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827-8. Let the Romans acquire greatness as an Italian, not as a Trojan race. Troy has perished, and let it perish, and its name also. 832-3. submitte,' calm down your anger: me remitto,' I yield.


835-6. Utque - Teucri,' the name shall remain as it is; united in blood only, the Trojans shall be absorbed into the Latin race, and shall disappear as a distinct people.

841-2.retorsit,' for mutavit': 'cœlo,' for 'ex aëre.'


844-50. fratris ab armis,' from aiding the arms of her brother. 'Dicuntur cognomine Diræ,' called "Dire" by name, the Furies. 'Quas -partu, whom, together with the infernal Megara, dismal Night brought forth at one birth. The Furies were three in number, Allecto, Tisiphone, and Megæra. paribus,' for 'pariter'; all in the same way: 'ventosas,' swift as the wind. Apparent,' wait as ministers. 854. inque occurrere,' and to appear to Juturna as a fatal omen. 857-9.Armatam -veneni torsit,' which, armed with a deadly poisonous extract, the Parthian hurled: 'Cydon'; see note to Ecl. X. 59. 'incognita,' because unexpected.

862. Alitis parvæ '; the owl is meant, which, though large as a bird, was a small shape for the Fury to assume: 'subitam,' for 'subitò.' 863-7. Compare Book IV. 462 – 3. 'serùm per umbras,' late, and in the dark. Turni—sonans,' the Fury, screaming, flies to and fro before the face of Turnus: solvit,' unnerved.


871. Repeated from Book IV. 673.

873-6.dure,' unhappy: 'quâ-morer,' by what means can I prolong your life? Obscænæ volucres,' ye birds of fatal omen.


878-9. Hæcæternam'; see lines 139-41: Quò,' wherefore. 882-4. aut erit,' or will any thing that is mine be pleasant to me, without thee, my brother? 0-mihi'; repeated from Book X. 675–6. 887-9. coruscat,' brandishes: 'arboreum,' like a tree in size: 'aut -retractas,' or why do you now hesitate?


891-4. et vales,' and bring together to your aid whatever you can, whether by courage or by cunning: 'sequi pennis,' to fly up to. fervida,' arrogant.

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Limes,' as a landmark: 'litem-arvis,' that it might decide any dispute respecting the boundaries of the fields. Twelve chosen men, of such degenerate bodies as the earth now yields, could hardly bear it on their shoulders; see note to Geor. I. 497. This passage is in close imitation of Homer.

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903. nec cognoscit se,' he does not recognise himself, he finds that his usual strength and speed have deserted him.

909-10. nequidquam videmur,' we seem to make an eager but vain effort to run. The simile is admirable both for correct and graphic description, and for illustrative effect. See note to Book IV. 466.



913-6. quacumque - petivit,' however bravely he makes the effort: 'dea'; the Fury mentioned above. Tum - varii,' then various emotions pass over his mind. He turns his eyes back upon the city, as if for a last look at his friends, and then forward upon the weapon, which he cannot escape. 'telum-tremiscit,' and shudders at the impending spear. His feelings are described with great pathos and truth.


920-5. Sortitus-oculis,' watching for an opportunity, for a vulnerable part, whither to direct the spear: corpore toto,' with his whole strength. Murali concita Tormento,' hurled by a mural catapult :


nec-crepitus,' nor does so great a crash follow the thunderbolt.


Lorica,' the lower extremity of the coat of mail. septemplicis'; formed of seven folds of bull's hide, or of metal.

932-3.sorte tuâ,' your good fortune.

Miseri potest,' but if

any regard for my unhappy parent can move you. 935. seu mavis,' either alive, or if you prefer it, as a lifeless corpse. Too proud to beg openly, Turnus insinuates a prayer for mercy. 940-3. Et-Cœperat,' and now the language of Turnus had begun

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to soften the hesitating Æneas more and more: 'infelix,' unlucky: 'cingula bullis'; see Book IX. 359-60, and note. Pallantis - Turnus'; see Book X. 501 -5.

945-6. Exuvias hausit,' eagerly eyed the spoils of Pallas, which Turnus wore: sævi doloris; these renewed his recollection of the pain, which he had suffered at the death of Pallas.

947-9. Tune Eripiare mihi,' would you escape me: meorum,' of my friend. Immolat,' sacrifices thee to the infernal gods: scelerato ex sanguine, by taking your wicked life.

951-2. frigore,' the coldness of death: 'solvuntur- umbras'; repeated from Book I. 92, and XI. 831.

The poem closes rather abruptly with the death of Turnus, no obsta cle then remaining to the marriage of Æneas with Lavinia, and the establishment of the Trojans in Italy. The concluding part of the contest between the two chieftains is finely described; but the narration, as a whole, is too much spun out, and the interest flags. Indeed, the last book is less pleasing than either of the others, for it contains no episode of remarkable brilliancy, and the incidents do not follow each other with sufficient rapidity and spirit. As the latest effort of Virgil's genius, executed when his health was already sinking under the disease, which at last proved fatal to him, it shows the want of that severe and tasteful revision, which has left such an air of exquisite finish upon all his other productions. But it still displays many traces of that chaste and elegant genius, which has rendered the whole poem an object of study and imitation for all later ages.

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