhabhistory has not scorned to record itants. He passes no subject withthe result. The continuance of out imparting to it some new traits, the fiction is almost without paral though these are sometimes of litlel. The fancy of Milton, whichi le consequence in the picture. As amalgamated every thing it touch- he affords us mere fact than argued, has made Adam, under the di- ment, we learn -to trust him with rection of Michael, from the top

confidence. The natural jealousy. of the highest hill of paradise, to indeed between the French and behold in the spirit,

Spaniards is occasionally perceived,

for though the nations are divided, Rich Mexico, the seat of Montezume, the people are influenced by anAnd Cusco in Peru, the richer seat Of Atabalipa, and yet unspoild

cient prejudices, and separated by Guiana, whose great city, Geryon's sons

discordant modern habits ; but the Call El Dorado, Book 11. v. 407 statesman, the moral philosopher, But that it should continue more

and the merchant will bestow much than a century longer, and again praise on the veracity of Depons. become the object of an expedition in 1780, almost disgraces even Spanish credulity. Will ignorance

ART. 60. and wonder be satisfied with the opinion of a late traveller of verac

The British Treaty. 8vo. 1807. ity and intelligence ?

A PAMPHLET, with the above * Baron Humboldt, on his re-entry in title, has lately made its appearance 1800, from the Rio Negro into the or without the name of either author onoko, wished to penetrate as far as or publisher. For ourselves we lake Parima ; but he was hindered, as I have already said, by the Guaycas, whose cumstance, as the respect which

are not displeased with this cirheight does not exceed four feet two or four inches. It was from them that he one unavoidably feels for the charlearnt that the lake of Parima, or Dora. acter and feelings of an author, aldo, is of small extent and little depth, ways produces some degree of reand that its banks, as also some islets straint npon the person, who unsituated in the lake are of talc. May dertakes to review any publication, great riches of this country, be owing Professing then a total ignorance to the brilliancy of gold and of silver, of the author of this work, we

shall make a few strictures upon To the publick however we subthe opinions and arguments advan- mit the jusuice of these censures, ced in it with a frankness, which, when we exhibits as we shall do from the style and manner of this very briefly, some of our objections writer, we are sure he must ap- to this writer. prove.

We would make one introducThe pamphlet contains the lead-tory remark, to which all intelliing features, or rather a synopsis gent men, who sincerely desire to of the treaty, lately concluded by promote the true interests and dig. our ministers at the court of G. nity of our country, will assent. Britain, and which Mr. Jefferson, If undue and illiberal prejudices for certain reasons not yet divulg. against Great-Britain have been ed, has been pleased to send back one of the evils, which have resultto the same ministers, to be new ed. from the policy, at the same modified or rejected. This synop. time that they are the disgrace of sis is followed by some elaborate the party, who are now in power, remarks of the author, tending to it cannot be wise, por prudent, nor convince the publick, that the trea. patriotick, to throw any obstacles ty compromitted, in many essen- in the way of the removal of these tial points, the interests of the U. prejudices. Mr. Jefferson, it is nited States ; thus approving, as believed, and his political friends, far as these observations deserve would not feel sorry to find an & weight, the conduct of Mr. Jeffer- pology for rejecting all accommo son in rejecting the treaty. dation with Great Britain, especi:

In examining this pamphlet, we ally if they could be supported in disclaim all intention of criticising it by the friends of the former ad. the style and manner of the work. ministrations. Now, although this It bears 'the stamp of a master, idea ought not to induce us to wish and we confess ourselves extreme the acceptance of a treaty,by which ly diffident in opposing our opin. any of the great and permanent in. ions to those of a man, who evi terests of our country should be dently possesses so much genius sacrificed, yet it ought to influence and information. A keen, but us so far as to withdraw any cap. chaste and delicate satire ; a tho- ţious objections to minor points. rough knowledge of human na The pleasure of lessening the ture ; an intimate acquaintance fame of a negociator ought not to with the past diplomatick inter- seduce us from the great interests course of the United States, ob and welfare of our country, and we servable in every part of the work, hope, that on a review the writer entitle the writer to great respect of this pamphlet will be disposed

But while it has almost all the to regret some of his remarks, beauties, it appears to us to labour which betray too strong a disposi, under many of the defects, to which tion to find fault with a political works of genius are too frequently opponent or rival. subject.

The first article of the new treaTruth is sometimes sacrificed to ty, which the author of this pam. wit or satire ; a disposition to hy. phet censures, is the third, by percriticism is not unfrequently in which the free navigation of the dulged, and propositions abstract, Mississippi. is granted to Great edly true, are occasionally misap. Britain. The observations on this plied, or urged farther than correct subject discover great readiness of reasoning would warrant,

mind, and a thorough acquaint.

ance with our former diplomatick the insertion of the British trade relations ; but the author has fure to the Mississippi. It is a greater nished one answer himself, and we boon to that part of our territory think there is another, which is than to Great-Britain. On the satisfactory. In the first place, he whole, she could claim it from the admits that the same provision ex- treaty of peace, from the treaty of ists among the articles of Mr.Jay's 1794, from the reciprocity of its treaty, which was perpetual, and nature, and from the grant to us therefore the British commission of the trade to her India territoers had a full right to insist upon ries. We could not refuse it to its remaining. It was no new stip; her, while we left it open to all the ulation, and had it not been inclu- rest of the world ; and, surely, we ded in the new treaty would still are not disposed to shut the Mishave been in force. No war, or sissippi to all nations, who shall other circumstances have occurred refuse to give us a compensation to annul at treaty, and therefore by admission to their colonies, its permanent articles, not com: If it be said, that we before en, prised in the new one, unless ex, joyed the trade to the island of pressly repealed by it, would still Great-Britain and the East Indies, retain their forcę.

it may be replied, that so did Bút, secondly, why should we not Great-Britain the trade to the Mis, have granted to Great Britain the sissippi. Could we lawfully have right to enter all our ports in the excluded her against Mr. Jay's Mississippi, as well as the Atlan, treaty, notwithstanding our new tick? She grants to us the free purchase from Spain} If not, we right of entry in all the ports of have conceded nothing, nor could England, Scotland, and Ireland ; any honest negociators have refusand is not this a full equivalent for ed to admit this article into a new our grant to her? The Mississip- treaty. The negociator,who should pi is now a part of our territory as talk of strict compensation, when much as the Atlantick ports.“ On treating with Great Britain, would the other hand, she could not grant not be entitled to the reputation of us the free use of Hudson's bayan adroit statesman. If such a and the St. Lawrence, without vio, principle were adopted as tbe balaring her charters, and her colon- sis, we should be excluded totally ial system.

from her East-India possessions. But when we talk of compensa We do deny the rule, laid down tions, pray what do we give Great by this writer in the unqualified Britain in exchange for a stipula- manner,in which he has done it, and ted right of trade to her East-India in the application which he makes possessions ? Will any man un- of it, . That our grant extended dertake to say, that we give any only to things, which we possessa thing in exchange for this? Her ed, and can by no fair construction motive for granting this is un- embrace what we might afterdoubtedly the interest of those ter- wards acquire.' ritories, and the influence of the We say, that this rule is against India Company, who desire an ad common sense, publick and munici. vantage by our trade. The same pal law. If a nation, having no motives, besides the perfect recip- legal claim to the fisheries of Newrocity of the stipulation, possibly foundland, should, by express induced our ministers to permit terms, cede to another nation the

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full liberty to fish there, and should Britain were not better than a toafterwards acquire the entire right tal exclusion from this trade ; or, to those fisheries of their lawful if the interest of the East India owner, such acquisition would ac- company rendered it probable that crue to the benefit of the first no such exclusion would take mentioned grantee:

place, still might they not think it In like manner, if a man were better to agree to these terms than to grant a privilege over land or in to leave the trade exposed to the a stream, which he did not own at freaks of the officers in India, and the time of the grant; and he should to the dangers described so well in any way, or by any means, af. by this writer in the following terwards become entitled to it, the words— What one law had grantacquisition enures to the benefit of ed, another might resume. That his grantee: No man shall be per: to secure great objects, by surrenmitted to say, against his own dering small ones, was better than grant, that he had no 'title to the to leave both at the discretion of premises, which he granted. those who might take them away." s With respect to the article on "That although, the interest of the East-India trade, it is true, that Britain led her to permit, that we it contains one restriction, which and others should enjoy more than cannot be found in Mr. Jay's trea: she had granted us by treaty, yet ty, and no stipulation more bene- her interest might change, or new ficial than those, which were for men might adopt 'new measures, merly so much decried.

from false or partial views, from But is it wise in those, who so pique or caprice." perfectly understand this question, Although, therefore, it is adas does this writer who know, as mitted that the article does not he does, and as he admits, that the stand so well as before, yet it does whole of this article is gratuitous not reflect the smallest discredit on the part of Great-Britain, to en on the negociators. The interest, deavour to recal to mind the incon- false or fiartial views, fique or casistency of the administration, and price of the British ministry would thus prevent the acknowledgment not permit them to offer better of their errours, especially when it terms. The offer in itself was is known to be so important to the wholly gratuitous on their part, and welfare of our country, that they even if still more clogged, ought should relinquish them?

to have been accepted, rather than Why are our ships at this mo to leave us subject to capricious ment admitted into the English interruptions or total privation of ports in India ? And why are we this valuable trade. permitted to carry on a lucrative With respect to the objections to commerce, in which one tenth part the fifth article of the new treaty, of all our capital is employed ? which stipulates that the same du

Is it not because the officers in ties, drawbacks, and bounties shall India have had no formal notice of be allowed in the trade of the two the expiration of Mr. Jay's treaty ? nations, whether the exportation And do they not go on to exe or importation be in British or A. cute that treaty, as if existing? merican vessels, this writer has When therefore our negociators taken only a partial view of the entered upon the discussion of this subject. It is very easy for an in. article, they had only to decide, genious man to find fault with any whether the terms offered by G. treaty or any proposition. It is

more arduous for him to point out very probably afford to carry a remedy free from objections. If cheaper than Great Britain. It is it be granted, that at the present therefore far from certain, that in moment, for the reasons stated by war or peace Great Britain would this writer, this article, though re be able to carry our own produce ciprocal in terms, is not reciprocal to market as cheaply as we can. in effect, it may be asked with con The great errour in the calculafidence what terms you would tions and argument of the author have expected Great Britain to ac. lies in his not showing, but assumcede to? If it were true, that the ing the proposition,that it is not in article in Mr. Jay's treaty on this the power of Great Britain, by subject was found to operate more countervailing duties and bounties beneficially for us than for Great to her own ships, to place them Britain, could it be expected that on as good a footing as ours. This she should agree to the renewal he asserts, but does not attempt to of it? The parties were on terms prove ; nor does he shew what arprecisely equal ; neither was oblig- ticle, in lieu of the present, he ed to yield any one point to the would have proposed to Great other. There was an option to Britain, and which she would have leave the point unsettled, or to set- accepted. It is believed by very tle it by a mutual concession.- able and intelligent men, that if What would be the state,in which the war, which has rendered the we should be placed, if no stipula commerce of both countries untion were made ? In a state of usually prosperous, had not bapcommercial warfare ; duties, and pened, she would long before this countervailing duties would be per- time, by countervailing regulapetually laid, and though Great tions, have counteracted totally the Britain has not, under Mr. Jay's effects of our discriminating systreaty, pursued this system, be- tem. cause the state, in which the trade The remarks of this writer on of both countries has been placed, the eleventh article, which secures has left ample room for the em- to us the colonial trade of France, ployment of all the ships of both Holland, and Spain, for ten years, nations, yet it is denied, that in if the war should continue so long, ordinary times, and even in times are still more unmerited and unlike the present, she could not, if founded. He assumes, what we she had been disposed, have fully should have been pleased to have counteracted, by her domestick re- heard so able a writer prove, and gulations, all our peculiar advan- what he says Mr. Madison has tages.

failed to prove, that the right to Besides, this treaty was to have exercise this colonial trade, inhibitoperation for ten years.

ed to us in time of peace by standpeace take place or even in war, ing laws, which are only suspendlet our trade with the continent of ed in time of war from the inabilEurope be cut off by blockade ority of the belligerent to carry on otherwise, and the causes, which any commerce on the ocean, is now enable the British trader to sacred against another belligerent, build and navigate his ships cheap who has sufficient power to cut off er than we, would cease to oper. the trade of his enemy, wbo is able ate. Our wages, and every other to starve the colonies of this enearticle would fall, and we might my, and prevent the valuable re.

Let a

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