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1622, and abbreviated in Purchas' 23. Good news from New-EngPilgrims, 1625.

land, &c., by E. Winslow This

paper is very similar in style to • Purchas' Pilgrims has become a

the preceding ; and has the same very scarce work. The fifth volume in particular, called the fourth part in the claims on the attention of those title page, and beginning with the sixth

who love to read in detail the hardbook and ending with the tenth, is so ships suffered, and exertions made rare, that the Historical Society has not by the pilgrims' in old colony.' yet been able to obtain it. This is the It embraces a period of about 18 more to be regretted, as this volume is months, viz. from Feb. 1622, to the most interesting to the inhabitants of the United States, relating to the Sept. 1623. discovery and plantation of Virginia and 24. Memoirs of the Rev. Dr. New-England.' Notemp. 203. Thacher. This is a judicious and This is a curious' choice tract, give hibits the man as he was; endow.

discriminating biography. It exing a brief account of the voyage ed with good talents, and adorned of the forefathers,' from Ply: with many virtues. It developes mouth, (Eng.) which they left 6th the appropriate traits of his moral Sept. 1620 ; of their arrival at and intellectual character. For Cape Cod, 9th Nov. ; landing at

the most part, the sketches, which the rock, Dec. 19th ; and of many newspapers, magazines, and eveni remarkable events, which happen- funeral sermons, have given of our ed the first six months of their new worthies, have consisted of vague settlement. A very short extract remarks and lavish commendation. will display the kind of entertain. Here is one specimen of a life such ment which may be found here : and to all who have a relish for the actual grade of merit posses

as ought to be given, pointing out these old viands, we recommend sed, and the failings and foibles a leisure repast on the whole :

from which, as no mere man is One thing was very grievous unto exempt, no just sketch can be free: us at this place. There was an old The family history too, related in woman, whom we judged to be no less the notes, is exceedingly valuable ; than an hundred years old, which came and we have no hesitation in sayto see us, because she never saw Eng. ing, that a New-England Dictions lish ; yet could not behold us without breaking forth into great passion, weep- ary,' compiled with the impartialiing and crying excessively. We de. ty, candour, and research, which manding the reason of it, they told ns, are here manifested, would be a she had three sons, who, when Master rich accession to our literature, Hunt was in these parts, went aboard Such, we might hope, were there his ship to trade with him, and he car. ried them captives into Spain (för Tis. liberality and taste enough to sequantum at that time was carried away cure indemnity to a learned and also) by which means she was deprived laborious scholar, who has collectof the comfort of her children in her old ed large materials for such a work. age.

We told them we were sorry Dr. T. was born at Milton, 21 that

any Englishman should give them that offence, that Hunt was a bad man,

March, 1752 ; entered Harvard and that all the English that heard of it

College, July, 1765; was graduatcondemned him for the same; but for ed, 1769 ; ordained at Malden, 19 us, we would not offer them any such Sept. 1770 ; installed at Brattleinjury, though it would gain us all the street, 12 Jan. 1785; and died at skins in the country. So we gave her some small trifles, which somewhat ap

Savannah, (Geo.) 16 Dec. 1802. peased her.'

p. 238.

• As a preacher he was admired. His

charming voice, his oratorical powers, among the best yet issued by the his fluency in prayer, the pathos of his Historical Society Is it not greatexpression were applauded by serious, sensible people, and gave him uncom ly to be regretted, that their means mon eclat with the multitude. No are not adequate to continuing reyoung man ever preached to such croud- gularly their useful publications ? ed assemblies.

Materials are on hand for more * He was a useful labourer in this than one volume, and might be pleasant spot of the Lord's vineyard, fond of delivering practical truths, but promptly obtained for several; but at times explaining the doctrines of our the slow and small sale in times religion with clearness. In prayer he past is a great discouragement, was ready, earnest, and devout. If and has hitherto proved an insuperconcise, very expressive ; if extended able obstacle to prosecuting their beyond the common forms of address, laudable and patriotick purposes. not abounding in vain repetitions.' He was a man of singular integrity.

So mote it not be.' A stranger to artifice and deceit, he could not disguise his feelings, but expressed often his disapprobation of them in others. He preferred to have his

ART. 47. manners styled rough, and his plainness of speech censured by his acquaintance,

(Concluded.) rather than be thought capable of 'du- A Voyage to the eastern part of plicity in his words and actions. A polite address, an unassuming air, a

Terra Firma, or the Spanish winning manner have their attractions ;

Main, in South-America, during but nothing can make up for the want the years 1801, 1802, 1803, and of honesty and how do people lose 1804, &c. &c. By F. Depons. their sincerity, and practise deception Vol." III. New-York, Brisban for the sake of a distinction among those

& Brannan. who lead the fashions of the age !

8vo. pp. 288. - As a friend, he had the confidence of those who knew him ; those who

The ninth chapter discusses the were most intimate will preserve in administration of the revenue and their memories the tokens of his affec. the taxes. Mexico and Peru, says tion or kindness. If, in the exuberance of unguarded familiarity, he said any of Spanish America, that have af

our author, are the only portions thing to hurt their feelings, it gave him pain, for he meant not to be uncourt forded a profit to the mother eous.His talents for conversation were country. The island of Cuba has remarkable.?

in former times been a heavy "The Doctor did not encourage dry, weight on the royal treasury ; but argumentative discussions in social in terviews ; yet while others debated, he

so much has it improved within would frequently throw in a luminous

these eighteen years by the emiobservation, which kept the subject grations from St. Domingo and from being darkened by words of un by the commerce of this country, certain meaning,

that it is certainly a most valuable His perceptions were very quick, colony. Of the official distribuhis mind active,--his activity was mani. fested in many busy scenes, especially tion in this department we have a when he was an officer of publick in- very accurate account ; but we are stitutions. He served several in an of. more interested in the kinds of ficial capacity ;-and to all he was a taxation, than in the mode of colmost useful member.' pp. 180-184

lection. In the Spanish govern* This closes the present volume, ment the taxes fall only on profit, which may be considered, either or rent.' The most grievous tax, in reference to the value of the ar- whose operation is also wonder: ticles, or the execution of them, as fully impolitick, is the alcavala,

year, not


« This tas is collected on every thing we shall perceive, that this mode is not which is sold, whether moveable or im, very efficacious; for, of more than moveable, and is rigorously exacted at 400,000 hard dollars, of which the re. every place of sale and resale. An es venue" is' defrauded' every y tate,on change of owner by transfer for a more than 500 are restured. I ought valuable consideration, is charged with however, to the praise of Spanish cona five per cent of the purchase money. sciences, to acknowledge, that there is A bundle of fire-wood pays the same not 'a year in which the Easter confesduty, but in kind. Every species of sions do not, among private persons, in. merchandise,territorial productions, an duce exemplary restitutions. The conimals, poultry, eggs, vegetables, grass, fessor himself is most frequently the fodder, &c. is subject to this impost the channel through which the stolen goods moment it is exposed for sale. Retail return to their lawful master. The dealers compound for it. Every year name of the penitent, and the circuma valuation is made of the stock, jạnd stances of the theft, rest in silence. It they calculate five per cent on the pre.. is left to him that receives, to divine." sumed sale. Whether the traders bus

p.27. iness is in the course of the year great

A note on this article contains or little, the composition is invaribly enforced.'

p. 15. judicious reflections. The next title of the revenue is

*Were absolutions granted on no

other condition than that of making a the almoxarifasgo. They have no

recompense, , the Roman Catholick poll-tax, but in its stead a profita- church would be perhaps, in this res ble impost on titles.

spect at least, more conducive to moral 43

behaviour than any other system of es • The titles of marquis, count, vis- tablished worship; but wlien the absolucount, or baron, are granted by the king tion is accorded without any compensa, to every Spaniard wlio is willing to sa

tion for the offence, and mere confession crifice a part of his fortune to give his deemed of efficacy to obtain forgiveness descendants

. a rank, which he has more and purification from sin, there does than once blushed not to have received not, perhaps, exist a system so destrucfrom his ancestors: : Exelusive of the tive of every moral duty as that of the great court patronage which it is requi. Romish church. Letit impress,as much site to employ, and pay well

, the king as it will on the mind of the penitent the demands a direct fine of 10,000 hard necessity of absolution, but let it anvex dollars. He contents himself, however, to it amends for injuries offered mnd with the annual interest, if the titled crimes committed; then, perhaps, even personage does not prefer redeeming' on earth half the wall of Heaven will be it by payment of the principal, and it fulfilled. But when pardon is granted is this interest which is termed the on the word of confession alone, I fear duty of the lances. Its amount in

we neither create in the sinner the emo. creases the annual publick revenue tions of a contrite heart, nor rectify the from 3 to 4000 hard dollars.' sp. 20. feelings we propose to amend!.

The duties on stamps, almost This subject is of importance, universal, salt, &c., produce little, wherever the Roman Cattolick and one-fisth of the mines in this religion is tolerated. A king of territory, nothing. Restitutions France one asked a priest, whe ho make a very unimportant part of


, if a ruffian had, confessed, that the king's revenue.

he intended to assassinate the • The Spanish confessors make a res. king, he would reveal the confestitution of duties, defrauded from the sion; or how he would behave? king, an essential condition of absolu « Sire," said the priest, “ I would tion. For this head, there is in the throw myself between your majtreasury a register, devoted solely to the entry of sums restored. It is true, esty and the dagger of the as. that, if we compare what is restored sassin." But after the commiswith the amount of frauds committed, sion of such a crime, when its au

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p. 33.

P. 35.

thor is known only to the con of all, even concealed crimes. Obsti. fessor, might he refuse to give ev

nate and confirmed heresy is the only

exception ; an offence, however, that idence ?

cannot be even suspected, because he, The corso; or duty paid on en

who should be tainted with it, would tering and clearing at the seaports, set but little value on absolution. is an important branch of revenue : Blasphemies against the deity are but more money is needed, and

no more able to resist the power of this the exclusive privilege of pits for bull, than a spot of oil upon linen can

resist soap.' cock-fights is rented on account of the king. The royal monopoly

The grave relation of the auof tobacco is a recent impost, but thor appears severe satire. All more productive, than any other. ecclesiasticks, besides the bull for The profit of bulls is not indeed the living, should purchase the ascertained by our author ; and we bull de laitage, • if they wish not may conclude, that it is diminish: to provoke the wrath of beaven by ing. The mists of superstition transgressing the laws of the are gradually dispersing, even in church respecting milk and eggs.' Spanish colonies, and we may soon

Next in the order of mummery throughout the world behold comes the bull for the dead. reliques, beads,

« The bull for the dead is a species of Indulgences, dispenses, pardons, bulls,

ticket for admission into paradise. It The sport of winds.


enables to clear the devouring flame of But the history of human absur- purgatory, and conducts directly to the dity is improving, though ever, so abodes of the blessed. But one of disagreeable.

these bulls serves for only one soul.' *The kings of Spain, at all periods So that, says Depons, ' with piety favoured by the popes, obtained from them, in the time of the crusades, ex and money it would be easy to traordinary dispensations for those Span- empty purgatory.' But the most iards who devoted themselves to the ex- benignant of these impious' mediatermination of the infidels. The bulls torial impositions between heaven which contained these dispensations and earth, these forgeries of diwere rated and distributed by a Span- vine authority, is the great bull of ish commissary. Their proceeds were intended to contribute towards the chará composition. ges of the expedition. The folly of dri.

• The bull of composition is without ving people to heaven by force of arms

doubt that whose effects are most underwent at length, the fate of all oth sensible, the nearest and most remark. er follies, reason has caused it to disap-, able. It has the inconceivable virtue pear. The Bulls, however, have cons of transmitting

to the withholder of an tinued to arrive from Rome, and continue to be sold in Spain. The bless: all he has been able to steal without

other's goods the absolute property in ings they afford are considered too

the connuzance of the law. For its precious, and the revenue the ex validity they require only one condition, chéquer draws from them, too useful, which is, that the expectation of the to be renounced."

p. 31. bull did not induce the theft. Modesty Four kinds of bulls are now in has done well to add, that of not know use, the virtues of which are fully goods belong : but, from the cases spe

ing the person to whom the stolen explained by Mr. Depons. The cified for its application, it appears that general bull for the living lasts this last condition is illusive ; for, in a two years.

volume, on the virtue of bulls, printed

at Toledo, in 1758, by order of the com. • Every person, who has this bull,may. missary-general of the holy crusade, we be absolved, by any priest whatsoever, find that the bull of composition be. Vol. IV. No. 10.


friends those who hold property they ver has either iron or coal. The carought to return to the church, or em. penter never has wood, even for a table. ploy in works of piety, or which they They must have money to buy some. have not legally acquired by the prayers All have always the wants of a family, of which it was the price. It aids which he who orders their work must those debtors who cannot discover their satisfy. Thus you begin by tying yourcreditors, or when the conditions of the self to the workman you employ, and loan are oppressive ; it assists the heir making yourself dependent upon him. who retains the whole of an inheritance It is no longer possible to threaten his loaded with legacies, were it in favour sloth with applying to another, with of a hospital. Ifa demand has not been whom, besides, the very same inconvemade within a year, the bull of compo- nience would take place. The only resition decrees to its possessor a moiety source then, is that of pressing and suof the debt ; but hc ought to pay the perintending the work, and, in spite of residue. It bestows the entire right all these attentions, there are always on those who do not know the owner indispositions, journeys, festivals, which of that which they have obtained un exhaust the patience of the most phlegjustly. Thus a watch, a diamond, a matick, One is then, very badly, or purse full of gold, stolen in the midst most assuredly,yery slowly served.' 91. of a crowd, becomes the property of the pick-pocket who has filched it; in

The eleventh and last chapter fine, it quiets the remorse of con- comprises a description of the lanscience of the merchant who has enrich- guishing province of Spanish Guied himself by false yards, false measures, and false weights. The bull-of ana, and of the great river Oronocomposition assures to him the absolute ko. On this river the writer exproperty in whatever he obtains by pended many months of labour, modes that ought to have conducted and his information is copious. him to the gallows.?:

p. 37. There is a natural canal from the Of these bulls no person can take Oronoko to the river Amazon, more than fifty in a year. A uni- though this fact has been stoutly versal rule in the sale is, that

controverted. The province of he, who takes a bull of a price Guiana would, in any other hands, inferiour to that which his fortune

be an invaluable colony ; but its or rank order him to procure, en

best parts are possessed by the ferojoys none of the advantages.'

cious Caribs, and the lands in the Chap. 10 is wholly occupied with vicinity of the capital, which is at a description of the cities, which the enormous distance of ninety fills 150 pages, and may be valua- leagues from the ocean, are wholly ble to the geographer. T

The cata

uncultivated. logue of mercharts at Carraccas,

For the first century and a half Porto Cavello, Cumana, and Bar after the discovery of America celona may be worth perusal by nothing but mines were the object those, who have commercial inter- of Spanish cupidity. To avenge course with those cities. Among themselves of their inhuman masthe ridiculous stories of miracles ters, the Indians invented the ficand holy virgins the writer fre- tion of that city, renowned in roquently intermixes a side blow at mance, El Dorado. the national religion. The private

* The first conquerors who undertook economy of the inhabitants is no

to unite to the dominions of the Spanless defective, 'than that of their ish crown, the province of Venezuela, government.

received from the different Indian na

tions they pillaged, violated and massa• In this state of poverty, no kind of cred, positive and unanimous informawork can be required, but they instant- tion, that by marching for a long time ly demand an advance. The smith ne. south, a region would be found on the

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