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tbe papacy well, yi-t ho loveth the carpet above the chair (bat is hi Italy, and the liberties thereof well likewise.

Fourthly,- in SS, the King of Denmark was a stranger to England, and rather inclined to Spain; now the King is incorporated to the blood of England, and engaged in the quarrel of the Palatinate. Then also Venice, Savoy, and the princes and states of Germany, had but a dull fear of the greatness of Spain, npon a general apprehension only, of the spreading and ambitious designs of that nation; now, that fear is sharpened and pointed by the Spaniards late enterprises in the Valtoline and the Palatinate, which come nearer them.

Fifthly, and Lastly, the Dutch (which arc the Spaniards perpetual duellists) have now, at this present, Ave ships to one, and the like proportion in treasure and wealth, to that they had in 88; neither is it possible (whatsoever is given out) that the coffers of Spain should now be fuller than they were in 88, for, at that time, Spain had no other wars save those of the Low Countries, which was grown into an ordinary; now they have had, coupled with it, the extraordinary of the Valtoline and tbe Palatinate; and so I conclude my answer to the objection raised, touching the difference of times,- not entering into more secret passages of state, but keeping the character of stile whereof Seneca speaketh, Plus significat quam loquitur.

Here I could pass over from matter of experience, were it not that I hold it necessary to discover a wonderful erroneous observation that walkcth about, and is commonly received contrary to all the true accounts of time and experience: It is, that the Spaniard, where he once getteth in, will seldom or never be got out again; but, nothing is less true than this: Not long since they got footing at Brest, and some Other parts in French Britany, and after quitted them; they had Calais, Ardes, and Amiens, and rendered them, or were beaten out; they had since Versailles, and fairly left it; they had the other day the Valtoline, and now have put it in deposit; what they will do with Ormus, which the Persian hath taken from tbera, we shall see; so that, to speak truly of latter times, they have rather poached and offered at a number of enterprises, than maintained any constantly, quite contrary to that idle tradition.

In more ancient times, leaving their purchases in Africk, which they, after their great Emperor Charles had clasped Germany almost in his fist, he was forced in the end to go from Icksparg, and, as if it had been in a mask by torch-light, to quit every foot in Germany round, that he had gotten, which I doubt not will be the hereditary issue of this late purchase of the Palatinate; and so 1 conclude the ground that I have to think that Spain will be no over-match to Great-Britain, if his Majesty shall enter into a war out of experience, and the records of time.

For grounds of reason, they are many; I will extract the principal, and open them briefly, and, as it were, in the bud. For situation, I pass it over, though it be no small point; England, Scotland, Ireland, and our good confederates, the United Provinces, lie all in a plump together, not accessible but by sea, or, at least, by passing of great rivers, which are natural fortifications. As for the dominions of Spain, they are so scattered, as it yieldeth great choice of the ascents of the war, and promiseth slow succours unto such parts as shall be attempted.

There be three main parts of military puissance, viz. men, women, and confederates. For men, they are to be considered valour and number; of valour, I speak not; take it from the witnesses that have been produced before; yet the old observation is untrue, That the Spaniards valour lieth in the eye of the looker on, but the English valour lieth about the soldier's heart; a valour of glory, and a valour of natural courage, are two things; but let that pass, and let us speak of number. Spain is a nation thin sown of people, partly by reason of the sterility of the soil, and partly, because their natives are exhausted by so many employments, in such vast territories as they possess, so that it hath been counted a kind of miracle to see ten or twelve thousand native Spaniards in an army; and it is certain (as we have touched it a little before in passage) that the secret of the power of Spain consistcth in a veteran army, compounded of miscellany forces of all nations, which, for many years, they have had on foot upon one occasion or other; and, if there should happen the misfortune of a battle, it would be a long work to draw on supplies. They tell a tale of a Spanish ambassador, that was brought to see the treasure of St. Mark, at Venice, and still he looked down to the ground; and, being asked why he looked down, said, He was looking to see whether their treasure had any root, so that, if it were spent, it would grow again, as his master's had. But, howsoever it be of their treasure, certainly their forces have scarce any root, or at least such a root, as buddeth forth poorly and slowly. It is true they have the Walloons, who are tall soldiers, but that is but a spot of ground; but, on the other side, there is not in the world again such a spring and seminary of brave military people, as in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the United Provinces; so as, if wars should mow them down never so fast, yet they may be suddenly supplied and come up again.

For money, no doubt, it is the principal part of the greatness of Spain, for by that they maintain their veteran army, and Spain is the only state of Europe, that is a money-grower; but, in this part, of all others, is the most to be considered the ticklish and brittle state of the greatness of Spain. Their greatness consisteth in their treasure, their treasure in their Indies, and their Indies, if.it be well weighed, are indeed but an accession to such as arc masters by sea, so as this axle-tree, whereupon their greatness turneth, is soon cut in two, by any that shall be stronger than they by sea: Herein, therefore, I refer me to the opinion of all men, enemies, or whomsoever, whether that the maritime forces of Great Britain, and the United Provinces, be not able to beat the Spaniards at sea; for, if that be so, the links of that chain, whereby they hold their greatness, are dissolved. Now, if it be said, that, admit the case of Spain to be such as we have made it, yet we ought to descend into out own case, which we shall find, perhaps, not to be in a state, for treasure, to enter into a war with Spain; to which I answer, I know nti such thing, the mint beateth well, and the pulses of the people's heart fce&t well: But there is another point that taketh away quite this objection; for, whereas wars are generally a cause of poverty or consumption, on the contrary part, the special nature of this war with Spain, if it be made by sea, is like to be a lucrative and a restorative ■war; so that if we go roundly on at the first, the war in continuance will find itself, and therefore you must make a great difference between Hercules's labours and Jason's voyage by sea for the Golden Fleece.

For the confederates, I will not take upon me the knowledge how the princes, states, and councils in Europe, at this day, stand affected towards Spain, for that trencheth into the secret occurrents of the present time, wherewith, in all this treatise, I have forborne to meddle, but to speak of that which lieth open and in view: I see much matter of quarrel and jealousy, but little of amity and trust towards Spain, almost from all other states: I see France is in competition with them for three noble portions of their monarchy, Navarre, Naples, and Milan, and now freshly in difference with them about the Valtoline. I see once in thirty or forty years cometh a Pope, that casteth his eye upon the kingdom of Naples, to recover it to the church, as it was in tho minds of Julius the Second, Paul the Fourth, and Titus the Fifth. As for the great body of Germany, I see they have greater reason to confederate themselves with the Kings of France and Great-Britain, or Denmark, for the liberty of the German nation, and for the expulsion of the Spanish and foreign forces, than they had in the years 1552 and 1553; at which time they contracted a league with Henry the Second, the French King, upon the same articles, against Charles the Fifth, who had impatroniscd himself of a great part of Germany, through discord of the German princes, which himself had sown and fomented; which league at that time did the deed, and drove out all the Spaniards out of that part of Germany, and reintegrated that nation in their ancient liberty and honour. For the West-Indies, though Spain hath had yet not much actual disturbance there, except it have been from England, yet, nevertheless, I see all princes lay a kind of claim unto them, accounting the title of Spain but as a monopoly of those large countries, wherein they have, in great parts, but an imaginary possession; for Africk, upon the west, the Moors of Valencia expulsed, and their allies, do yet hang as a cloud or storm oyer Spain; Gabor, on the east, is like an anniversary wind that riseth every year once upon the part of Austria; and Persia hath entered into hostility with Spain, and given them the first blow by taking of Ormus. It is within every man's observation also, that Venice doth think their state almost unfixed, if the Spaniards hold the Valtoline; that Savoy hath learned by fresh experience, that alliance with Spain is no security against the ambition of Spain; and that Bavaria hath likewise been taught, that merits and service do oblige the Spaniards but from day to day; neither do I say for all this, but that Spain may rectify much of this ill blood, by their particular and cunning negociations; but yet there is in the body, and may break out no man knows when, into ill accidents; but, at least, it sheweth plainly that which serycth for our purpose, that Spain is much destitute of assured and confident confederates. And here I will conclude this part, with a speech of a counsellor of state; he said to his master, the King of Spain that now is, upon occasion: 'Sir, I will tell your Majesty thus much for your comfort, your Majesty hath but two enemies, whereof the one is ail the world, and the other is your own minister's. And thus I end the second main part I propounded to speak of, which was, the balancing of the forces between the King's Majesty, *nd the King of Spain, if wars must follow.

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CHRONOLOGICAL CATALOGUE

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SHORT REMEMBRANCE

OF THE

PRINCES ELECTORS PALATINE OF THE RHINE,

That have been of the House of Bavaria unto this Day, together with their Succession and Lives.

THE SECOND EDITION.

London: Printed by William Jones, dwelling in Red-Cross-Strcet, l631. Duodecimo, containing thirty-eight page!.

Consecrated and dedicated to the most high and peerless Princess, Elisabeth, Princess of Great-Britain, Queene of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria, Princess Palatine Electress, Sec. By her Majesty's most affectionated and bound in all humble Duty,

W.H.

OTHO THE ELDER.

OTHO, sirnamed the Elder, Earl of Wittelsbach, and governor of the palace of Bavaria, grandfather to Otho the Illustrious, first elector of his house, being descended of Charles the .Great, and of the most antient dukes and princes of Bavaria; was a courageous and valiant prince, a cunning and great warrior; was endowed with rare And singular virtues both of body and mind; was employed into Italy And Greece, in divers great ambassages; was fully given to advance the

republick; was exceedingly addicted to the military art; he atchieved divers noble exploits in Italy. Upon which occasion, Henry the Twelfth being deprived and condemned, he, for his singular virtues, was, by the Emperor Frederick the First, created Duke of Bavaiia in anno J180, from the which his predecessors had been dejected, about 231 years before, by Otho the First. He bought Dachau; annexed to his estate Railing; built the town of Kelhara on the Danube, where he was born in a castle of that same name; founded Landshut upon the river Isara. He died, the 26th of June, anno Christi 1183, while he was yet in controversy with the Bishop of Frissinghen, for some customs of salt, after he had ruled Bavaria three years. He married Agnes, daughter of Theodorick, tctrarch of Wasserburg, and had these children by her:

Lewis Prince Palatine of the Rhine.

Sophia, who was joined in marriage to Herman, Landgrave

of Hesse. Mechtildis, joined to Rapoto, the second warden of Krain

burg.

LEWIS, DUKE OF BAVARIA.

LEWIS, Duke of Bavaria, succeeded Otho. He was a prince endued with great eloquence, wisdom, piety, and many other virtues; he increased with riches, and beautified much the estate of Bavaria; built many sumptuous works, planted divers new colonies, and built Stroubing, a famous town upon the Danube. He was a great lover of peace and justice, who never made wars unless he had been forced thereto. Having gone about to repress Albert, Earl of Bogcn, who had invaded and spoiled his county, he received a great overthrow by him, and was forced to fly; he warred against the Earls of Artenberg, that had broken the peace, and took from them Wasserburg, and Krainburg Castle: Otho, of Wittelsbach, and Henry Truchses, Baron of Walpurg, being declared rebels to the empire, he spoiled their castles of Wittlcsbach and Andechcs, and razed them thereafter. From the Emperor Frederick the Second, he received the county Palatine of the Rhine, and, whilst he went about to take possession of the towns and castles thereof somewhat unwarily, he and his company were taken by the inhabitants of the country, and afterwards released for a great sum of money contributed by the Bavarians. Thereafter being rrceived of them peaceably, within a short time after, he took his journey; and went into the Holy Land with divers other princes, against the Infidels; from whence, having lost many of his people, and his life being spared to him, he returned with a few that remained. In the end, while he was walking on the bridge of Kelhaim, he was stabbed with a knife by one Stichius, a Fool, that was offended at his jests, and immediately fell down dead among his nobles, the 15th of Sep

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